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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790266/clindamycin-to-reduce-preterm-birth-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
Mrutyunjaya B Bellad, Matthew K Hoffman, Ashalata A Mallapur, Umesh S Charantimath, Geetanjali M Katageri, Ganachari, Avinash Kavi, Umesh Y Ramdurg, Sheshidhar G Bannale, Amit Revankar, Nancy L Sloan, Bhalachandra Kodkany, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Richard J Derman
OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral Clindamycin reduces the risk of preterm birth in women with abnormal vaginal microflora as evidenced by a vaginal pH ≥5·0. DESIGN: Randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Rural southern India. POPULATION: Pregnant women with a singleton foetus between 13 0/7 weeks and 20 6/7 weeks. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited during prenatal visits in Karnataka India from October 2013 to July 2015...
May 22, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789915/a-potential-diagnostic-approach-for-foetal-long-qt-syndrome-developed-and-validated-in-children
#2
Arja Suzanne Vink, Irene M Kuipers, Rianne H A C M De Bruin-Bon, Arthur A M Wilde, Nico A Blom, Sally-Ann B Clur
In patients with Long-QT Syndrome (LQTS), mechanical abnormalities have been described. Recognition of these abnormalities could potentially be used in the diagnosis of LQTS, especially in the foetus where an ECG is not available and DNA-analysis is invasive. We aimed to develop and validate a marker for these mechanical abnormalities in children and to test its feasibility in foetuses as a proof of principle. We measured the myocardial contraction duration using colour Tissue Doppler Imaging (cTDI) in 41 LQTS children and age- and gender-matched controls...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773139/systemic-humoral-immunity-in-beef-bulls-following-therapeutic-vaccination-against-tritrichomonas-foetus
#3
Christopher Alling, D Owen Rae, Xiaojie Ma, Laura Neumann, L Gene Lollis, Elizabeth Steele, John Yelvington, Hemant K Naikare, Heather Stockdale Walden, John Crews, Raoul Boughton
The utility of therapeutic vaccination of bulls against Tritrichomonas foetus has been advocated in previous studies, but anecdotal reports suggest this practice does not clear infections and may additionally confound diagnostic testing by reducing parasite burdens below detectable limits. The objective of this study was to characterize the systemic humoral immune response to therapeutic vaccination in T. foetus-infected bulls over a period of four months using an indirect ELISA and to compare the dynamics of this response to culture and PCR results to establish the existence of a relationship (or lack thereof) between immunization and infection status...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773133/evaluation-of-tritrichomonas-foetus-infection-clearance-in-heifers-immunized-with-a-single-intravaginal-dose-of-formaldehyde-fixed-strain-b1-cells
#4
Florencia Gracia Martinez, Lumila Fuchs, Rosana Ramirez, Javier Breccia, Jorge Oyhenart
Vaccines against Tritrichomonas foetus have been shown to reduce the time of infection after natural or experimental exposure. The object of this study was to assess the protection against T. foetus infection conferred by a single vaginal instillation of formaldehyde fixed T. foetus cells. Aberdeen Angus virgin heifers were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 12 individuals to receive placebo or formaldehyde fixed T. foetus cells prepared following one of two procedures (formalin or freshly prepared solution) and six weeks later they were challenged with 106 T...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770435/fetal-rotation-during-vacuum-extractions-for-prolonged-labour-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Birgitte Heiberg Kahrs, Sana Usman, Tullio Ghi, Aly Youssef, Erik Andreas Torkildsen, Elsa Lindtjørn, Tilde Borch Østborg, Sigurlaug Benediktsdottir, Lis Brooks, Lotte Harmsen, Kjell Åsmund Salvesen, Cristoph C Lees, Torbjørn Moe Eggebø
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate fetal head rotation during vacuum extraction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study from November 2013 to July 2016 in seven European hospitals. Fetal head position was determined with transabdominal or transperineal ultrasound and categorized as occiput anterior (OA), occiput transverse (OT) or occiput posterior (OP) position. Main outcome was the proportion of fetuses rotating during vacuum extraction...
