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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812359/continuous-flow-electrophoresis-of-dna-and-proteins-in-a-two-dimensional-capillary-well-sieve
#1
Lian Duan, Zhen Cao, Levent Yobas
Continuous-flow electrophoresis of macromolecules is demonstrated using an integrated capillary-well sieve arranged into a two-dimensional anisotropic array on silicon. The periodic array features thousands of entropic barriers, each resulting from an abrupt interface between a 2-μm-deep well (channel) and a 70-nm capillary. These entropic barriers owing to two-dimensional confinement within the capillaries are vastly steep in relation to those arising from slits featuring one-dimensional confinement. Thus, the sieving mechanisms can sustain relatively large electric field strengths over a relatively small array area...
August 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803872/parallel-trajectories-of-genetic-and-linguistic-admixture-in-a-genetically-admixed-creole-population
#2
Paul Verdu, Ethan M Jewett, Trevor J Pemberton, Noah A Rosenberg, Marlyse Baptista
Joint analyses of genes and languages, both of which are transmitted in populations by descent with modification-genes vertically by Mendel's laws, language via combinations of vertical, oblique, and horizontal processes [1-4]-provide an informative approach for human evolutionary studies [5-10]. Although gene-language analyses have employed extensive data on individual genetic variation [11-23], their linguistic data have not considered corresponding long-recognized [24] variability in individual speech patterns, or idiolects...
August 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803750/motor-cortex-and-spinal-cord-neuromodulation-promote-corticospinal-tract-axonal-outgrowth-and-motor-recovery-after-cervical-contusion-spinal-cord-injury
#3
N Zareen, M Shinozaki, D Ryan, H Alexander, A Amer, D Truong, N Khadka, A Sarkar, S Naeem, M Bikson, J Martin
Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex to promote CST axonal sprouting and cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to enhance spinal cord activation to motor cortex stimulation after injury. We used Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling to direct tsDCS to the cervical enlargement...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801800/the-horizontal-plane-appearances-of-scoliosis-what-information-can-be-obtained-from-top-view-images
#4
REVIEW
Tamás S Illés, Máté Burkus, Szabolcs Somoskeőy, Fabien Lauer, Francois Lavaste, Jean F Dubousset
PURPOSE: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. METHODS: We used an EOS two-/three-dimensional (2D/3D) system and its sterEOS 3D software for 3D reconstruction of 139 normal and 814 scoliotic spines-of which 95 cases were analyzed pre-operatively and post-operatively, as well...
August 11, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798043/inactivation-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-in-pigs-using-crispr-cas9
#5
Dong Niu, Hong-Jiang Wei, Lin Lin, Haydy George, Tao Wang, I-Hsiu Lee, Hong-Ye Zhao, Yong Wang, Yinan Kan, Ellen Shrock, Emal Lesha, Gang Wang, Yonglun Luo, Yubo Qing, Deling Jiao, Heng Zhao, Xiaoyang Zhou, Shouqi Wang, Hong Wei, Marc Güell, George M Church, Luhan Yang
Xenotransplantation is a promising strategy to alleviate the shortage of organs for human transplantation. In addition to the concern on pig-to-human immunological compatibility, the risk of cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has impeded the clinical application of this approach. Earlier, we demonstrated the feasibility of inactivating PERV activity in an immortalized pig cell line. Here, we confirmed that PERVs infect human cells, and observed the horizontal transfer of PERVs among human cells...
