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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087534/mechanisms-of-horizontal-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-wolbachia-spp-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Pamela M White, Jose E Pietri, Alain Debec, Shelbi Russell, Bhavin Patel, William Sullivan
: Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germline, though horizontal transmission has also been documented. Several studies indicate that Wolbachia is capable of transfer between somatic and germline cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073438/individual-based-modelling-of-the-development-and-transport-of-a-karenia-mikimotoi-bloom-on-the-north-west-european-continental-shelf
#2
P A Gillibrand, B Siemering, P I Miller, K Davidson
In 2006, a large and prolonged bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi occurred in Scottish coastal waters, causing extensive mortalities of benthic organisms including annelids and molluscs and some species of fish (Davidson et al., 2009). A coupled hydrodynamic-algal transport model was developed to track the progression of the bloom around the Scottish coast during June-September 2006 and hence investigate the processes controlling the bloom dynamics. Within this individual-based model, cells were capable of growth, mortality and phototaxis and were transported by physical processes of advection and turbulent diffusion, using current velocities extracted from operational simulations of the MRCS ocean circulation model of the North-west European continental shelf...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070281/multiscale-habitat-relationships-of-snowshoe-hares-lepus-americanus-in-the-mixed-conifer-landscape-of-the-northern-rockies-usa-cross-scale-effects-of-horizontal-cover-with-implications-for-forest-management
#3
Joseph D Holbrook, John R Squires, Lucretia E Olson, Rick L Lawrence, Shannon L Savage
Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1) assess the relationship between horizontal cover and snowshoe hares, (2) estimate how forest metrics vary across the gradient of snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover, and (3) model and map snowshoe hare occupancy and intensity of use...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070021/goos-hanchen-effect-for-optical-vibrational-modes-in-a-semiconductor-structure
#4
Diosdado Villegas, J Arriaga, Fernando de Leon-Perez, Rolando Perez-Alvarez
We study the tunneling of optical vibrational modes with transverse horizontal polarization that impinge, at a given angle, on a semiconductor hetero\-structure. We find a large influence of the Goos-H$\ddot{a}$nchen shift on tunneling times. In particular, a Goos-H$\ddot{a}$nchen shift larger than the barrier thickness is reported for the first time. The relation between Goos-H$\ddot{a}$nchen and Hartman effects is also discussed. The identity that equals the dwell time to the sum of transmission and interference times, previously derived for one-dimensional tunneling problems, is extended to the two-dimensional case...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067942/body-positioning-for-spontaneously-breathing-preterm-infants-with-apnoea
#5
REVIEW
Rami A Ballout, Jann P Foster, Lara A Kahale, Lina Badr
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that body positioning in preterm infants, as compared with other, more invasive measures, may be an effective method of reducing clinically significant apnoea. OBJECTIVES: To determine effects of body positioning on cardiorespiratory parameters in spontaneously breathing preterm infants with clinically significant apnoea.Subgroup analyses examined effects of body positioning of spontaneously breathing preterm infants with apnoea from the following subgroups...
January 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066093/on-the-energy-balance-closure-and-net-radiation-in-complex-terrain
#6
Georg Wohlfahrt, Albin Hammerle, Georg Niedrist, Katharina Scholz, Enrico Tomelleri, Peng Zhao
In complex, sloping terrain, horizontal measurements of net radiation are not reflective of the radiative energy available for the conductive and convective heat exchange of the underlying surface. Using data from a grassland site on a mountain slope characterised by spatial heterogeneity in inclination and aspect, we tested the hypothesis that a correction of the horizontal net radiation measurements which accounts for the individual footprint contributions of the various surfaces to the measured sensible and latent heat eddy covariance fluxes will yield more realistic slope-parallel net radiation estimates compared to a correction based on the average inclination and aspect of the footprint...
October 15, 2016: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061804/the-extracellular-proteome-of-two-bifidobacterium-species-reveals-different-adaptation-strategies-to-low-iron-conditions
#7
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Marc J A Stevens, Peter Gehrig, Simon Barkow-Oesterreicher, Christophe Lacroix, Christophe Chassard
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacteria are among the first anaerobic bacteria colonizing the gut. Bifidobacteria require iron for growth and their iron-sequestration mechanisms are important for their fitness and possibly inhibit enteropathogens. Here we used combined genomic and proteomic analyses to characterize adaptations to low iron conditions of B. kashiwanohense PV20-2 and B. pseudolongum PV8-2, 2 strains isolated from the feces of iron-deficient African infants and selected for their high iron-sequestering ability...
