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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#1
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078779/association-between-zika-virus-and-foetopathy-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-french-guiana-preliminary-report
#2
Pomar Léo, Malinger Gustavo, Benoist Guillaume, Carles Gabriel, Ville Yves, Rousset Dominique, Hcini Najeh, Pomar Céline, Jolivet Anne, Lambert Véronique
OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the present study were to establish the existence of significant differences in the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) anomalies (including microcephaly), signs of congenital infection, or foetal loss between Zika virus (ZIKV)-infected and non-infected pregnant women in western French Guiana. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted between January 1(st) and July 15(th) 2016. We evaluated the clinical and foetal ultrasound (US) examinations of 301 pregnant women with biological confirmation of ZIKV infection and 399 pregnant women who were negative for ZIKV infection...
January 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077143/pregnant-women-carrying-microcephaly-foetuses-and-zika-virus-contain-potentially-pathogenic-microbes-and-parasites-in-their-amniotic-fluid
#3
Diogo Antonio Tschoeke, Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Luciana Leomil, Amilcar Tanuri, Fabiano Lopes Thompson
BACKGROUND: Microcephaly has become a major public health problem in Brazil. The total number of newborns with microcephaly was reported to be >4000 in June 2016. Studies suggest that Zika Virus is a major cause of new microcephaly cases in Brazil. Inside the uterus, the foetus is surrounded by the Amniotic Fluid, a proximal fluid that contains foetal and maternal cells as well as microorganisms and where Zika Virus was already found. CASE PRESENTATION: A previous study reported the presence of the Zika Virus in the amniotic fluid (collected in the 28th gestational week) of two pregnant women carrying microcephaly foetuses in Brazil...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068604/2-8-bis-trifluoromethyl-quinoline-analogs-show-improved-anti-zika-virus-activity-compared-to-mefloquine
#4
Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Adriana M Moraes, Adriele da S Araújo, Emerson T da Silva, Caroline S de Freitas, Yasmine R Vieira, Andressa Marttorelli, José Cerbino Neto, Patrícia T Bozza, Marcus V N de Souza, Thiago Moreno L Souza
Zika virus (ZIKV), an arthropod-born Flavivirus, has been associated with a wide range of neurological diseases in adults, foetuses and neonates. Since no vaccine is available, repurposing of antiviral drugs currently in medical use is necessary. Mefloquine has confirmed anti-ZIKV activity. We used medicinal chemistry-driven approaches to synthesize and evaluate the ability of a series of new 2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline derivatives to inhibit ZIKV replication in vitro, in order to improve the potency of mefloquine...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051057/neonatal-neuroblastoma-with-adrenal-primary-and-metastasis-to-the-liver-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-literature
#5
Oladipo Omoseebi, Mosebolatan Olatokunboh Odubanjo, Olakanmi Ralph Akinde, Nzechukwu Z Ikeri, Adesoji O Ademuyiwa, Adekunle A O Adeyomoye
We report the case of a 23-day-old neonate with neuroblastoma (NBL) in the right adrenal gland and widespread metastases to the liver. This raises the possibility of foetal NBL, which was missed during periodic ultrasonography done during the mother's pregnancy. We hope that this report would increase the awareness of physicians about foetal, congenital and neonatal NBL; and of sonographers about space-occupying lesions in the foetus. The clinicopathologic features and the management of neonatal NBL are discussed...
October 2016: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051055/thoracic-heteropagus-conjoined-twins-associated-to-an-omphalocele-report-of-a-case-and-complete-review-of-the-literature
#6
Kotti Ahmed, Ben Dhaou Mahdi, Zitouni Hayet, Louati Hamdi, Jallouli Mohamed, Mhiri Riadh
Heteropagus twins are an extremely rare event with an incidence of 1-2 million live births that represents, sometimes, a real challenge for paediatric surgeons. The majority of cases have complete or partial duplication of the pelvis and/or lower extremities. Thoracic heteropagus conjoined twins is a rare condition in which a grossly defective foetus (the parasite) is attached to the thorax of the main foetus (the autosite). We describe a case of a parasitic heteropagus attached at the chest wall with a rare presentation of giant exomphalos on the autosite...