August 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796837/whole-genome-sequence-of-two-rathayibacter-toxicus-strains-reveals-a-tunicamycin-biosynthetic-cluster-similar-to-streptomyces-chartreusis
#6
Aaron J Sechler, Matthew A Tancos, David J Schneider, Jonas G King, Christine M Fennessey, Brenda K Schroeder, Timothy D Murray, Douglas G Luster, William L Schneider, Elizabeth E Rogers
Rathayibacter toxicus is a forage grass associated Gram-positive bacterium of major concern to food safety and agriculture. This species is listed by USDA-APHIS as a plant pathogen select agent because it produces a tunicamycin-like toxin that is lethal to livestock and may be vectored by nematode species native to the U.S. The complete genomes of two strains of R. toxicus, including the type strain FH-79, were sequenced and analyzed in comparison with all available, complete R. toxicus genomes. Genome sizes ranged from 2,343,780 to 2,394,755 nucleotides, with 2079 to 2137 predicted open reading frames; all four strains showed remarkable synteny over nearly the entire genome, with only a small transposed region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791615/molecular-approaches-for-manipulating-male-sterility-and-strategies-for-fertility-restoration-in-plants
#7
REVIEW
Pawan Shukla, Naveen Kumar Singh, Ranjana Gautam, Israr Ahmed, Deepanker Yadav, Akanksha Sharma, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja Kirti
Usable pollination control systems have proven to be effective system for the development of hybrid crop varieties, which are important for optimal performance over varied environments and years. They also act as a biocontainment to check horizontal transgene flow. In the last two decades, many genetic manipulations involving genes controlling the production of cytotoxic products, conditional male sterility, altering metabolic processes, post-transcriptional gene silencing, RNA editing and chloroplast engineering methods have been used to develop a proper pollination control system...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774798/drug-combination-approach-to-overcome-resistance-to-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-lung-cancer
#8
Christy W S Tong, William K K Wu, Herbert H F Loong, William C S Cho, Kenneth K W To
The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) has led to unprecedented clinical response in a subset of lung cancer patients carrying the sensitizing EGFR mutations (L858R or exon 19 deletion). However, disease progression invariably occurs within a year after the initial TKI treatment, predominantly due to the development of acquired resistance caused by the secondary EGFR T790 M mutation. Numerous second generation irreversible and third generation EGFR T790 M selective EGFR TKIs have been developed to overcome resistance...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768422/influence-of-anisotropic-bone-properties-on-the-biomechanical-behavior-of-the-acetabular-cup-implant-a-multiscale-finite-element-study
#9
Vu-Hieu Nguyen, Giuseppe Rosi, Salah Naili, Adrien Michel, Maria-Letizia Raffa, Romain Bosc, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Christine Chappard, Naoki Takano, Guillaume Haiat
Although the biomechanical behavior of the acetabular cup (AC) implant is determinant for the surgical success, it remains difficult to be assessed due to the multiscale and anisotropic nature of bone tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the anisotropic properties of peri-implant trabecular bone tissue on the biomechanical behavior of the AC implant at the macroscopic scale. Thirteen bovine trabecular bone samples were imaged using micro-computed tomography (μCT) with a resolution of 18 μm...
August 3, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763735/a-new-scanning-mode-to-improve-scanning-ion-conductance-microscopy-imaging-rate-with-pipette-predicted-movement
#10
Jian Zhuang, Yangbohan Jiao, Vincent Mugabo
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a non-contact surface topography measurement technique that has been increasingly used for soft surfaces such as living biological samples. An approach-retract scanning (ARS) mode is widely used to avoid collision between the SICM probe (i.e., pipette) and an abrupt increase in sample profile. However, the redundant pipette trajectory in the ARS mode lengthens the scan time, thus reducing SICM efficiency and time resolution. To avoid this problem, a new scanning mode is discussed that adds horizontal movement at each measurement point to predict the upcoming sample topography via variation in ion current...
July 23, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763444/childhood-adiposity-and-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#11
J C Censin, Christoph Nowak, Nicholas Cooper, Peter Bergsten, John A Todd, Tove Fall
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing globally. One hypothesis is that increasing childhood obesity rates may explain part of this increase, but, as T1D is rare, intervention studies are challenging to perform. The aim of this study was to assess this hypothesis with a Mendelian randomization approach that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to test for causal associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a genetic instrument of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with childhood adiposity in children aged 2-10 years...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761247/comparison-of-radiopacity-of-different-composite-resins
#12
Pinar Gul, Fatma Çaglayan, Nilgün Akgul, Hayati Murat Akgul
BACKGROUND: The radiopacity of composite resins has been considered as an important requirement, improving the radiographic diagnosis. AIM: The present study aimed to compare the radiopacity of eight different composite materials using an aluminum step wedge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight different composite resins were used in this study. The samples were prepared using a stainless steel mold (2 × 8), and a 2-mm-thickness horizontal section was obtained from the freshly extracted molar tooth...