May 16, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769490/comparison-of-outcome-of-eclamptic-patient-following-vaginal-delivery-versus-caeserian-delivery-by-spinal-anaesthesia
#6
M A Hossain, R K Karmoker, M S Rahman, H O Rashid, S H Khan, M A Rahman
Eclampsia is a common problem in pregnancy in Bangladesh. It is a severe form of preeclampsia which affects 5 to 7% of pregnancies is a significant cause of maternal & neonatal morbidity & mortality. Pre-eclampsia when complicated with generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and/or coma is called eclampsia. The term eclampsia is derived from a Greek word, meaning "like a flash of lightening". It may occur quite abruptly, without any warning manifestations. Eclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality & morbidity as well as foetal loss worldwide, particularly in the third world...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768979/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticle-is-comparatively-safer-than-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-which-can-cause-profound-steroidogenic-effects-on-pregnant-mice-and-male-offspring-exposed-in-utero
#7
Nisha Bara, M Eshwarmoorthy, Kesavan Subaharan, Gautam Kaul
The increasing use of nanomaterials has naturally caused heightened concerns about their potential risks to human and animal health. We investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) on steroidogenesis in the corpus luteum (CL) of pregnant mice and testis of male offspring. Pregnant albino mice were exposed to ZnO NPs and MSN for 2 days on alternate days, gestation days 15-19. Hepatic injury marker enzymes increased in the higher concentration of NM-exposed mother mice, but histological examination revealed no changes in the placenta of pregnant mice, whereas testis of male offspring showed gross pathological changes...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765597/cancer-cell-transmission-via-the-placenta
#8
REVIEW
Mel Greaves, William Hughes
Cancer cells have a parasitic propensity in the primary host but their capacity to transit between individuals is severely restrained by two factors: a lack of a route for viable cell transfer and immune recognition in allogeneic, secondary recipients. Several examples of transmissible animal cancers are now recognised. In humans, the only natural route for transmission is via the haemochorial placenta which is permissive for cell traffic. There are three special examples of this occurring in utero : maternal to foetus, intraplacental twin to twin leukaemias and choriocarcinoma-extra-embryonic cells to mother...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763885/intrauterine-growth-restriction-affects-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-the-developing-guinea-pig-brain
#9
Mary Tolcos, Annie McDougall, Amy Shields, Yoonyoung Chung, Rachael O'Dowd, Ann Turnley, Megan Wallace, Sandra Rees
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. However, the effects of IUGR on the cerebellum are still to be fully elucidated. A major determinant of growth and development of the cerebellum is proliferation and subsequent migration of cerebellar granule cells. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in guinea pigs, results in abnormal cerebellar development due to deficits suggestive of impaired granule cell proliferation and/or migration...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740884/bovine-foetal-sex-determination-different-dna-extraction-and-amplification-approaches-for-efficient-livestock-production
#10
M Ristanic, Lj Stanisic, M Maletic, U Glavinic, V Draskovic, N Aleksic, Z Stanimirovic
Foetal sex determination using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in mammals is based on the amplification of gender-specific foetal DNA sequences circulating in maternal blood. The bovine synepitheliochorial placenta does not allow a direct contact between the trophoblast and the maternal blood, resulting in difficult passage of foetal DNA and, consequently, its very small amounts in maternal bloodstream. Circulating cell-free foetal DNA (ccffDNA) encompasses short nucleotide fragments (300-600 bp) in maternal circulation...
May 8, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740101/tissue-distribution-and-cell-tropism-of-brucella-canis-in-naturally-infected-canine-foetuses-and-neonates
#11
Tayse Domingues de Souza, Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho, Juliana Pinto da Silva Mol, João Vítor Menezes Lopes, Monique Ferreira Silva, Tatiane Alves da Paixão, Renato Lima Santos
Brucella canis infection is an underdiagnosed zoonotic disease. Knowledge about perinatal brucellosis in dogs is extremely limited, although foetuses and neonates are under risk of infection due to vertical transmission. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to determine tissue distribution and cell tropism of B. canis in canine foetuses and neonates. Diagnosis of B. canis in tissues of naturally infected pups was based on PCR and sequencing of amplicons, bacterial isolation, and immunohistochemistry, whose specificity was confirmed by laser capture microdissection...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721318/central-airway-obstruction-caused-by-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-in-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Samaneh Shafiee, Alan Adno, Bruce French, Cherynne Johansson, Anthony Frankel, Jonathan P Williamson
Malignancy complicates one in a thousand pregnancies. The most frequently diagnosed of these are breast, cervical, melanoma, ovarian, and haematological neoplasms. Tumours of respiratory origin are very uncommon during pregnancy. We present a case of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare type of primary airway tumour, diagnosed in a pregnant woman. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of tracheal ACC complicating pregnancy. We discuss potential barriers to timely diagnosis of malignancies during pregnancy and consider optimal management strategies, taking into account the potential harm to the mother and foetus in a field with a limited evidence base...
July 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717700/-establishing-a-screening-programme-in-denmark-for-foetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia
#13
Caroline Madsen, Kira Philipsen Prahm, Cecilia Nilsson, Lars Henning Pedersen, Morten Hanefeld Dziegiel, Morten Hedegaard
Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) can cause cerebral haemorrhage in newborns. FNAIT occurs in women, who do not have the thrombocyte type human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a and are carrying an HPA-1a positive foetus. Maternal antibodies can cause thrombocytopenia in the foetus or newborn. Antenatal screening for FNAIT can easily be integrated in the already existing national screening programme for rhesus immunisation. Prophylactic treatment with immunoglobulines for pregnancies at risk can prevent neonatal complications...