October 2016: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045901/zika-virus-infection-as-a-cause-of-congenital-brain-abnormalities-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-systematic-review
#7
Fabienne Krauer, Maurane Riesen, Ludovic Reveiz, Olufemi T Oladapo, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Teegwendé V Porgo, Anina Haefliger, Nathalie J Broutet, Nicola Low
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040480/non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-nipd-of-cystic-fibrosis-an-optimized-protocol-using-memo-fluorescent-pcr-to-detect-the-p-phe508del-mutation
#8
C Guissart, C Dubucs, C Raynal, A Girardet, F Tran Mau Them, V Debant, C Rouzier, A Boureau-Wirth, E Haquet, J Puechberty, E Bieth, D Dupin Deguine, P Khau Van Kien, M P Brechard, V Pritchard, M Koenig, M Claustres, M C Vincent
BACKGROUND: Analysis of cell-free foetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal plasma is very promising for early diagnosis of monogenic diseases; in particular, cystic fibrosis (CF). However, NIPD of single-gene disorders has been limited by the availability of suitable technical platforms and the need to set up patient or disease-specific custom-made approaches. METHODS: To make research applications more readily accessible to the clinic, we offer a simple assay combining two independent methods to determine the presence or absence of paternally inherited foetal allele p...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032428/antimalarial-treatment-patterns-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinics-in-south-east-nigeria-and-the-future-implications
#9
Charles Ezenduka, Chizoba Nworgu, Brian Barr Godman, Amos Massele, Charles Esimone
BACKGROUND: Prompt and effective treatment of malaria in pregnancy in accordance with recommended guidelines is essential to help prevent adverse events among pregnant mothers and the foetus. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess current prescribing of antimalarial medicines in pregnancy against policy guidelines in south east Nigeria to provide future guidance. METHODS: A review of prescription records of pregnant women treated for malaria over a 6-month period between August 2013 and January 2014 was carried out to assess the prescribing patterns for both the prevention and treatment of malaria in each trimester and analyzed for conformity to recommended guidelines...
December 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031254/fatal-foetal-abnormality-irish-constitutional-law-and-mellet-v-ireland
#10
Fiona de Londras
Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)...
December 27, 2016: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030925/comparison-of-the-efficiency-of-two-commercial-kits-elfa-and-western-blot-in-estimating-the-phase-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-pregnant-women
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jacek Sroka, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Violetta Zając, Anna Sawczyn, Ewa Cisak, Jacek Karamon, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Iwona Bojar
Sera of 89 pregnant women were selected according to the results of ELFA IgM, IgG and avidity IgG, and tested with commercial tests IgM, IgG and avidity IgG Western Blot (WB) to compare the efficacy of both techniques in determining the phase of T. gondii infection. In total, 81 of 89 tested sera (91.0%) were classified as positive, both in the ELFA and WB tests for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies of class IgG, indicating a past infection, while the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma positive reactions associated with the antibodies of class IgM indicating a recent infection was much lower - 31...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028704/assessment-of-mercury-exposure-and-maternal-foetal-transfer-in-miniopterus-schreibersii-chiroptera-miniopteridae-from-southeastern-iberian-peninsula
#12
Fulgencio Lisón, Silvia Espín, Bárbara Aroca, José F Calvo, Antonio J García-Fernández
Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic and widely distributed metal that is bioaccumulated in insectivorous mammals and may cause adverse effects on the reproductive system. Bats are considered excellent Hg bioindicators due to their wide distribution, life span, trophic position, metabolic rate and food intake. However, few studies have analysed Hg residues in bats, and to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been made in the Iberian Peninsula. The main aim of this study was to undertake the first ever assessment of Hg exposure in Schreiber's bent-winged bats inhabiting a natural cave in the southeast of Spain...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024917/transposition-of-the-great-arteries-rationale-for-tailored-preoperative-management
#13
REVIEW
Pierre-Emmanuel Séguéla, François Roubertie, Bernard Kreitmann, Philippe Mauriat, Nadir Tafer, Zakaria Jalal, Jean-Benoit Thambo
As preoperative morbi-mortality remains significant, care of newborns with transposition of the great arteries is still challenging. In this review of the literature, we discuss the different treatments that could improve the patient's condition into the preoperative period. Instead of a standardized management, we advocate personalized care of these neonates. Considering the deleterious effects of hypoxia, special attention is given to the use of non-invasive technologies to assess oxygenation of the tissues...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019134/the-sex-of-the-foetus-affects-maternal-blood-glucose-concentrations-in-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#14
Sumudu N Seneviratne, José G B Derraik, Yannan Jiang, Lesley M E McCowan, Silmara Gusso, Wayne S Cutfield, Paul L Hofman
