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infections in the immunocompromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454654/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-and-influenza-co-infection-in-immunocompetent-hosts-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Melisa M Shah, Eric I Hsiao, Carl M Kirsch, Amit Gohil, Supriya Narasimhan, David A Stevens
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is classically considered an illness of severely immunocompromised patients with limited host defenses. However, IPA has been reported in immunocompetent but critically ill patients. This report describes two fatal cases of pathologically confirmed IPA in patients with influenza in the intensive care unit. One patient had influenza B infection, whereas the other had influenza A H1N1. Both patients died despite broad-spectrum antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support...
February 2, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452950/dynamic-fungal-cell-wall-architecture-in-stress-adaptation-and-immune-evasion
#2
REVIEW
Alex Hopke, Alistair J P Brown, Rebecca A Hall, Robert T Wheeler
Deadly infections from opportunistic fungi have risen in frequency, largely because of the at-risk immunocompromised population created by advances in modern medicine and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This review focuses on dynamics of the fungal polysaccharide cell wall, which plays an outsized role in fungal pathogenesis and therapy because it acts as both an environmental barrier and as the major interface with the host immune system. Human fungal pathogens use architectural strategies to mask epitopes from the host and prevent immune surveillance, and recent work elucidates how biotic and abiotic stresses present during infection can either block or enhance masking...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447395/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-coronavirus-infection-in-children-the-role-of-viral-factors-and-an-immunocompromised-state
#3
Chikara Ogimi, Janet A Englund, Miranda C Bradford, Xuan Qin, Michael Boeckh, Alpana Waghmare
Background: Immunocompromised children might be predisposed to serious infections from human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including strains OC43, NL63, HKU1, and 229E; however, the virologic and clinical features of HCoV infection in immunocompromised children have not been compared to those in nonimmunocompromised children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of children who presented to Seattle Children's Hospital and in whom HCoV was detected by a multiplex respiratory polymerase chain reaction assay of a nasal sample between October 2012 and March 2016...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438132/successful-combination-therapy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-and-caspofungin-for-disseminated-fusariosis-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#4
Suguru Uemura, Akihiro Tamura, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Atsuro Saito, Sayaka Nakamura, Takahiro Fujiwara, Teppei Tahara, Aiko Kozaki, Kenji Kishimoto, Toshiaki Ishida, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Yasunori Muraosa, Katsuhiko Kamei, Yoshiyuki Kosaka
Disseminated fusariosis is a fatal infection in immunocompromised hosts. However, the optimal antifungal treatment for disseminated fusariosis has not yet been established. We report a case of disseminated fusariosis after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, presenting with multiple skin, lung, and kidney lesions and cerebrospinal fluid invasion. The combination therapy of liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin resolved disseminated fusariosis successfully.
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437814/isolated-splenic-mucormycosis-in-a-case-of-aplastic-anaemia
#5
Shefali K Sharma, Prasanth Balasubramanian, Bishan Radotra, Manphool Singhal
Mucormycosis, a rare opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised hosts, is caused by fungi of Mucorales family. It may be confined to the organs, such as rhinocerebral and pulmonary mucormycosis, or may cause disseminated infection. A 14-year-old boy presented to our clinic with fever and left upper quadrant abdominal pain, and on evaluation was found to have pancytopaenia, and imaging revealed ill-defined splenic collection with thrombus in the splenic vein. He was started on empirical intravenous antibiotics, followed by antifungals empirically as he did not show any improvement clinically...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432868/repurposing-niclosamide-for-intestinal-decolonization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#6
Haroon Mohammad, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Nader S Abutaleb, Mohamed N Seleem
Enterococci are commensal microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. Though normally innocuous to the host, strains of Enterococcus exhibiting resistance to vancomycin (VRE) have been associated with high rates of infection and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Decolonization of VRE represents a key strategy to curb infection in highly-susceptible patients. However, there is a dearth of decolonizing agents available clinically that are effective against VRE. The present study confirms that niclosamide, an anthelmintic drug, has potent antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant E...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426658/vaccination-in-immunocompromised-host-recommendations-of-italian-primary-immunodeficiency-network-centers-ipinet
#7
Baldassarre Martire, Chiara Azzari, Raffaele Badolato, Clementina Canessa, Emilia Cirillo, Vera Gallo, Simona Graziani, Tiziana Lorenzini, Cinzia Milito, Raffaella Panza, Viviana Moschese
Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with primary or secondary immunodeficiency. Prevention of infectious diseases by vaccines is among the most effective healthcare measures mainly for these subjects. However immunocompromised people vary in their degree of immunosuppression and susceptibility to infection and, therefore, represent a heterogeneous population with regard to immunization. To date there is no well- established evidence for use of vaccines in immunodeficient patients, and indications are not clearly defined even in high-quality reviews and in most of the guidelines prepared to provide recommendations for the active vaccination of immunocompromised hosts...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409685/starved-viable-but-non-culturable-vbnc-legionella-strains-can-infect-and-replicate-in-amoebae-and-human-macrophages
#8
Elisabeth Dietersdorfer, Alexander Kirschner, Barbara Schrammel, Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Hannes Stockinger, Regina Sommer, Julia Walochnik, Sílvia Cervero-Aragó
Legionella infections are among the most important waterborne infections with constantly increasing numbers of cases in industrialized countries, as a result of aging populations, rising numbers of immunocompromised individuals and increased need for conditioned water due to climate change. Surveillance of water systems is based on microbiological culture-based techniques; however, it has been shown that high percentages of the Legionella populations in water systems are not culturable. In the past two decades, the relevance of such viable but non-culturable (VBNC) legionellae has been controversially discussed, and whether VBNC legionellae can directly infect human macrophages, the primary targets of Legionella infections, remains unclear...
