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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236379/cruciform-position-for-trauma-resuscitation
#1
Biswadev Mitra, Mark C Fitzgerald, Alexander Olaussen, Prasanthan Thaveenthiran, Jordan Bade-Boon, Katherine Martin, De Villiers Smit, Peter A Cameron
Multiply injured patients represent a particularly demanding subgroup of trauma patients as they require urgent simultaneous clinical assessments using physical examination, ultrasound and invasive monitoring together with critical management, including tracheal intubation, thoracostomies and central venous access. Concurrent access to multiple body regions is essential to facilitate the concept of 'horizontal' resuscitation. The current positioning of trauma patient, with arms adducted, restricts this approach...
February 25, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235827/genomic-data-quality-impacts-automated-detection-of-lateral-gene-transfer-in-fungi
#2
Pierre-Yves Dupont, Murray P Cox
Lateral gene transfer (or horizontal gene transfer), an atypical mechanism of transferring genes between species, has almost become the default explanation for genes that display an unexpected composition or phylogeny. Numerous methods of detecting lateral gene transfer events all rely on two fundamental strategies: primary structure composition or gene tree/species tree comparisons. Discouragingly, the results of these different approaches rarely coincide. With the wealth of genome data now available, detection of laterally transferred genes is increasingly being attempted in large uncurated eukaryotic datasets...
February 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227387/detecting-cell-division-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteria-from-bright-field-microscopy-images-with-hidden-conditional-random-fields
#3
Lee-Ling S Ong, Xinghua Zhang, Binu Kundukad, Justin Dauwels, Patrick Doyle, H Harry Asada, Lee-Ling S Ong, Xinghua Zhang, Binu Kundukad, Justin Dauwels, Patrick Doyle, H Harry Asada, Binu Kundukad, Lee-Ling S Ong, Xinghua Zhang, Justin Dauwels, Patrick Doyle, H Harry Asada
An approach to automatically detect bacteria division with temporal models is presented. To understand how bacteria migrate and proliferate to form complex multicellular behaviours such as biofilms, it is desirable to track individual bacteria and detect cell division events. Unlike eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells such as bacteria lack distinctive features, causing bacteria division difficult to detect in a single image frame. Furthermore, bacteria may detach, migrate close to other bacteria and may orientate themselves at an angle to the horizontal plane...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226939/model-based-assistance-as-needed-for-robotic-movement-therapy-after-stroke
#4
Hossein Taheri, David J Reinkensmeyer, Eric T Wolbrecht, Hossein Taheri, David J Reinkensmeyer, Eric T Wolbrecht, Eric T Wolbrecht, David J Reinkensmeyer, Hosoein Taheri
This paper extends an adaptive control approach for robotic movement therapy that learns deficiencies in a patient's neuromuscular output and assists accordingly. In this method, adaptation is based on trajectory tracking error and a model of unimpaired motor control forces. The controller presented here adaptively learns and fills the gaps in the patient's ability to generate inertial forces, instead of just static forces, as has been proposed before. To test this method, a two dimensional model of an impaired human arm was used to simulate reaching movements in the horizontal plane...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226253/modeling-single-vehicle-run-off-road-crash-severity-in-rural-areas-accounting-for-unobserved-heterogeneity-and-age-difference
#5
Linfeng Gong, Wei David Fan
This study investigates factors that significantly contribute to the severity of driver injuries resulting from single-vehicle run-off-road (SV ROR) crashes. A mixed logit model approach is employed to explore the potential unobserved heterogeneous effects associated with each age group: young (ages 16-24), middle-aged (ages 25-65), and older drivers (ages over 65). Likelihood ratio tests indicated that the development of separate injury severity models for each age group is statistically superior to estimating a single model using all data...
