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M Horne, R Emsley, A Woodham, A Wearden, D A Skelton
OBJECTIVE: High prevalence of sedentary behaviour is seen in most immigrant groups in Western countries, particularly in those from the Indian subcontinent. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sociocognitive associations with intention to undertake physical activity (PA) among separate groups of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi older adults aged ≥60 years in the North West of England, UK. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey, informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), 138 of 964 South Asian (SA) older adults completed a mailed questionnaire that assessed self-reported PA and TPB variables...
June 15, 2018: Public Health
Kristy Hackett, Curtis Lafleur, Peter Nyella, Ophira Ginsburg, Wendy Lou, Daniel Sellen
BACKGROUND: About half of births in rural Tanzania are assisted by skilled providers. Point-of-care mobile phone applications hold promise in boosting job support for community health workers aiming to ensure safe motherhood through increased facility delivery awareness, access and uptake. We conducted a controlled comparison to evaluate a smartphone-based application designed to assist community health workers with data collection, education delivery, gestational danger sign identification, and referrals...
2018: PloS One
Teris Cheung, Joseph T F Lau, Johnson Z Wang, P K H Mo, Y S Ho
OBJECTIVES: The highly infectious human papillomavirus (HPV) causes both genital warts and cervical cancer in women. In 2009, the prevalence of genital warts in Hong Kong was 203.7 per 100,000 person-years. Cervical cancer, more seriously, was the eight most common cancer among women and girls in Hong Kong, accounting for 2.3% of all new cancer cases in females in 2014. Cervical cancer is a significant global public health problem and HPV is a major risk factor leading to the development of cervical cancer...
2018: PloS One
Alice E Barsoumian, Joshua D Hartzell, Erin M Bonura, Roseanne A Ressner, Timothy J Whitman, Heather C Yun
Background: Applications to infectious disease fellowships have declined nationally; however, the military has not experienced this trend. In the past 6 years, 3 US military programs had 58 applicants for 52 positions. This study examines military resident perceptions to identify potential differences in factors influencing career choice, compared to published data from a nationwide cohort. Methods: An existing survey tool was adapted to include questions unique to the training and practice of military medicine...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Matthis Morgenstern, Barbara Isensee, Reiner Hanewinkel
Prediction of binge drinking in young adults: a cohort study over nine years Abstract. OBJECTIVE: Which person characteristics and environmental factors predict binge drinking at age 21? METHOD: A longitudinal observational study with a nine-year follow-up. A total of 5,176 adolescents from the German states Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony-Anhalt were surveyed in 2006 with paper-pencil questionnaires (mean age 12.6 years, SD = 0.6). A follow-up assessment was conducted in the year 2015...
June 18, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Gobopamang Letamo
Botswana is the world's second HIV heavily affected country, with an average HIV prevalence of 17.6% in 2013. The data used for this study are from Botswana AIDS Impact Surveys, I-IV, which are nationally representative sample surveys conducted in 2001, 2004, 2008 and 2013 respectively by the Central Statistics Office and the National AIDS Coordinating Agency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels, trends and factors associated with misconceptions about HIV transmission among adolescents. Both descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address the study objectives...
June 18, 2018: AIDS Care
Johan Styrke, Peter Sojka, Ulf Björnstig, Britt-Marie Stålnacke
Background Chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) are often associated with social functioning problems and decreased ability to perform previous activities. This may lead to decreased life satisfaction, which is insufficiently studied in the context of whiplash injuries. Symptoms included in chronic WAD are similar to symptoms frequently reported by persons who have sustained mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)/concussion. In cases of MTBI, the severity and number of symptoms have been suggested to have a diagnostic value...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Tamar Robinson, Leah Bryan, Veda Johnson, Terri McFadden, Sarah Lazarus, Harold K Simon
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics and pediatric community recognize the importance of addressing social determinants of health. There are limited data on the prevalence of food insecurity or literature establishing protocols assessing food insecurity in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Two anonymous surveys were administered, one to families during their ED visit and another to ED staff to assess perceptions on the ED's role in providing social support...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Ting Wang, Neil McAuslane, Lawrence Liberti, Hubert Leufkens, Anke Hövels
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the current practice of companies and agencies to assess the changes made in aligning regulatory and health technology assessment (HTA) stakeholders; to identify areas of commonality of evidentiary requirements that could occur; and to identify strategic issues and trends of regulatory and HTA synergy. METHODS: Two separate questionnaires were developed to assess stakeholders' perceptions on regulatory and HTA alignment, one for pharmaceutical companies and the other for regulatory and HTA agencies...