There is increasing evidence that the sex of the foetus may alter the maternal metabolic milieu during pregnancy. Following a randomized controlled trial of exercise in overweight and obese pregnant women, we assessed whether the sex of the foetus was associated with changes in maternal metabolism. Data were analysed on 74 randomized participants who completed the trial, including 38 mothers carrying males and 36 mothers carrying females. At 19 weeks of gestation, mothers carrying boys had higher blood glucose concentrations than those carrying girls (5...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003691/all-india-difficult-airway-association-2016-guidelines-for-the-management-of-unanticipated-difficult-tracheal-intubation-in-obstetrics
#15
Venkateswaran Ramkumar, Ekambaram Dinesh, Sumalatha Radhakrishna Shetty, Amit Shah, Pankaj Kundra, Sabyasachi Das, Sheila Nainan Myatra, Syed Moied Ahmed, Jigeeshu Vasishtha Divatia, Apeksh Patwa, Rakesh Garg, Ubaradka S Raveendra, Jeson Rajan Doctor, Dilip K Pawar, Singaravelu Ramesh
The various physiological changes in pregnancy make the parturient vulnerable for early and rapid desaturation. Severe hypoxaemia during intubation can potentially compromise two lives (mother and foetus). Thus tracheal intubation in the pregnant patient poses unique challenges, and necessitates meticulous planning, ready availability of equipment and expertise to ensure maternal and foetal safety. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for the safe management of the airway in obstetric patients...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994875/management-of-metastatic-thyroid-cancer-in-pregnancy-risk-and-uncertainty
#16
Christopher W Rowe, Kirsten Murray, Andrew Woods, Sandeep Gupta, Roger Smith, Katie Wynne
: Metastatic thyroid cancer is an uncommon condition to be present at the time of pregnancy, but presents a challenging paradigm of care. Clinicians must balance the competing interests of long-term maternal health, best achieved by iatrogenic hyperthyroidism, regular radioiodine therapy and avoidance of dietary iodine, against the priority to care for the developing foetus, with inevitable compromise. Additionally, epidemiological and cellular data support the role of oestrogen as a growth factor for benign and malignant thyrocytes, although communicating the magnitude of this risk to patients and caregivers, as well as the uncertain impact of any pregnancy on long-term prognosis, remains challenging...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994858/renal-tubular-dysgenesis-antenatal-ultrasound-scanning-and-molecular-investigations-in-a-saudi-arabian-family
#17
Mohamed H Al-Hamed, Wesam Kurdi, Nada Alsahan, Qaamariya Ambosaidi, Maha Tulbah, John A Sayer
Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a rare lethal disease affecting renal development before birth. RTD is manifested by anuria and severe hypotension resulting in oligohydramnios and birth defects known as Potter's syndrome. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in genes encoding components of the renin-angiotensin system (ACE, AGT, AGTR1 and REN) have been reported to cause RTD. A consanguineous family with a history of multiple stillbirths was investigated using prenatal ultrasound and molecular genetic analysis of an affected foetus...
December 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992666/lithium-toxicity-in-a-pregnant-woman
#18
Nasim Zamani, Maryam Paeezi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
Lithium is recommended in bipolar disorder and can be accompanied by significant toxicity in pregnant women. A 25-year-old single-gestation pregnant woman (28 weeks) was referred with suspicion of lithium toxicity. Serum lithium was 2.1 meq/L. Despite conservative therapy with intravenous fluids, lithium concentration increased to 5.0 meq/L 6 hr post admission mandating an emergent hemodialysis during which foetal heart rate decreased to 90 bpm. The gynaecologist ordered termination of pregnancy while the mother was still on hemodialysis...
December 19, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988319/unsaturated-plasma-phospholipids-are-consistently-lower-in-the-patients-diagnosed-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-throughout-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-metabolomics-study-of-chinese-pregnant-women-part-1
#19
Kai P Law, Xun Mao, Ting-Li Han, Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a milder degree of hyperglycaemia diagnosed during pregnancy that can lead to serious, long-term consequences for both mother and foetus. The pathophysiology of GDM is not fully understood. The number of pregnant women diagnosed with GDM has been steadily increasing, but effective screening tools for early risk stratification are still missing. The emerging field of metabolomics has the potential to provide new insights and as a result is increasingly being used in studies of GDM...
December 14, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974137/health-effects-associated-with-measured-levels-of-contaminants-in-the-arctic
#20
Pál Weihe, Fróði Debes, Jónrit Halling, Maria Skaalum Petersen, Gina Muckle, Jon Øyvind Odland, Alexey Dudarev, Pierre Ayotte, Éric Dewailly, Philippe Grandjean, Eva Bonefeld-Jørgensen
The Human Health Assessment Group has over the past decade recommended that effect studies be conducted in the circumpolar area. Such studies examine the association between contaminant exposure in the Arctic populations and health effects. Because foetuses and young children are the most vulnerable, effect studies are often prospective child cohort studies. The emphasis in this article is on a description of the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The main topics addressed are neurobehavioural, immunological, reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine and carcinogenic effect...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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