February 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409063/recovery-of-the-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-virulence-after-animal-passage-promotes-changes-in-the-antioxidant-repertoire-of-the-fungus
#9
Daniele G Castilho, Marina V Navarro, Alison F A Chaves, Patricia Xander, Wagner L Batista
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a cause of disease in healthy and immunocompromised persons in Latin America. The infection begins after inhalation of the fungal propagules and their thermo-dimorphic shift to yeast form. The development of the disease depends on factors associated with the host immune response and the infectious agent's characteristics, especially virulence. The oxidative stress response is an important virulence attribute in several fungi. In this study, we assessed the enzymatic repertoire of responses to oxidative stress in the Pb18 isolate with different degrees of virulence...
February 2, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408976/host-immune-responses-to-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Miwa Sasai, Ariel Pradipta, Masahiro Yamamoto
Toxoplasma gondii can infect homoeothermic animals including humans and cause lethal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. When hosts are infected with T. gondii, the cells induce immune responses against T. gondii. The pathogen infection is recognized by immune sensors that directly detect T. gondii structural components, leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells strongly activate T cells and induce development of Th1 cells and antigen-specific killer CD8 T cells...
February 2, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402878/challenges-with-intestine-and-multivisceral-re-transplantation-importance-of-timing-of-re-transplantation-and-optimal-immunosuppression
#11
Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Catherine Pennington, Jonathan Fridell, Burcin Ekser, Plamen Muhaylov, Richard Mangus
BACKGROUND Patients undergoing re-transplantation often receive high doses of immunosuppression, which may lead to an immunocompromised status of the recipient. This study investigates the outcomes after intestine/multivisceral re-transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical outcomes of 23 patients undergoing 24 re-transplantations at a single intestine transplant center were reviewed. Bone marrow suppression was used as a surrogate marker of immunocompromised status, and was defined as platelet count <50 k/mm3 and absolute lymphocyte count <200/mm³...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394295/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-rugose-small-colony-variants-evade-host-clearance-are-hyper-inflammatory-and-persist-in-multiple-host-environments
#12
Matthew J Pestrak, Sarah B Chaney, Heather C Eggleston, Sheri Dellos-Nolan, Sriteja Dixit, Shomita S Mathew-Steiner, Sashwati Roy, Matthew R Parsek, Chandan K Sen, Daniel J Wozniak
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes devastating infections in immunocompromised individuals. Once established, P. aeruginosa infections become incredibly difficult to treat due to the development of antibiotic tolerant, aggregated communities known as biofilms. A hyper-biofilm forming clinical variant of P. aeruginosa, known as a rugose small-colony variant (RSCV), is frequently isolated from chronic infections and is correlated with poor clinical outcome. The development of these mutants during infection suggests a selective advantage for this phenotype, but it remains unclear how this phenotype promotes persistence...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383735/transfusion-transmitted-and-community-acquired-babesiosis-in-new-york-2004-to-2015
#13
Jeanne V Linden, Melissa A Prusinski, Lauren A Crowder, Laura Tonnetti, Susan L Stramer, Debra A Kessler, Jennifer White, Beth Shaz, Danuta Olkowska
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is a potentially life-threatening zoonotic infection most frequently caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite Babesia microti. The pathogen is usually tickborne, but may also be transfusion or vertically transmitted. Healthy persons, including blood donors, may be asymptomatic and unaware they are infected. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for symptomatic disease. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All reported community-acquired babesiosis cases in New York from 2004 to 2015 were evaluated, enumerated, and characterized...