June 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Elizabeth Vásquez, Cassandra M Germain, Fei Tang, Matthew C Lohman, Karen L Fortuna, John A Batsis
OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of the prevalence of mobility and physical function limitations by race and ethnicity using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). METHOD: The sample comprised of 28,854 adults aged ≥60 from the MEPS (2004-2013). Physical function (limitations in basic and instrumental activities of daily living [ADL/IADL]) and mobility limitations were assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) represented the majority of the sample followed by non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), Hispanic and non-Hispanic Other (Other)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
José Joaquín Mira, Irene Carrillo, Carmen Silvestre, Pastora Pérez-Pérez, Cristina Nebot, Guadalupe Olivera, Javier González de Dios, Jesús María Aranaz Andrés
OBJECTIVES: Identify the sources of overuse from the point of view of the Spanish primary care professionals, and analyse the frequency of overuse due to pressure from patients in addition to the responses when professionals face these demands. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary care in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: A non-randomised sample of 2201 providers (general practitioners, paediatricians and nurses) was recruited during the survey...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Malak Aoun, Norlena Hasnan, Hassan Al-Aaraj
Background: Lean practices are critical to eliminate waste and enhance the quality of healthcare services through different improvement approaches of total quality management (TQM). In particular, the soft side of TQM is used to develop the innovation skills of employees that are essential for the continuous improvement strategies of hospitals. Aim: The main objective was to study the relationship between lean practices, soft TQM and innovation skills in Lebanese hospitals...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Kathrine L Barnes, Jeffrey J VanWormer, Shannon Stokley, Elizabeth R Vickers, Huong Q McLean, Edward A Belongia, Casper G Bendixsen
BACKGROUND: Parental attitudes play a key role in their decisions to vaccinate adolescents against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Little is known, however, about the formative experiences that shape parents' attitudes about the HPV vaccine. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 parents of 11-17 year old adolescents in Wisconsin who changed their HPV vaccine attitudes (per prior surveys) over one year. A modified grounded theory approach was then used to generate primary themes of attitudinal determinants...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Juha Puustinen, Ritva Lähteenmäki, Janne Nurminen, Tero Vahlberg, Pertti Aarnio, Markku Partinen, Ismo Räihä, Pertti J Neuvonen, Sirkka-Liisa Kivelä
BACKGROUND: Studies on persistence of benzodiazepine agonist (BZDA) withdrawal in older outpatients are few, and few studies on long-term persistence over years have yet been published. To describe the persistence of temazepam, zolpidem, and zopiclone (BZDA) withdrawal among older outpatients at 3 years from the beginning of withdrawal, as well as any changes in use of other medications. METHODS: 92 outpatients (≥55 years) with primary insomnia, long-term BZDA use as hypnotics (mean duration of BZDA use 9...
June 15, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
M Kelsey Kirkwood, Amy Hanley, Suanna S Bruinooge, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Laura A Levit, Caroline Schenkel, Jerome E Seid, Blase N Polite, Richard L Schilsky
PURPOSE: To describe the US hematology and medical oncology practice landscape and to report findings of the sixth annual ASCO Oncology Practice Census survey. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: ASCO used Medicare Physician Compare data to characterize oncology practices in the United States. Practice size, number of care sites, and geographic distribution were determined. Trends in the number and size of practices from 2013 to 2017 were examined. All US oncology practices were targeted for the survey; survey responses were linked to the practices identified from Physician Compare to augment results and assess generalizability...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Antonella Cifalinò, Daniele Mascia, Emanuele Antonio Vendramini
BACKGROUND: In many health systems, general practitioners (GPs) exhibit high levels of isolation and, at the same time, low levels of organizational identification, which can hinder their individual performance. The extant health care literature suggests that the physicians' belief that organizational goals are important, the adoption of performance measurement systems, and knowledge-sharing practices affect their individual performance. Most research has investigated these constructs in isolation, however, rather than explored their collective impact on GPs' individual performance...
June 13, 2018: Health Care Management Review
Margaret OʼDonnell, Kathleen Shurpin, Brenda Janotha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite demonstrated efficacy, the utilization of herpes zoster vaccine (HZV), recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for all immunocompetent adults aged above 60 years, is low (31%). The aim of this study was to identify nurse practitioner (NP) barriers to HZV administration and then to use these results to develop and evaluate the outcomes of an educational program. METHODS: This study used a two-phase design. In Phase I, barriers that obstruct the provision of HZV were identified and NPs were surveyed to determine current HZV practice...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Patrick E Timony, Alain P Gauthier, Boroma Sanou, Elizabeth F Wenghofer
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that French-speaking family physicians (FSPs) in Ontario are less numerous in areas with high proportions of francophones. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether the degree of concordance between physicians' language of competence and the linguistic profile of the community in which they practise is associated with workload and to explore variations in this relation in rural and northern regions of the province. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the 2013 College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario Annual Membership Renewal Survey...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
Melissa McCartney, Chazman Childers, Rachael R Baiduc, Kitch Barnicle
Formal training in communicating science to a general audience is not traditionally included in graduate and postdoctoral-level training programs. However, the ability to effectively communicate science is increasingly recognized as a responsibility of professional scientists. We describe a science communication professional development opportunity in which scientists at the graduate-level and above annotate primary scientific literature, effectively translating complex research into an accessible educational tool for undergraduate students...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Elizabeth A Johnson, Sarah C Fankhauser
Reading and critiquing primary scientific literature is an important skill for graduate students, as reviewing literature is critical to advancing science. Prior research indicates that graduate students lack understanding of effective communication as well as basic experimental design, but also that graduate students are capable of growth in their experimental design abilities when given proper opportunities. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) provides graduate students with the opportunity to review and edit original research papers submitted by middle and high school student-authors...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
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