February 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224498/differential-gene-expression-dex-and-alternative-splicing-events-ase-for-temporal-dynamic-processes-using-hmms-and-hierarchical-bayesian-modeling-approaches
#6
Sunghee Oh, Seongho Song
In gene expression profile, data analysis pipeline is categorized into four levels, major downstream tasks, i.e., (1) identification of differential expression; (2) clustering co-expression patterns; (3) classification of subtypes of samples; and (4) detection of genetic regulatory networks, are performed posterior to preprocessing procedure such as normalization techniques. To be more specific, temporal dynamic gene expression data has its inherent feature, namely, two neighboring time points (previous and current state) are highly correlated with each other, compared to static expression data which samples are assumed as independent individuals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221845/occurrence-and-dispersal-of-indicator-bacteria-on-cucumbers-grown-horizontally-or-vertically-on-various-mulch-types
#7
Shirley A Micallef, Mary Theresa Callahan, Sivaranjani Pagadala
No data exist on the impact of cultivation practices on food safety risks associated with cucumber. Cucumbers are typically grown horizontally over a mulch cover, with fruit touching the ground, but this vining plant grows well in vertical systems. To assess whether production system affects bacterial dispersal onto plants, field trials were conducted over 2 years. Cucumber cultivar 'Marketmore 76' was grown horizontally on plastic, straw, or bare ground or vertically on trellises installed on bare ground in soil previously amended with raw dairy manure...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217092/neurodynamics-in-the-sensorimotor-loop-representing-behavior-relevant-external-situations
#8
Frank Pasemann
In the context of the dynamical system approach to cognition and supposing that brains or brain-like systems controlling the behavior of autonomous systems are permanently driven by their sensor signals, the paper approaches the question of neurodynamics in the sensorimotor loop in a purely formal way. This is carefully done by addressing the problem in three steps, using the time-discrete dynamics of standard neural networks and a fiber space representation for better clearness. Furthermore, concepts like meta-transients, parametric stability and dynamical forms are introduced, where meta-transients describe the effect of realistic sensor inputs, parametric stability refers to a class of sensor inputs all generating the "same type" of dynamic behavior, and a dynamical form comprises the corresponding class of parametrized dynamical systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213824/an-approach-to-the-research-on-ion-and-water-properties-in-the-interphase-between-the-plasma-membrane-and-bulk-extracellular-solution
#9
REVIEW
Hiroshi Hibino, Madoka Takai, Hidenori Noguchi, Seishiro Sawamura, Yasufumi Takahashi, Hideki Sakai, Hitoshi Shiku
In vivo, cells are immersed in an extracellular solution that contains a variety of bioactive substances including ions and water. Classical electrophysiological analyses of epithelial cells in the stomach and small intestine have revealed that within a distance of several hundred micrometers above their apical plasma membrane, lies an extracellular layer that shows ion concentration gradients undetectable in the bulk phase. This "unstirred layer", which contains stagnant solutes, may also exist between the bulk extracellular solution and membranes of other cells in an organism and may show different properties...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212607/a-case-of-modular-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-depth-gradient-for-the-gorgonian-coral-antillogorgia-bipinnata-cnidaria-octocorallia
#10
Iván Calixto-Botía, Juan A Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity, as a phenotypic response induced by the environment, has been proposed as a key factor in the evolutionary history of corals. A significant number of octocoral species show high phenotypic variation, exhibiting a strong overlap in intra- and inter-specific morphologic variation. This is the case of the gorgonian octocoral Antillogorgia bipinnata (Verrill 1864), which shows three polyphyletic morphotypes along a bathymetric gradient. This research tested the phenotypic plasticity of modular traits in A...
February 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197858/mapping-biological-transmission-an-empirical-dynamical-and-evolutionary-approach
#11
Francesca Merlin, Livio Riboli-Sasco
The current debate over extending inheritance and its evolutionary impact has focused on adding new categories of non-genetic factors to the classical transmission of DNA, and on trying to redefine inheritance. Transmitted factors have been mainly characterized by their directions of transmission (vertical, horizontal, or both) and the way they store variations. In this paper, we leave aside the issue of defining inheritance. We rather try to build an evolutionary conceptual framework that allows for tracing most, if not all forms of transmission and makes sense of their different tempos and modes...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196155/subperiosteal-minimally-invasive-aesthetic-ridge-augmentation-technique-smart-a-new-standard-for-bone-reconstruction-of-the-jaws
#12
Ernesto A Lee
Traditional guided bone regeneration techniques include flap mobilization and placement of a bone graft, often with the use of space-maintaining devices and cell-occlusive membranes. This approach is associated with frequent complications that negatively affect the outcome of the augmentation and the peri-implant soft tissue esthetics. Although current tunneling techniques have focused on periodontal soft tissue applications, earlier publications described their use for horizontal augmentation of mandibular posterior edentulous ridges in full-denture patients...
March 2017: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193728/mobile-introns-shape-the-genetic-diversity-of-their-host-genes
#13
Jelena Repar, Tobias Warnecke
Self-splicing introns populate several highly conserved protein-coding genes in fungal and plant mitochondria. In fungi, many of these introns have retained their ability to spread to intron-free target sites, often assisted by intron-encoded endonucleases that initiate the homing process. Here, leveraging population genomic data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Lachancea kluyveri, we expose non-random patterns of genetic diversity in exons that border self-splicing introns. In particular, we show that, in all three species, the density of single nucleotide polymorphisms increases as one approaches a mobile intron...
