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N Nand, A R Deshmukh, R Mathur, V Chauhan, Brijlal
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive salt-losing tubulopathy. The incidence of Gitelman syndrome is 25 cases in 1 million among western population. This patient presented with loose stool, vomiting and sudden onset quadriparesis. Investigations revealed hypokalaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hypermagnesuria. Symptoms and hypokalemia improved after starting oral magnesium and potassium supplements. But the patient again presented with symptomatic hypokalemia and delivered a still born foetus with hydrocephalus...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
M Schneider, I Schmeh, A Fruth, C Whybra-Trümpler, E Mildenberger
Monozygotic twins were previously regarded as "identical". By now an increasing number of case reports of monozygotic but discordant twins have been reported, and therefore discordance between monozygotic twins is being investigated intensively. We report a case of female preterm monozygotic twins who were discordant for fetal megacystis due to cloacal dysgenesis. Pregnancy was achieved after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and transfer of 2 embryos. By the first trimester fetal megacystis with consecutive oligohydramnios and hypoplasia of the lungs was diagnosed...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
O R Vaughan, A L Fowden
The placenta is a dynamic, metabolically active organ with significant nutrient and energy requirements for growth, nutrient transfer and protein synthesis. It uses a range of substrates to meet its energy needs and has a higher rate of oxygen (O2 ) consumption than many other foetal and adult tissues. Placental metabolism varies with species and alters in response to a range of nutritional and endocrine signals of adverse environmental conditions. The placenta integrates these signals and adapts its metabolic phenotype to help maintain pregnancy and to optimize offspring fitness by diversifying the sources of carbon and nitrogen available for energy production, hormone synthesis and foeto-placental growth...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Oat Peltoniemi, S Björkman, C Oliviero
In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Peter L Stern, Richard Harrop
The natural history of a patient's cancer is often characterised by genetic diversity and sequential sweeps of clonal dominance. It is therefore not surprising that identifying the most appropriate tumour-associated antigen for targeted intervention is challenging. The 5T4 oncofoetal antigen was identified by searching for surface molecules shared between human trophoblast and cancer cells with the rationale that they may function to allow survival of the foetus as a semi-allograft in the mother or a tumour in its host...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Ramiro Olivera, Lucia Natalia Moro, Roberto Jordan, Carlos Luzzani, Santiago Miriuka, Martin Radrizzani, F Xavier Donadeu, Gabriel Vichera
The demand for equine cloning as a tool to preserve high genetic value is growing worldwide; however, nuclear transfer efficiency is still very low. To address this issue, we first evaluated the effects of time from cell fusion to activation (<1h, n = 1261; 1-2h, n = 1773; 2-3h, n = 1647) on in vitro and in vivo development of equine embryos generated by cloning. Then, we evaluated the effects of using different nuclear donor cell types in two successive experiments: I) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) vs...
2016: PloS One
Kateřina Vymazalová, Lenka Vargová, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser
The purpose of the study was to discover a way to study the internal structure and evolution of human embryos noninvasively. The human embryo was stained with phosphotungstic acid solution (PTA) in ethanol (EPTA) and scanned using a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner. Using appropriate software, a three-dimensional image of the embryo was created, which could be further exploited. The methodology described could be used for the non-destructive examination of the internal structure of the human embryo, and the resulting data can be used as a resource for medical students, gynaecologists, and paediatricians...
October 11, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Bert Müller, Georg Schulz
Foetuses are a source of scientific information to understand the development and evolution of anatomical structures. The bony labyrinth, surrounding the organ of balance and hearing, is a phylogenetically and ecologically informative structure for which still little concerning growth and shape variability is known in many groups of vertebrates. Except in humans, it is poorly known in many other placentals and its prenatal growth has almost never been studied. Ruminants are a diversified group of placentals and represent an interesting case study to understand the prenatal growth of the ear region...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Jacob Brenner, Ditza Rotenberg, Shami Jaakobi, Yehuda Stram, Merisol Guini-Rubinstein, Sofia Menasherov, Michel Bernstein, Yudith Yaakobovitch, Dan David, Samuel Perl
Viruses of the Simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. The Simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. Simbu serogroup members include: Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Cache Valley virus, and Schmallenberg virus. Lately, dairy herds calf malformations have been observed in Europe, where there have been reports of clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, fever, and reduced milk yield in adult lactating cows...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
L M Van der Pol, A T A Mairuhu, C Tromeur, F Couturaud, M V Huisman, F A Klok
Because pregnant women have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and at the same time normal pregnancy is associated with symptoms, mimicking those present in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the latter diagnosis is frequently suspected in this patient category. Since imaging tests expose both mother and foetus to ionizing radiation, the ability to rule out PE based on non-radiological diagnostic tests is of paramount importance. However, clinical decision rules have only been scarcely evaluated in the pregnant population with suspected PE, while D-dimer levels lose diagnostic accuracy due to a physiological increase during normal pregnancy...