April 23, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717059/fed-exosome-extracellular-vesicles-and-cell-cell-communication-in-metabolic-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Isabella Samuelson, Antonio J Vidal-Puig
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a novel messaging system of the organism, mediating cell-cell and interorgan communication. Through their content of proteins and nucleic acids, as well as membrane proteins and lipid species, EVs can interact with and modulate the function of their target cells. The regulation of whole-body metabolism requires cross-talk between key metabolic tissues including adipose tissue (AT), the liver and skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the regulation of nutrient/energy allocation during pregnancy requires co-ordinated communication between the foetus and metabolic organs of the mother...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716747/mechanisms-of-the-effect-of-magnesium-salts-in-preeclampsia
#15
Delia I Chiarello, Reinaldo Marín, Fulgencio Proverbio, Paula Coronado, Fernando Toledo, Rocio Salsoso, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia
Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous pregnancy-specific syndrome associated with abnormal trophoblast invasion and endothelial dysfunction. Magnesium (Mg2+ ) level may be normal or decreased in women with preeclampsia. However, the use of Mg2+ salts, such as Mg2+ sulphate, are useful in reducing the pathophysiological consequences of preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia. Although the mechanism of action of this Mg2+ salt is not well understood, the available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of Mg2+ for the mother and foetus...
April 24, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710611/halogenated-flame-retardants-in-stranded-sperm-whales-physeter-macrocephalus-from-the-mediterranean-sea
#16
A Zaccaroni, R Andreini, S Franzellitti, D Barceló, E Eljarrat
In recent years, decline of marine mammals' populations and increased frequency of strandings have arised the interest on the role that pollution may have in these events. The present work aimed at quantifying levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and dechloranes (DECs) in tissues of 3 adult females and one foetus of sperm whales stranded in the Southern Adriatic Sea coasts (Italy). Results proved the presence of different flame retardants (FRs) in tissues of sperm whales, including various polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congeners (47, 99, 100, 154, entering the composition of PentaBDE mixture), hexabromocyclodecanes (HBCDs), Dec 602 and methoxylated polibrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs)...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702111/new-advances-in-scanning-microscopy-and-its-application-to-study-parasitic-protozoa
#17
REVIEW
Wanderley de Souza, Marcia Attias
Scanning electron microscopy has been used to observe and study parasitic protozoa for at least 40 years. However, field emission electron sources, as well as improvements in lenses and detectors, brought the resolution power of scanning electron microscopes (SEM) to a new level. Parallel to the refinement of instruments, protocols for preservation of the ultrastructure, immunolabeling, exposure of cytoskeleton and inner structures of parasites and host cells were developed. This review is focused on protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary relevance, e...
April 24, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699712/foetoplacental-epigenetic-changes-associated-with-maternal-metabolic-dysfunction
#18
Bredford Kerr, Andrea Leiva, Marcelo Farías, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Francisca Stolzenbach, Luis Silva, Luis Sobrevia
Metabolic-related diseases are attributed to a sedentary lifestyle and eating habits, and there is now an increased awareness regarding pregnancy as a preponderant window in the programming of adulthood health and disease. The developing foetus is susceptible to the maternal environment; hence, any unfavourable condition will result in foetal physiological adaptations that could have a permanent impact on its health. Some of these alterations are maintained via epigenetic modifications capable of modifying gene expression in metabolism-related genes...
April 12, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698746/for-submission-to-the-journal-of-gynaecology-obstetrics-and-human-reproduction
#19
Mélanie Korsakissok, Marion Groussolles, Odile Dicky, Corinne Alberge, Charlotte Casper, Corinne Azogui-Assouline
OBJECTIVE: To describe the morbidity and mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born from a Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) pregnancy treated using laser fetoscopy in Toulouse. POPULATION AND METHOD: All pregnancies with TTTS treated by laser fetoscopy in our centre were included. Antenatal and postnatal morbidity and neonatal morbidity were identified in the medical records retrospectively. The neurodevelopmental outcome was studied using Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) sent to the parents, an oral interview with the parents and with the child's doctor (last objective neurological examination, rehabilitation needs, learning disabilities)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691980/glucocorticoids-modulate-multidrug-resistance-transporters-in-the-first-trimester-human-placenta
#20
Phetcharawan Lye, Enrrico Bloise, Lubna Nadeem, William Gibb, Stephen J Lye, Stephen G Matthews
The placental multidrug transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) protect the foetus from exposure to maternally derived glucocorticoids, toxins and xenobiotics. During pregnancy, maternal glucocorticoid levels can be elevated by stress or exogenous administration. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids modulate the expression of ABCB1/P-gp and ABCG2/BCRP in the first trimester human placenta. Our objective was to examine whether dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol modulate first trimester placental expression of multidrug transporters and determine whether cytotrophoblasts or the syncytiotrophoblast are/is responsible for mediating these effects...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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