January 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052325/prediction-of-remediation-of-a-heterogeneous-aquifer-a-case-study
#8
Ziv Moreno, Amir Paster
Contaminant plumes whose characteristic length is smaller than the horizontal integral scale of the hydraulic conductivity, K, are abundant in shallow, phreatic aquifers. In such cases, the aquifer can be regarded as layered, with K being only a function of the vertical coordinate. The heterogeneity of K has a critical role upon the efficiency of remediation of such sites, for example, by Pump and Treat schemes. The expected efficiency is a random variable, with uncertainty. Quantifying this uncertainty can be of great importance to decision making...
January 3, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050319/the-hidden-x-suture-a-technical-note-on-a-novel-suture-technique-for-alveolar-ridge-preservation
#9
Jung-Chul Park, Ki-Tae Koo, Hyun-Chang Lim
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the impact of 2 different suture techniques, the conventional crossed mattress suture (X suture) and the novel hidden X suture, for alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) with an open healing approach. METHODS: This study was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Fourteen patients requiring extraction of the maxillary or mandibular posterior teeth were enrolled and allocated into 2 groups. After extraction, demineralized bovine bone matrix mixed with 10% collagen (DBBM-C) was grafted and the socket was covered by porcine collagen membrane in a double-layer fashion...
December 2016: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049420/horizontal-gene-transfer-drives-the-evolution-of-rh50-permeases-in-prokaryotes
#10
Giorgio Matassi
BACKGROUND: Rh50 proteins belong to the family of ammonia permeases together with their Amt/MEP homologs. Ammonia permeases increase the permeability of NH3/NH4(+) across cell membranes and are believed to be involved in excretion of toxic ammonia and in the maintenance of pH homeostasis. RH50 genes are widespread in eukaryotes but absent in land plants and fungi, and remarkably rare in prokaryotes. The evolutionary history of RH50 genes in prokaryotes is just beginning to be unveiled...
January 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047607/th-cd-207b-09-task-driven-fluence-field-modulation-design-for-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-in-ct
#11
G Gang, J Siewerdsen, J Stayman
PURPOSE: There has been increasing interest in integrating fluence field modulation (FFM) devices with diagnostic CT scanners for dose reduction purposes. Conventional FFM strategies, however, are often either based on heuristics or the analysis of filtered-backprojection (FBP) performance. This work investigates a prospective task-driven optimization of FFM for model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in order to improve imaging performance at the same total dose as conventional strategies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046474/th-ab-209-04-3d-light-sheet-luminescence-imaging-with-cherenkov-radiation
#12
P Bruza, H Lin, L Jarvis, D Gladstone, B Pogue
PURPOSE: To recover a three-dimensional density distribution of luminescent molecular probes located several centimeters deep within a highly scattering tissue. METHODS: We developed a novel sheet beam Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging (CELSI) methodology. The sample was irradiated by a horizontally oriented, vertically scanned 6 MV X-ray sheet beam (200mm × 5mm, 0.2mm vertical step) from a radiotherapy linear accelerator. The resulting Cherenkov light emission - and thus luminescent probe excitation - occurred exclusively along the irradiation plane due to a short diffusion path of secondary particles and Cherenkov photons...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043746/can-a-surgery-first-orthognathic-approach-reduce-the-total-treatment-time
#13
W S Jeong, J W Choi, D Y Kim, J Y Lee, S M Kwon
Although pre-surgical orthodontic treatment has been accepted as a necessary process for stable orthognathic correction in the traditional orthognathic approach, recent advances in the application of miniscrews and in the pre-surgical simulation of orthodontic management using dental models have shown that it is possible to perform a surgery-first orthognathic approach without pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. This prospective study investigated the surgical outcomes of patients with diagnosed skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent orthognathic surgery between December 2007 and December 2014...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035262/wind-estimation-based-on-thermal-soaring-of-birds
#14
Rolf Weinzierl, Gil Bohrer, Bart Kranstauber, Wolfgang Fiedler, Martin Wikelski, Andrea Flack
The flight performance of birds is strongly affected by the dynamic state of the atmosphere at the birds' locations. Studies of flight and its impact on the movement ecology of birds must consider the wind to help us understand aerodynamics and bird flight strategies. Here, we introduce a systematic approach to evaluate wind speed and direction from the high-frequency GPS recordings from bird-borne tags during thermalling flight. Our method assumes that a fixed horizontal mean wind speed during a short (18 seconds, 19 GPS fixes) flight segment with a constant turn angle along a closed loop, characteristic of thermalling flight, will generate a fixed drift for each consequent location...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033634/how-to-harmonize-the-ethnic-nose
#15
Artur Grinfeld, Rodrigo Betelli, Guilherme Arruda, Washington Almeida
The demand for cosmetic surgery has significantly increased in the past few years mainly due to economic rise witnessed in Brazil. The state of Bahia has predominately Afro-descendant population with the same countrywide scenario, where the surgeon must be able to face challenges such as the specifics demands of rhinoplasty in an ethnic nose. It represents not only a different nasal variety from the Caucasoid, but also a complex anatomical feature, with its own peculiarities, as thicker and oilier skin, with bulky fibrous fatty tissue with numerous sebaceous glands...