September 29, 2016: Blood Reviews
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Taylor M Mehta, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Clozapine is an antipsychotic used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, little is known about clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation, or its impact on the mother, foetus, and infant. This review aims to summarize the available literature on the safety of clozapine use during the perinatal period. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE were searched from their inceptions through June 2016. The review encompasses 21 studies that have examined clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation...
October 4, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
R A Palomares, D J Hurley, L T Crum, E Rollin, T Collop, A Williard, J Felton, J Parrish, L B Corbeil
The objective of this study was to determine the level and duration of IgG antibodies induced against killed whole Tritrichomonas foetus and T foetus-purified surface antigen (TF1.17) in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions after systemic immunization of beef cows with a vaccine containing killed whole T foetus. Twenty nonpregnant beef cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups as follows: Vaccine (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of a commercial vaccine containing killed whole T foetus subcutaneously and a 2-mL booster 2 weeks later...
September 6, 2016: Theriogenology
Leticia Medina-Esparza, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Daniel García-Ramos, Gema Álvarez-García, Julio Benavides, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Carlos Cruz-Vázquez
The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N. caninum isolates based on multilocus microsatellite genotyping. Currently, the most extensive study reported is based on the N. caninum genotyping of 96 samples from four countries on two continents (Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland) that demonstrate different clusters of multilocus genotypes (MLGs) implicated in cattle abortions as well as the population sub-structuring of N...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Fca Sousa, G T Pessoa, L S Moura, J R Araújo, Rps Rodrigues, Maps Barbosa, A N Diniz, A B Souza, E G Silva, L U Lucena, M P Sanches, O F Silva-Filho, P C Guerra, J M Sousa, W C Neves, F R Alves
The objective of this study was to define the patterns of organogenesis and foetal haemodynamics during the normal gestation of healthy agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) kept in captivity. Thirty pregnant agoutis that ranged in size from small to medium and weighed between 2.5 and 3 kg underwent B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography for the biometric evaluation of the foetal organs. The foetal aortic blood flow proved to be predominantly systolic, and the measured flow velocity was 78.89 ± 2.95 cm/s, with a maximum pressure gradient of 2...
September 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
D Vinayagam, Juan Gutierrez, J Binder, B Thilaganathan, A Khalil
BACKGROUND: The increase in the prevalence of and the adverse risks to both mother and foetus associated with maternal obesity is a global concern. The adverse cardiovascular risk associated with obesity is well-known, however, there is a paucity of data assessing central haemodynamics in class 3 (morbid) obesity (BMI440 kg/m(2)) during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the haemodynamic profile in women with class 3 maternal obesity against those with a normal BMI (20-30 kg/m(2)), using ultrasound-based, non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
D Di Martino, S Zullino, D Casati, A S Grimaldi, C Mastroianni, V Sterpi, E Rosti, M Garbin, E Ferrazzid
AIMS: To compare maternal hemodynamic profile during pregnancy and at 6-12 months after delivery in pregnancies with different HDP phenotypes or severe IUGR. METHODS: We enrolled patients between 24 and 38 weeks of gestation: HDP with appropriate for gestational age foetuses (HDP-AGAf), HDP with IUGR (HDP-IUGR), severe IUGR and Controls matched for gestational age. Severe IUGR was defined as abdominal circumference <5th centile and a PI in umbilical artery42SD...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Bas C Jansen, Albert Bondt, Karli R Reiding, Sicco A Scherjon, Gestur Vidarsson, Manfred Wuhrer
During pregnancy, the mother provides multiple nutrients and substances to the foetus, with maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) being actively transported to the foetus. Newborns depend on maternal IgG for immune-protection in their first months. The glycosylation of IgG has been shown to influence its dynamics, e.g. receptor binding. While minor differences in IgG glycosylation have been found between IgG derived from maternal blood and umbilical cord blood (UC) of newborn children, the differential glycosylation of maternal and UC plasma has hitherto not been studied...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ambrin Gull Shamas, Karishma Bohara
This work was a retrospective audit of CCAM - 1994 to 2008. A total of 26 cases were identified. Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 20 weeks. All were unilateral and had serial scans. In 31% the lesion resolved, 8% decreased, 42% were unchanged and 4% increased in size. Only one foetus developed hydrops. All were born alive. Of 8 foetuses where the CCAM was thought to have resolved, 6 had persistent lesions (overall sensitivity and PPV of US 64% and 69%, respectively). Computerised tomography performed better than chest X-ray in detecting lesions postnatally (sensitivity 100% vs 88%, PPV 95% vs 78%)...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gamal Wareth, Falk Melzer, Denny Böttcher, Mohamed El-Diasty, Mohamed El-Beskawy, Nesma Rasheed, Gernot Schmoock, Uwe Roesler, Lisa D Sprague, Heinrich Neubauer
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B...
September 21, 2016: Acta Tropica
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