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infections in the immunocompromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640744/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-polyomaviridae
#1
Ugo Moens, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber, Torbjörn Ramqvist, Mariet C W Feltkamp, Matthew D Daugherty, Ernst J Verschoor, Bernhard Ehlers, Ictv Report Consortium
The Polyomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses with circular dsDNA genomes of approximately 5 kbp. The family includes four genera whose members have restricted host range, infecting mammals and birds. Polyomavirus genomes have also been detected recently in fish. Merkel cell polyomavirus and raccoon polyomavirus are associated with cancer in their host; other members are human and veterinary pathogens. Clinical manifestations are obvious in immunocompromised patients but not in healthy individuals...
June 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631658/a-case-of-aspergillus-tracheobronchitis-in-a-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Ming-Li Yuan, Gang Yang, Hong-Ling Hu, Wen Yin, Wei-Jun Tan, Su Zhao
Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (AT) is a unique form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which is commonly found in patients with impaired immunity. Early-stage AT presents in a nonspecific way, both clinically and radiographically, thereby delaying diagnosis and resulting in a high mortality. Owing to impaired mucociliary clearance, previous nonfungal infections, and administration of corticosteroids, among other aspects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are predisposed to AT, although they are mostly immunocompetent...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628650/the-human-cytomegalovirus-glycoprotein-pul11-acts-via-cd45-to-induce-t-cell-il-10-secretion
#3
Jasmin Zischke, Panagiota Mamareli, Claudia Pokoyski, Ildar Gabaev, Sabine Buyny, Roland Jacobs, Christine S Falk, Matthias Lochner, Tim Sparwasser, Thomas F Schulz, Penelope C Kay-Fedorov
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen, infection with which can cause severe disease for immunocompromised individuals. The complex changes wrought on the host's immune system during both productive and latent HCMV infection are well known. Infected cells are masked and manipulated and uninfected immune cells are also affected; peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation is reduced and cytokine profiles altered. Levels increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which may be important for the establishment of HCMV infections and is required for the development of high viral titres by murine cytomegalovirus...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626345/fungal-dimorphism-and-virulence-molecular-mechanisms-for-temperature-adaptation-immune-evasion-and-in-vivo-survival
#4
REVIEW
Gregory M Gauthier
The thermally dimorphic fungi are a unique group of fungi within the Ascomycota phylum that respond to shifts in temperature by converting between hyphae (22-25°C) and yeast (37°C). This morphologic switch, known as the phase transition, defines the biology and lifestyle of these fungi. The conversion to yeast within healthy and immunocompromised mammalian hosts is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, the thermally dimorphic fungi upregulate genes involved with subverting host immune defenses. This review highlights the molecular mechanisms governing the phase transition and recent advances in how the phase transition promotes infection...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622640/clinical-course-and-core-variability-in-hbv-infected-patients-without-detectable-anti-hbc-antibodies
#5
Olympia E Anastasiou, Marek Widera, Jens Verheyen, Johannes Korth, Guido Gerken, Fabian A Helfritz, Ali Canbay, Heiner Wedemeyer, Sandra Ciesek
BACKGROUND: The presence of anti-HBc antibodies indicates direct encounter of the immune system with hepatitis B virus (HBV). OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study was to seek for anti-HBc negative but HBV replicating patients and analyze their clinical course and preconditions. STUDY DESIGN: From 1568 HBV-DNA positive patients, 29 patients (1.85%) tested negative for anti-HBc. The absence of anti-HBc could be confirmed in 19 patients using an alternative assay...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609444/identification-of-compounds-that-suppress-toxoplasma-gondii-tachyzoites-and-bradyzoites
#6
Yuho Murata, Tatsuki Sugi, Louis M Weiss, Kentaro Kato
Drug treatment for toxoplasmosis is problematic, because current drugs cannot eradicate latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii and can cause bone marrow toxicity. Because latent infection remains after treatment, relapse of infection is a problem in both infections in immunocompromised patients and in congenitally infected patients. To identify lead compounds for novel drugs against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a chemical compound library for anti-Toxoplasma activity, host cell cytotoxicity, and effect on bradyzoites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608842/talaromyces-marneffei-genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-reveal-mechanisms-for-environmental-adaptations-and-virulence
#7
REVIEW
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606696/targeted-gene-knockdown-validates-the-essential-role-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-in-cryptosporidium-parvum
#8
William H Witola, Xuejin Zhang, Chi Yong Kim
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan that can cause a life-threatening gastrointestinal syndrome in children and in immunocompromised adults. Currently, the only approved drug for treatment of Cryptosporidium infections in humans is nitazoxanide, but it is not effective in immunocompromised individuals or in children with malnutrition. This is compounded by the lack of genetic methods for studying and validating potential drug targets in the parasite. Therefore, in this study, we endeavoured to adapt the use of a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (morpholino) antisense approach to develop a targeted gene knockdown assay for use in C...