January 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758843/railway-safety-climate-a-study-on-organizational-development
#13
Yung-Hsiang Cheng
The safety climate of an organization is considered as a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely, safety communication, safety training, safety management, and subjectively evaluated safety performance...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758545/a-topographical-map-approach-to-representing-treatment-efficacy-a-focus-on-positive-psychology-interventions
#14
Eugenia I Gorlin, Josephine Lee, Michael W Otto
A recent meta-analysis by Bolier et al. indicated that positive psychology interventions have overall small to moderate effects on well-being, but results were quite heterogeneous across intervention trials. Such meta-analytic research helps condense information on the efficacy of a broad psychosocial intervention by averaging across many effects; however, such global averages may provide limited navigational guidance for selecting among specific interventions. Here, we introduce a novel method for displaying qualitative and quantitative information on the efficacy of interventions using a topographical map approach...
July 31, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753399/disability-policy-implementation-from-a-cross-cultural-perspective
#15
Miguel A Verdugo, Cristina Jenaro, Isabel Calvo, Patricia Navas
Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a value-based approach, (c) align the service delivery system both vertically and horizontally, and (d) engage in a partnership in policy implementation. Public policy should be understood from a systems perspective that includes cross-cultural issues, such as how different stakeholders are acting and the way they plan and implement policy...
July 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750113/handheld-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-and-ultra-wide-field-optical-coherence-tomography-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#16
J Peter Campbell, Eric Nudleman, Jianlong Yang, Ou Tan, R V Paul Chan, Michael F Chiang, David Huang, Gangjun Liu
Importance: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has improved the care of adults with vitreoretinal disease, and OCT angiography (OCTA) is demonstrating promise as a technique to visualize the retinal vasculature with lower risk and cost than fluorescein angiography. However, to date, there are no commercially available devices able to obtain ultra-wide-field OCT or OCTA images in neonates. Objective: To obtain ultra-wide-field OCT and OCTA images in neonates with ROP using a prototype handheld OCT and OCTA device...
July 27, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747880/strong-functional-connectivity-among-homotopic-brain-areas-is-vital-for-motor-control-in-unilateral-limb-movement
#17
Pengxu Wei, Zuting Zhang, Zeping Lv, Bin Jing
The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743092/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-enrich-their-degrading-genera-and-genes-in-human-impacted-aquatic-environments
#18
Ke Yuan, Baowei Chen, Qing Qing, Shichun Zou, Xiaowei Wang, Tiangang Luan
Bacterial degradation is an important clearance pathway for organic contaminants from highly human-impacted environments. However, it is not fully understood how organic contaminants are selected for degradation by bacteria and genes in aquatic environments. In this study, PAH degrading bacterial genera and PAH-degradation-related genes (PAHDGs) in sediments collected from the Pearl River (PR), the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the South China Sea (SCS), among which there were distinct differences in anthropogenic impact, were analyzed using metagenomic approaches...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733615/impact-of-natural-blind-spot-location-on-perimetry
#19
Mengyu Wang, Lucy Q Shen, Michael V Boland, Sarah R Wellik, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Jonathan S Myers, Peter J Bex, Tobias Elze
We study the spatial distribution of natural blind spot location (NBSL) and its impact on perimetry. Pattern deviation (PD) values of 11,449 reliable visual fields (VFs) that are defined as clinically unaffected based on summary indices were extracted from 11,449 glaucoma patients. We modeled NBSL distribution using a two-dimensional non-linear regression approach and correlated NBSL with spherical equivalent (SE). Additionally, we compared PD values of groups with longer and shorter distances than median, and larger and smaller angles than median between NBSL and fixation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732043/investigation-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-pathogenicity-islands-in-escherichia-coli-using-next-generation-sequencing
#20
Maxim Messerer, Wolfgang Fischer, Sören Schubert
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes to the evolution of bacteria. All extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) harbour pathogenicity islands (PAIs), however relatively little is known about the acquisition of these PAIs. Due to these islands, ExPEC have properties to colonize and invade its hosts efficiently. Even though these PAIs are known to be acquired by HGT, only very few PAIs do carry mobilization and transfer genes required for the transmission by HGT. In this study, we apply for the first time next-generation sequencing (NGS) and in silico analyses in combination with in vitro experiments to decipher the mechanisms of PAI acquisition in ExPEC...
2017: PloS One
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