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infections in the immunocompromised host

Saira Ajmal, Maryam Mahmood, Omar Abu Saleh, Jenifer Larson, M Rizwan Sohail
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after influenza infection has been reported; however data are limited. PURPOSE: To describe Invasive fungal infections (IFI) associated with preceding respiratory viral infection at a large referral center. METHODS: We reviewed all IFI cases among patients with positive influenza and/or RSV nasopharyngeal/lower respiratory tract PCR from October 2015 to December 2016. Cases of pulmonary IFI were classified as possible, probable, and definite based on EORTC-MSG definitions...
April 7, 2018: Infection
B Fox, M A Berger, M Roncallo, L Pinoche, M E Ibáñez, Fraga S Gonzalez, Canigia L Fernández
Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is known as an uncommon cause of diarrhea and bacteremia in humans, usually in immunocompromised hosts. We report four cases of A. succiniciproducens bloodstream infection in different hosts, including a previously healthy man. We describe clinical features, antibiotics susceptibility profile, treatment and outcomes. Strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences which contributed to the extension of our MALDI-TOF MS database.
April 4, 2018: Anaerobe
Marie F Grill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens associated with myelopathy. Infectious myelopathies may be due to direct infection or parainfectious autoimmune-mediated mechanisms; this article focuses primarily on the former. RECENT FINDINGS: Some microorganisms exhibit neurotropism for the spinal cord (eg, enteroviruses such as poliovirus and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus), while others are more protean in neurologic manifestations (eg, herpesviruses such as varicella-zoster virus), and others are only rarely reported to cause myelopathy (eg, certain fungal and parasitic infections)...
April 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Ayushi Dixit, Rayhan Shariff, Sherleen Gandham, Ravi Bhavsar, Jazila Mantis, Victoria Vapnyar
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection of the pulmonary parenchyma seen in the immunocompromised host. The clinical presentation and radiographic findings are varied, with the latter ranging from normal to bilateral ground-glass opacities with cyst formation. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman with a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with multiple treated prior episodes of PCP, who was found to have an impressive presentation on high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT)...
January 29, 2018: Curēus
Jagadheesan Arunkumar, Swaminathan Rajarajan
Herpes simplex virus - 2 (HSV-2) causes lifelong persisting infection in the immunocompromised host and intermittent in healthy individuals with high morbidity and also increase the transmission of HIV. Acyclovir is widely used drug to treat HSV-2 infection but is unable to control viral latency and recurrent infection and prolonged usage lead to drug resistance. Plant-based bioactive compounds are the lead structural bio-molecules play an inevitable role as a potential antiviral agent with reduced toxicity...
March 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kerstin Hünniger, Oliver Kurzai
Fungal pathogens cause severe and life-threatening infections worldwide. The majority of invasive infections occurs in immunocompromised patients and is based on acquired as well as congenital defects of innate and adaptive immune responses. In many cases, these defects affect phagocyte functions. Consequently, professional phagocytes - mainly monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes - have been shown to act as central players in initiating and modulating antifungal immune responses as well as elimination of fungal pathogens...
March 27, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jay R Radke, James L Cook
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent studies of human adenoviral (HAdV) infections and to explore the mechanisms of viral persistence and the role of persistent infection in disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Human adenoviruses continue to be a problem in ophthalmology clinics and to cause periodic, limited, global outbreaks of respiratory disease. Ad14p1 remains in worldwide circulation and continues to result in miniepidemics of severe respiratory infections...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Mariam Garelnabi, Leanne M Taylor-Smith, Ewa Bielska, Rebecca A Hall, Daniel Stones, Robin C May
Cryptococcosis remains the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, caused primarily by the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Symptomatic cryptococcal infections typically affect immunocompromised patients. However, environmental exposure to cryptococcal spores is ubiquitous and most healthy individuals are thought to harbor infections from early childhood onwards that are either resolved, or become latent. Since macrophages are a key host cell for cryptococcal infection, we sought to quantify the extent of individual variation in this early phagocyte response within a small cohort of healthy volunteers with no reported immunocompromising conditions...
2018: PloS One
David Szalewski, Victoria S Hinrichs, Denise K Zinniel, Raúl G Barletta
The genus <i>Aspergillus</i> includes fungal species that cause major health issues of significant economic importance. These microorganisms are also the culprit for production of carcinogenic aflatoxins in grain storages, contaminating crops, and economically straining the production process. <i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i> is a very important pathogenic species, being responsible for high human morbidity and mortality on a global basis. The prevalence of these infections in immunosuppressed individuals is on the rise and physicians struggle with the diagnosis of these deadly pathogens...
March 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Iwona Bil-Lula, Mieczysław Woźniak
Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to multiple viral infections. Relevant interactions between co-infecting viruses might result from viral regulatory genes which trans-activate or repress the expression of host cell genes as well as the genes of any co-infecting virus. The aim of the current study was to show that the replication of human adenovirus 5 is enhanced by co-infection with BK polyomavirus and is associated with increased expression of proteins including early region 4 open reading frame 1 and both the large tumor antigen and small tumor antigen...