June 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605431/matrix-exopolysaccharides-the-sticky-side-of-biofilm-formation
#9
Eve Maunders, Martin Welch
The Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found ubiquitously within the environment and is recognised as an opportunistic human pathogen that commonly infects burn wounds and immunocompromised individuals, or patients suffering from the autosomal recessive disorder cystic fibrosis (CF). During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa is thought to form structured aggregates known as biofilms characterised by a self-produced matrix which encases the bacteria, protecting them from anti-microbial attack and the host immune response...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#10
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593058/yokenella-regensburgei-septicemia-in-a-chinese-farmer-immunosuppressed-by-hiv-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Xiangbo Chi, Min Liu, Yaokai Chen
Yokenella regensburgei is a member in the family Enterobacteriaceae and a few cases have been reported in immunocompromised hosts. Herein, we described a case of septicemia in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patient in South West China, which is the first reported case of Y. regensburgei infection in HIV-infected populations. We then reviewed the literature on all the reported cases of Y. regensburgei infection worldwide and presented some common features of them. Our case report and literature review will help increase the knowledge of the bacterium Y...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588869/mycobacterium-genavense-invading-the-bone-marrow-in-a-hiv-positive-patient
#12
Christianne Bourlon, Cesar Vargas-Serafín, Xavier López-Karpovitch
Nontuberculous mycobacteria infrequently cause disseminated infections in immunocompetent hosts. However, they are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old HIV-positive male presenting with lymphadenopathies and pancytopenia in whom disseminated infection, with bone marrow involvement by Mycobacterium genavense (M. genavense) was diagnosed.
June 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584995/precise-and-efficient-in-frame-integration-of-an-exogenous-gfp-tag-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-by-a-crispr-system
#13
Chi Zhang, Ling Lu
As one of the most common airborne fungal pathogenic species, Aspergillus fumigatus infection is the increasingly fatal threat to immunocompromised patients worldwide. Setting up an efficient live-cell pathogen-labeling system will give insight into the dynamic process of the pathogen invasion in host, which offers us opportunities to explore the pathogenesis of A. fumigatus. In this chapter, we have described an efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system, which enables a precise in situ tag-insertion of an exogenous GFP tag at the predicted site with or without marker insertion in A...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580237/combination-liposomal-amphotericin-b-posaconazole-and-oral-amphotericin-b-for-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-mucorales-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#14
Anthony Anderson, Dayna McManus, Sarah Perreault, Ying-Chun Lo, Stuart Seropian, Jeffrey E Topal
Mucormycosis is a life threatening infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. Mucormycosis can affect any organ system with rhino-orbital-cerebral and pulmonary infections being the most predominant infection types. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is rare and accounts for only 4-7% of all cases. Here, we present a case of invasive gastrointestinal mucormycosis in an immunocompromised host treated with systemic and topical anti-mold therapy.
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579869/management-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections-a-primer-for-clinicians
#15
REVIEW
P Brandon Bookstaver, Phillip L Mohorn, Ansal Shah, Lauren D Tesh, April M Quidley, Ravish Kothari, Christopher M Bland, Sharon Weissman
Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576330/first-report-of-two-cases-of-cryptococcosis-in-tripoli-libya-infected-with-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-present-in-the-urban-area
#16
M S Ellabib, Z A Krema, A A Allafi, M Cogliati
Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by the basidiomycetes yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii with high predilection to invade the central nervous system mainly in immunocompromised hosts. Skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation with contaminated materials. We report the first two Libyan cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients, in which one of them presented a secondary cutaneous involvement due to systemic dissemination...
May 30, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567042/hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-cytomegalovirus-natural-killer-cell-subsets-in-persistent-viral-infections
#17
REVIEW
Julia Pollmann, Alexander Rölle, Maike Hofmann, Adelheid Cerwenka
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are prominent examples of RNA and DNA viruses, respectively, that establish a persistent infection in their host. HCV affects over 185 million patients worldwide, who are at high risk for developing liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent breakthroughs in HCV therapy, using direct-acting antivirals have provided the opportunity to monitor natural killer (NK) cells after clearance of a chronic infection. There is now increasing evidence that the individual NK cell repertoire before infection is predictive for the course of disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560130/fatal-haemorrhagic-duodenal-mucormycosis-in-a-non-immunocompromised-host-a-case-report
#18
Simbarashe G Mungazi, Blessing Zambuko, David Muchuweti, Edwin G Muguti, Sizolwenkosi Mlotshwa
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the fungi of the Mucorales order of the class Zygomycetes. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is an uncommon, fatal condition accounting for only 7% of the cases. We present the case of a gastroduodenal mucormycosis presenting as recurrent massive hematemesis. We report this case to alert clinicians of this rare but fatal condition and to encourage further research into its pathogenesis and management.
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559937/the-role-of-nuclear-medicine-in-the-staging-and-management-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-infection-and-associated-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Hans C Klein, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mike Sathekge
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559528/disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#20
Joseph M Yabes, Aaron Farmer, Todd Vento
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC) has historically been described in the immunocompromised. The current epidemiologic research suggests that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections is increasing. We present a case of DMAC infection manifesting as hepatic granulomas in a 35-year-old immunocompetent female. This case suggests DMAC infection in a patient without traditional epidemiological risk factors.
April 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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