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Horizontal approach

Jörg Encke, Werner Hemmert
The mammalian auditory system is able to extract temporal and spectral features from sound signals at the two ears. One important cue for localization of low-frequency sound sources in the horizontal plane are inter-aural time differences (ITDs) which are first analyzed in the medial superior olive (MSO) in the brainstem. Neural recordings of ITD tuning curves at various stages along the auditory pathway suggest that ITDs in the mammalian brainstem are not represented in form of a Jeffress-type place code. An alternative is the hemispheric opponent-channel code, according to which ITDs are encoded as the difference in the responses of the MSO nuclei in the two hemispheres...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hyo-Jin Byon, Sung-Jun Hong, Dae-Yu Kim, O Joo-Hyeon, In-Gon Lee, Dong-Ho Seo, Gyoung-A Heo, Hyunzu Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the mean lengths of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) as the acoustic window during the thoracic paramedian epidural approach after shoulder rotation, while subjects were in the lateral decubitus or in the sitting position. METHODS: Thirty-two adult male volunteers were placed in the right decubitus position or sitting position on a horizontal operating table. To obtain an optimal ultrasound view for the PLL on the right side, thoracic spinal ultrasonography was performed at the T6/7 interspace using the paramedian oblique sagittal plane...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Adam Kasparek, Bogdan Smyk
The fluorescence technique is very popular and has been used in many fields of research. It is simple in its assumptions but not very easy to use. One of the main problems is the inner filter effect (IF) I and II which takes place in the cuvette. IF type I is permanently present, but IF type II occurs only when absorption and fluorescence spectra overlap. To avoid IF type I, absorbencies in the cuvette should be smaller than 0.05, which is however very difficult to obtain in many experiments. In this work we propose a new method to solve these problems in the case of a Cary Eclipse fluorimeter, having horizontally-oriented slits, based on old equations developed in the middle of the last century...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Michael Oeverhaus, Margarethe Fischer, Herbert Hirche, Anke Schlüter, Joachim Esser, Anja K Eckstein
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We performed a retrospective analysis to examine clinical results, establish a dose-effect coefficient and analyze the long-term efficacy of tendon elongation with bovine pericardium (Tutopatch®) for surgical correction of severe esotropia, occurring after three-wall orbital decompression for dysthyroid optic neuropathy in patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). METHODS: Tendon elongation of the medial rectus muscle (MR) was performed in our institution using an interponate of bovine pericardium in 60 patients (27 underwent unilateral and 33 bilateral surgery)...
March 20, 2018: Strabismus
Apuã C M Paquola, Huma Asif, Carlos Alberto de Bragança Pereira, Bruno César Feltes, Diego Bonatto, Wanessa Cristina Lima, Carlos Frederico Martins Menck
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has a major impact on the evolution of prokaryotic genomes, as it allows genes evolved in different contexts to be combined in a single genome, greatly enhancing the ways evolving organisms can explore the gene content space and adapt to the environment. A systematic analysis of HGT in a large number of genomes is of key importance in understanding the impact of HGT in the evolution of prokaryotes. We developed a method for the detection of genes that potentially originated by HGT based on the comparison of BLAST scores between homologous genes to 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic distances between the involved organisms...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Kevin D Kohl
Interactions with microbial communities can have profound influences on animal physiology, thereby impacting animal performance and fitness. Therefore, it is important to understand the diversity and nature of host-microbe interactions in various animal groups (invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals). In this perspective, I discuss how the field of host-microbe interactions can be used to address topics that have been identified as grand challenges in comparative animal physiology: (i) horizontal integration of physiological processes across organisms, (ii) vertical integration of physiological processes across organizational levels within organisms, and (iii) temporal integration of physiological processes during evolutionary change...
March 2018: MSystems
Suneeta Chimalapati, Marcela de Souza Santos, Kelly Servage, Nicole J De Nisco, Ankur B Dalia, Kim Orth
The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Sung-Wook Yun, Philippe C Baveye, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kang, Si-Young Lee, Min-Jae Kong, Chan-Gi Park, Hae-Do Kim, Jinkwan Son, Chan Yu
Soil contamination due to atmospheric deposition of metals originating from smelters is a global environmental problem. A common problem associated with this contamination is the discrimination between anthropic and natural contributions to soil metal concentrations: In this context, we investigated the characteristics of soil contamination in the surrounding area of a world class smelter. We attempted to combine several approaches in order to identify sources of metals in soils and to examine contamination characteristics, such as pollution level, range, and spatial distribution...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Roberto Colombo, Alessandra Mazzone, Carmen Delconte, Fabrizio Pisano
Proprioception plays a fundamental role in maintaining posture and executing movement, and the quantitative evaluation of proprioceptive deficits in poststroke patients is important. But currently it is not widely performed due to the complexity of the evaluation tools required for a reliable assessment. The aims of this pilot study were to (a) develop a system architecture for upper limb evaluation and training of proximal and distal sense of position in the horizontal plane and (b) test the system in healthy and pathological subjects...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Shailja Tibrewal, Ramesh Kekunnaya
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the risk of anterior segment ischemia (ASI) after simultaneous three rectus muscle surgery. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All patients who underwent simultaneous three rectus muscle surgery from January 2003 to December 2014 were included. Medical records were reviewed for signs of acute ASI in the postoperative period or presence of any late sequelae. Those patients who had pre-existing corneal pathology obscuring visualisation of anterior chamber and iris were excluded...