January 31, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383404/response-of-the-respiratory-mucosal-cells-to-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-microaggregate
#14
Lmar Babrak, Luiz E Bermudez
Mycobacterium avium: subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly infects immunocompromised individuals. Recently, we described an invasive phenotypic change MAH undergoes when incubated with lung airway epithelial host cells for 24 h, which is accompanied with microaggregate formation in vitro. The microaggregate phenotype also resulted in higher colonization in the lungs of mice early during infection. Previously, we identified genes highly regulated during microaggregate formation and further characterized the function of two highly upregulated bacterial proteins, mycobacterial binding protein-1 (MBP-1) and mycobacterial inversion protein-1 (MIP-1), which were found to be involved in binding and invasion of the respiratory mucosa...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380297/epidemiology-of-fungal-infections-in-china
#15
REVIEW
Min Chen, Yuan Xu, Nan Hong, Yali Yang, Wenzhi Lei, Lin Du, Jingjun Zhao, Xia Lei, Lin Xiong, Langqi Cai, Hui Xu, Weihua Pan, Wanqing Liao
With the increasing number of immunocompromised hosts, the epidemiological characteristics of fungal infections have undergone enormous changes worldwide, including in China. In this paper, we reviewed the existing data on mycosis across China to summarize available epidemiological profiles. We found that the general incidence of superficial fungal infections in China has been stable, but the incidence of tinea capitis has decreased and the transmission route has changed. By contrast, the overall incidence of invasive fungal infections has continued to rise...
January 11, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378709/antibiotic-susceptibility-and-genotyping-of-mycobacterium-avium-strains-that-cause-pulmonary-and-disseminated-infection
#16
Kei-Ichi Uchiya, Shoki Asahi, Kazunori Futamura, Hiromitsu Hamaura, Taku Nakagawa, Toshiaki Nikai, Kenji Ogawa
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) causes mainly disseminated infection in immunocompromised hosts, such as individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and pulmonary infection in immunocompetent hosts. However, many aspects of the different types of MAH infection remain unclear. We examined antibiotic susceptibility and genotype in MAH isolates from different hosts by performing drug susceptibility testing using eight antibiotics (clarithromycin, rifampicin, ethambutol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amikacin, ethionamide, and levofloxacin) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing analysis for 46 isolates from the sputa of HIV-negative patients with pulmonary MAH disease without previous antibiotic treatment and 30 isolates from blood of HIV-positive patients with disseminated MAH disease...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374464/disseminated-cryptococcosis-presenting-initially-as-lower-limb-cellulitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#17
Katrina Chakradeo, Y Y Paul Chia, Cheng Liu, David W Mudge, Janath De Silva
BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is an unusual presentation of disseminated cryptococcosis, a serious infection seen predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Disseminated cryptococcosis carries significant morbidity for transplant recipients, especially of the pulmonary and central nervous systems, and carries a high mortality risk. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 59-year-old renal transplant recipient who presented with bilateral lower leg cellulitis without other symptoms or signs...
January 27, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373264/disseminated-fusariosis-emerged-from-prolonged-local-genital-infection-after-cord-blood-transplantation
#18
Kohei Okada, Tomoyuki Endo, Daigo Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Saga, Takahide Ara, Reiki Ogasawara, Atsushi Yasumoto, Makoto Ibata, Mutsumi Takahata, Akio Shigematsu, Takeshi Kondo, Yasunori Muraosa, Toshifumi Nomura, Hiromi Kanno-Okada, Satoshi Hashino, Shinya Tanaka, Katsuhiko Kamei, Takanori Teshima
Disseminated fusariosis (DF) is a rare life threatening fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts. We herein report a case of a fatal DF mimicking varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection that was emerged from a localized genital infection during cord blood transplantation (CBT) in a patient with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The patient developed an ulcer following small painful vesicles mimics herpes simplex virus infection (HSV) on the glans penis before CBT, but a Fusarium species was identified. Despite administration of voriconazole, liposomal amphotericin B and granulocyte transfusion, the lesion was extended to extensive skin looked like VZV infection and the patients died after CBT...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372812/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-host-response-and-clinical-implications-in-lung-infections
#19
Nicholas M Maurice, Brahmchetna Bedi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major health challenge that causes recalcitrant multi-drug resistant infections, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. P. aeruginosa is an important cause of nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia characterized by high prevalence and fatality rates. P. aeruginosa also causes chronic lung infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Multi-drug and totally drug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa are increasing threats that contribute to high mortality in these patients...
January 26, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371578/ecoepidemiology-of-cryptococcus-gattii-in-developing-countries
#20
REVIEW
Patricia F Herkert, Ferry Hagen, Rosangela L Pinheiro, Marisol D Muro, Jacques F Meis, Flávio Queiroz-Telles
Cryptococcosis is a systemic infection caused by species of the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus. The disease may occur in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts and is acquired by the inhalation of infectious propagules present in the environment. Cryptococcus is distributed in a plethora of ecological niches, such as soil, pigeon droppings, and tree hollows, and each year new reservoirs are discovered, which helps researchers to better understand the epidemiology of the disease. In this review, we describe the ecoepidemiology of the C...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
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