February 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193673/structure-of-the-escherichia-coli-proq-rna-chaperone-protein
#14
Grecia Gonzalez, Steven Hardwick, Sarah L Maslen, J Mark Skehel, Erik Holmqvist, Jörg Vogel, Alex Bateman, Ben Luisi, R William Broadhurst
The protein ProQ has recently been identified as a global RNA chaperone in Salmonella, and a similar role is anticipated for its numerous homologues in divergent bacterial species. We report the solution structure of Escherichia coli ProQ, revealing an N-terminal FinO-like domain, a C-terminal domain that unexpectedly has a Tudor-domain fold commonly found in eukaryotes, and an elongated bridging intra-domain linker that is flexible but nonetheless incompressible. Structure based sequence analysis suggests that the Tudor domain was acquired through horizontal gene transfer and gene fusion to the ancestral FinO-like domain...
February 13, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187427/genomic-islands-an-overview-of-current-software-and-future-improvements
#15
Siomar de Castro Soares, Letícia de Castro Oliveira, Arun Kumar Jaiswal, Vasco Azevedo
Microbes are highly diverse and widely distributed organisms. They account for ~60% of Earth’s biomass and new predictions point for the existence of 1011 to 1012 species, which are constantly sharing genes through several different mechanisms. Genomic Islands (GI) are critical in this context, as they are large regions acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Also, they present common features like genomic signature deviation, transposase genes, flanking tRNAs and insertion sequences. GIs carry large numbers of genes related to specific lifestyle and are commonly classified in Pathogenicity, Resistance, Metabolic or Symbiotic Islands...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186727/controlled-synthesis-of-ultralong-carbon-nanotubes-with-perfect-structures-and-extraordinary-properties
#16
Rufan Zhang, Yingying Zhang, Fei Wei
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have drawn intensive research interest in the past 25 years due to their excellent properties and wide applications. Ultralong CNTs refers to the horizontally aligned CNT arrays which are usually grown on flat substrates, parallel with each other with large intertube distances. They usually have perfect structures, excellent properties, and lengths up to centimeters, even decimeters. Ultralong CNTs are promising candidates as building blocks for transparent displays, nanoelectronics, superstrong tethers, aeronautics and aerospace materials, etc...
February 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178320/variations-in-the-structural-and-functional-diversity-of-zooplankton-over-vertical-and-horizontal-environmental-gradients-en-route-to-the-arctic-ocean-through-the-fram-strait
#17
Marta Gluchowska, Emilia Trudnowska, Ilona Goszczko, Anna Maria Kubiszyn, Katarzyna Blachowiak-Samolyk, Waldemar Walczowski, Slawomir Kwasniewski
A multi-scale approach was used to evaluate which spatial gradient of environmental variability is the most important in structuring zooplankton diversity in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). The WSC is the main conveyor of warm and biologically rich Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. The data set included 85 stratified vertical zooplankton samples (obtained from depths up to 1000 metres) covering two latitudinal sections (76°30'N and 79°N) located across the multi-path WSC system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177042/microbial-control-of-arthropod-borne-disease
#18
Miguel A Saldaña, Shivanand Hegde, Grant L Hughes
Arthropods harbor a diverse array of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of host biology, including vector competence. Additionally, symbionts can be engineered to produce molecules that inhibit pathogens. Due to their intimate association with the host, microbes have developed strategies that facilitate their transmission, either horizontally or vertically, to conspecifics. These attributes make microbes attractive agents for applied strategies to control arthropod-borne disease. Here we discuss the recent advances in microbial control approaches to reduce the burden of pathogens such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, and Trypanosome and Plasmodium parasites...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166939/thermal-tolerance-and-preference-of-exploited-turbinid-snails-near-their-range-limit-in-a-global-warming-hotspot
#19
Roslizawati Ab Lah, Kirsten Benkendorff, Daniel Bucher
Predicted global climate change has prompted numerous studies of thermal tolerances of marine species. The upper thermal tolerance is unknown for most marine species, but will determine their vulnerability to ocean warming. Gastropods in the family Turbinidae are widely harvested for human consumption. To investigate the responses of turbinid snails to future conditions we determined critical thermal maxima (CTMax) and preferred temperatures of Turbo militaris and Lunella undulata from the tropical-temperate overlap region of northern New South Wales, on the Australian east coast...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163883/rules-to-fly-by-pigeons-navigating-horizontal-obstacles-limit-steering-by-selecting-gaps-most-aligned-to-their-flight-direction
#20
Ivo G Ros, Partha S Bhagavatula, Huai-Ti Lin, Andrew A Biewener
Flying animals must successfully contend with obstacles in their natural environments. Inspired by the robust manoeuvring abilities of flying animals, unmanned aerial systems are being developed and tested to improve flight control through cluttered environments. We previously examined steering strategies that pigeons adopt to fly through an array of vertical obstacles (VOs). Modelling VO flight guidance revealed that pigeons steer towards larger visual gaps when making fast steering decisions. In the present experiments, we recorded three-dimensional flight kinematics of pigeons as they flew through randomized arrays of horizontal obstacles (HOs)...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
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