March 26, 2018: Archives of Virology
Mallory L Downie, Mohammad Alghounaim, Kristen M Davidge, Yvonne Yau, Thomas J Walsh, Elena Pope, Gino R Somers, Valerie Waters, Lisa A Robinson
Mucormycosis is a rare and potentially life-threatening infection, typically affecting immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of an adolescent boy who developed primary isolated cutaneous mucormycosis in the early period following kidney transplantation. Surgical excision was performed using intraoperative fungal staining to obtain clear margins, followed by topical and systemic antifungal therapy. A skin graft was then applied to the excised area with good healing, and the patient made a full recovery.
March 23, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
N Luplertlop
Scedosporiosis is an emerging fungal infection caused by Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium complex species (PSC). This pathogen has been drawn significant interest in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, the seriousness of its infection, associated with high mortality in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts and its cryptic ecology, distribution and epidemiology across the globe. These species complexes can be found in environments impacted by human. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics, mode of transmission, ecology, prevalence, global epidemiology of this fungal group in order to increase the awareness of among clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions with high endemic, as well as to promote further research on all of its aspects...
March 19, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Cheng Chen, Mukil Natarajan, David Bianchi, Georg Aue, John H Powers
We present a case of acute epiglottitis in a 16-year-old with severe aplastic anemia. He was admitted with a history suggestive of a severe upper airway infection and an absolute neutrophil count of 0 per cubic millimeter. Despite his immunocompromised state, he presented with the classical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis. We review here the presentation and comorbidities of immunocompromised patients with epiglottitis. In addition, the appropriate choice of empirical antibiotic therapy is important for the management of epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients, especially in the post- Haemophilus influenza type B vaccination era...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Saqib Walayat
Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium which is ubiquitous in nature. While it can cause line related infections in immunocompromised host, case reports of urinary tract infections, cutaneous infections, pulmonary infections, and meningoencephalitis have also been reported. We report the first case of Mycobacterium neoaurum line related bacteremia with concomitant pulmonary involvement. Our patient responded well to a nine week course of antimicrobials after removal of infected central line...
2018: IDCases
Andrej Steyer, Tilen Konte, Martin Sagadin, Marko Kolenc, Andrej Škoberne, Julija Germ, Tadeja Dovč-Drnovšek, Miha Arnol, Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, and they can affect humans of all age groups. In immunocompromised patients, norovirus infections can develop into chronic diarrhea or show prolonged asymptomatic virus shedding. Chronic norovirus infections are frequently reported for solid organ transplant recipients, with rapid intrahost norovirus evolution seen. In this report, we describe a case of chronic norovirus infection in an immunocompromised patient who was followed up for over 5 years...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luiz Guilherme Darrigo, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Clarisse Martins Machado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the characteristics of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in transplant recipients and immunocompromised hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cell/bone marrow grafts, organs, and blood transfusions can transmit CHIKV/DENV/ZIKV infections, which are clinically similar, resembling influenza-like illness. Laboratory confirmation is necessary. In the acute phase, RT-PCR is preferred. DENV and ZIKV serology may cross-react. Delayed engraftment and extended viruria is observed in ZIKV+/HSCT recipients, while longer viremia is observed in DENV+/HSCT patients...
March 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de Morais, Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños, Ana Carolina Alves, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Rogério Giuffrida, Fernando Paganini Listoni, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Rodrigo Garcia Motta, Shinji Takai, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro
Mycobacterium species and the virulence-associated proteins (vapA, vapB, and vapN genes) of Rhodococcus equi isolated from 330 lymph nodes of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) intended for human consumption were investigated. Thirty-six (10.9%) R. equi strains were isolated; 3.3% (n = 11/330) were from white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 7.6% (25/330) were from collared peccary lymph nodes. Among the 11 isolates of R. equi from the white-lipped peccaries, 90...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Valerie F L Yong, Min Min Soh, Tavleen Kaur Jaggi, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous "quorum sensing" (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones...
March 14, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Miri Shnayder, Aharon Nachshon, Benjamin Krishna, Emma Poole, Alina Boshkov, Amit Binyamin, Itay Maza, John Sinclair, Michal Schwartz, Noam Stern-Ginossar
Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in a lifelong infection due to its ability to establish latent infection, with one characterized viral reservoir being hematopoietic cells. Although reactivation from latency causes serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, our molecular understanding of latency is limited. Here, we delineate viral gene expression during natural HCMV persistent infection by analyzing the massive transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) atlas generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Kristine M Thompson, Brian T Kruse, Mary Ann S Hedges
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is usually associated with a surgical or traumatic wound. Clostridial myonecrosis is an uncommon but deadly infection that can develop in the absence of a wound and is often associated with occult gastrointestinal cancer or immunocompromise, or both. CASE REPORT: We report a case of catastrophic atraumatic Clostridium septicum infection in an immunocompromised host. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians most commonly associate necrotizing fasciitis with superinfection of an open wound...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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