March 16, 2018: Strabismus
Afshin Khoshand, Ali Fathi, Milad Zoghi, Hamidreza Kamalan
One of the most common and economical methods for waste disposal is landfilling. The landfill cover system is one of the main components of landfills which prevents waste exposure to the environment by creating a barrier between the waste and the surrounding environment. The stability and integrity of the landfill cover system is a fundamental part of the design, construction, and maintenance of landfills. A reinforced tapered landfill cover system can be considered as a practical method for improving its stability; however, the simultaneous effects of seismic and seepage forces in the reinforced tapered landfill cover system have not been studied...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Ramón Medel Jiménez, Juan C Sánchez España, José Visa Nassarre, Eva Ayala Barroso, Alfredo Pueyo Ferrer, Alejandra Tapia Bahamondes, Luz M Vasquez
PURPOSE: To describe our experience and outcomes managing complete third cranial nerve palsy. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 7 consecutive patients treated at our centre for unilateral third nerve palsy over the period 2010-2016. We describe our surgical approach using a frontalis muscle flap to correct the eyelid ptosis associated with medial fixation of the rectus muscle tendon to the orbit to correct the horizontal deviation...
March 15, 2018: Orbit
Katharina Heider, Juan Miguel Rodriguez Lopez, Jürgen Scheffran
Due to the availability of Web 2.0 technologies, volunteered geographic information (VGI) is on the rise. This new type of data is available on many topics and on different scales. Thus, it has become interesting for research. This article deals with the collective potential of VGI and remote sensing to detect peri-urbanization in the conservation zone of Mexico City. On the one hand, remote sensing identifies horizontal urban expansion, and on the other hand, VGI of ecological complaints provides data about informal settlements...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xiang-Tian Yu, Tao Zeng
The diversity and huge omics data take biology and biomedicine research and application into a big data era, just like that popular in human society a decade ago. They are opening a new challenge from horizontal data ensemble (e.g., the similar types of data collected from different labs or companies) to vertical data ensemble (e.g., the different types of data collected for a group of person with match information), which requires the integrative analysis in biology and biomedicine and also asks for emergent development of data integration to address the great changes from previous population-guided to newly individual-guided investigations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Karissa L Cross, Payal Chirania, Weili Xiong, Clifford J Beall, James G Elkins, Richard J Giannone, Ann L Griffen, Adam M Guss, Robert L Hettich, Snehal S Joshi, Elaine M Mokrzan, Roman K Martin, Igor B Zhulin, Eugene J Leys, Mircea Podar
The human oral microbiota encompasses representatives of many bacterial lineages that have not yet been cultured. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of previously uncultured Desulfobulbus oralis , the first human-associated representative of its genus. As mammalian-associated microbes rarely have free-living close relatives, D. oralis provides opportunities to study how bacteria adapt and evolve within a host. This sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium has adapted to the human oral subgingival niche by curtailing its physiological repertoire, losing some biosynthetic abilities and metabolic independence, and by dramatically reducing environmental sensing and signaling capabilities...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Danielle Worthington, Patricia A Deuster
Spirituality is a key interweaving and interacting domain, and an integral component for maintaining Special Operations Forces readiness; however, it remains an under-researched and likely one of the most poorly understood domains of Preservation of the Force and Family and Total Force Fitness initiatives. Although there are numerous factors that contribute to spiritual performance or spiritual fitness, core values and value-directed living are essential. An initial step toward spiritual performance or fitness is developing core values and identity, followed by a second step toward spiritual performance or fitness, which is developing an increased awareness and deeper understanding of those values...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Kristen L Janky, Jessie Patterson, Neil Shepard, Megan Thomas, Kamran Barin, Tom Creutz, Kendra Schmid, Julie A Honaker
OBJECTIVE: 1) Characterize corrective saccades (CS) in normal controls, and 2) examine the sensitivity of the video head impulse test (vHIT) for identifying vestibular loss using both gain and CS. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective combined with retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Seventy subjects with normal vestibular function served as controls (mean age, 44.1 yr; range, 10-78) and data from 49 patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibular loss was retrospectively reviewed (mean age, 50; range, 7-81)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Adel S Alagl, Marwa Madi
Alveolar ridge deficiency is considered a major limitation for successful implant placement, as well as for the long-term success rate, especially in the anterior maxillary region. Various approaches have been developed to increase bone volume. Among those approaches, inlay and onlay grafts, alveolar ridge distraction, and guided bone regeneration have been suggested. The use of titanium mesh is a reliable method for ridge augmentation. We describe a patient who presented with a localized, combined, horizontal and vertical ridge defect in the anterior maxilla...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Sen Wang, Shuyun Wang, Yan Zhang
Taking advantage of the phase modulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated by subwavelength slits, we elaborately designed an axicon-shaped slit array to dynamically manipulate the profiles of Bessel-like SPPs beams by changing the polarization of the incident light. As the polarization direction of linearly polarized light changes from horizontal to vertical, the profile of SPPs beam will evolve from the zeroth-order Bessel function to the first-order Bessel function. For circularly polarized light, the geometry Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase is introduced and can lead to the transverse shift of the main lobe of SPPs beam...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Tyler B Bourret, Robin A Choudhury, Heather K Mehl, Cheryl L Blomquist, Neil McRoberts, David M Rizzo
Phylogenetic relationships between thirteen species of downy mildew and 103 species of Phytophthora (plant-pathogenic oomycetes) were investigated with two nuclear and four mitochondrial loci, using several likelihood-based approaches. Three Phytophthora taxa and all downy mildew taxa were excluded from the previously recognized subgeneric clades of Phytophthora, though all were strongly supported within the paraphyletic genus. Downy mildews appear to be polyphyletic, with graminicolous downy mildews (GDM), brassicolous downy mildews (BDM) and downy mildews with colored conidia (DMCC) forming a clade with the previously unplaced Phytophthora taxon totara; downy mildews with pyriform haustoria (DMPH) were placed in their own clade with affinities to the obligate biotrophic P...
2018: PloS One
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