December 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013233/the-influence-of-alertness-on-the-spatial-deployment-of-visual-attention-is-mediated-by-the-excitability-of-the-posterior-parietal-cortices
#16
Rebecca E Paladini, René M Müri, Jurka Meichtry, Tobias Nef, Fred W Mast, Urs P Mosimann, Thomas Nyffeler, Dario Cazzoli
With a reduced level of alertness, healthy individuals typically show a rightward shift when deploying visual attention in space. The impact of alertness on the neural networks governing visuospatial attention is, however, poorly understood. By using a transcranial magnetic stimulation twin-coil approach, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of an alertness manipulation on the excitability of the left and the right posterior parietal cortices (PPCs), crucial nodes of the visuospatial attentional network...
December 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012657/effect-of-surface-application-of-ammonium-thiosulfate-on-field-scale-emissions-of-1-3-dichloropropene
#17
S R Yates, D J Ashworth, Q Zhang
Soil fumigation is important for food production but has the potential to discharge toxic chemicals into the environment, which may adversely affect human and ecosystem health. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of applying ammonium thiosulfate fertilizer to the soil surface prior to fumigating with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). The ammonium thiosulfate solution was applied as a spray with minimal water to minimize the effect on emissions from saturating (e.g. sealing) the soil pores with water...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009835/smart-device-supported-bds-gnss-real-time-kinematic-positioning-for-sub-meter-level-accuracy-in-urban-location-based-services
#18
Liang Wang, Zishen Li, Jiaojiao Zhao, Kai Zhou, Zhiyu Wang, Hong Yuan
Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10-20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3-5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform...
December 21, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005757/correction-of-pterygium-colli-in-turner-syndrome-a-clinical-report-and-review-of-the-surgical-management
#19
Richard Ben Lou, Petros Konofaos, Robert D Wallace
The aim of surgery for pterygium colli (PC) is to correct the contour deformity, redistribute or remove the horizontal excess of skin, address the abnormal posterior hairline, avoid excessive scarring, and prevent recurrence. The purpose of this study is to review the available methods to correct the deformity and highlight a recent patient performed by the senior author. A modified bilateral Z-plasty technique was used for correcting PC on a 5-year-old African American girl diagnosed with Turner syndrome. The patient had an uneventful postoperative period and satisfactory functional and esthetic results were demonstrated at 1 year follow-up...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005755/management-of-zygomatic-fractures-in-young-patients-technical-modifications-for-aesthetic-and-functional-results
#20
Antonio Cortese, Giuseppe D'Alessio, Sergio Brongo, Maurizio Gargiulo, Pier Paolo Claudio
INTRODUCTION: The zygomaticomaxillary complex is very vulnerable to injury because of its intrinsically prominent convexity. There are 2 different surgical approaches for the therapy of these fractures: closed reduction and open reduction. In the open reduction 2 or 3 fixation points with related incisions are usually necessary in dislocated fractures: osteosynthesis must be performed starting from zygomaticofrontal suture when dislocated at this site, followed by zygomatic body fixation on the anterior sinus wall, anterior orbital floor margin fixation, and finally orbital floor reconstruction in case of eye globe dislocation with diplopia...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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