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infections in the immunocompromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440395/microrna-mediated-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-are-dependent-on-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-monocytes
#1
Hong Chen, Yi Jin, Huan Chen, Ningxin Liao, Yan Wang, Jianghan Chen
Cryptococcosis is a significant invasive fungal infection with noteworthy morbidity and mortality that is usually caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) or Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii). Epidemiological studies have indicated that C. neoformans are more often reported in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It has been well established that the cytokine profile of the host markedly affects the outcome of cryptococcal disease, and the negative regulators of microRNAs(miRs or miRNAs) are critically important for immunomodulation...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440301/the-environmental-yeast-cryptococcus-liquefaciens-produces-capsular-and-secreted-polysaccharides-with-similar-pathogenic-properties-to-those-of-c-neoformans
#2
Glauber R de S Araújo, Gustavo J C Freitas, Fernanda L Fonseca, Paulo Emilio C Leite, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Wanderley de Souza, Daniel A Santos, Susana Frases
Invasive fungal infections, including cryptococcosis, are a growing threat to immunocompromised patients. Although Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main agents of human cryptococcosis, opportunistic infections by environmental species, such as C. liquefaciens, have been observed recently. The main Cryptococcus virulence factor is the production and secretion of polysaccharides (PS). Previously, we showed that both species produce PS of similar composition. Here, we examined the ultrastructure and biological activity of capsular and secreted PS from C...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425927/hepatitis-e-virus-genotypes-and-evolution-emergence-of-camel-hepatitis-e-variants
#3
REVIEW
Siddharth Sridhar, Jade L L Teng, Tsz-Ho Chiu, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the family Hepeviridae. This family includes two genera: Orthohepevirus, which infects terrestrial vertebrates, and Piscihepevirus, which infects fish. Within Orthohepevirus, there are four species, A-D, with widely differing host range...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421165/the-diverse-cellular-and-animal-models-to-decipher-the-physiopathological-traits-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-infection
#4
REVIEW
Audrey Bernut, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Diane Ordway, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus represents an important respiratory pathogen among the rapidly-growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Infections caused by M. abscessus are increasingly found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and are often refractory to antibiotic therapy. The underlying immunopathological mechanisms of pathogenesis remain largely unknown. A major reason for the poor advances in M. abscessus research has been a lack of adequate models to study the acute and chronic stages of the disease leading to delayed progress of evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of potentially active antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415759/kshv-co-infection-down-regulates-hpv16-e6-and-e7-from-cervical-cancer-cells
#5
Lu Dai, Yueyu Cao, Wei Jiang, Jovanny Zabaleta, Zhongmin Liu, Jing Qiao, Zhiqiang Qin
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the etiological agent of some malignancies such as cervical, oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) represents a principal causative agent of several human cancers arising in those immunocompromised patients. Interestingly, KSHV DNA has been detected in the oral cavity and the female genital tract, although its detection rate in cervical samples is very low and few reports are about KSHV/HPV co-infection. Therefore, it remains unclear about the role of KSHV co-infection in the development of HPV-related neoplasias...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409071/acute-cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-associated-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-hlh-in-an-immunocompetent-host-meeting-all-eight-hlh-2004-diagnostic-criteria
#6
Alex K Bonnecaze, Wesley G Willeford, Peter Lichstein, Jill Ohar
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and often deadly syndrome characterized by severe inflammation and cytokine dysregulation. The disease is defined by the HLH-2004 criteria, requiring five of eight findings, and is further differentiated into either primary or secondary causes. Primary HLH tends to be of genetic etiology, while secondary HLH results from other insults such as infection. Secondary HLH is most commonly associated with viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) associated HLH in the immunocompetent host is exceedingly rare and only documented in four case reports to date...
March 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406982/novel-decay-dynamics-revealed-for-virus-mediated-drug-activation-in-cytomegalovirus-infection
#7
Jessica Rose, Vincent C Emery, Deepali Kumar, Anders Asberg, Anders Hartmann, Alan G Jardine, Angelo A Bignamini, Atul Humar, Avidan U Neumann
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts and globally is one of the most important congenital infections. The nucleoside analogue ganciclovir (GCV), which requires initial phosphorylation by the viral UL97 kinase, is the mainstay for treatment. To date, CMV decay kinetics during GCV therapy have not been extensively investigated and its clinical implications not fully appreciated. We measured CMV DNA levels in the blood of 92 solid organ transplant recipients with CMV disease over the initial 21 days of ganciclovir therapy and identified four distinct decay patterns, including a new pattern exhibiting a transient viral rebound (Hump) following initial decline...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405629/human-norovirus-evolution-in-a-chronically-infected-host
#8
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Stefan Weichert, Anna Koromyslova, Martin Chan, Christian Schwerk, Ruediger Adam, Stefan Jennewein, Grant S Hansman, Horst Schroten
Typically, human noroviruses cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for 2 to 4 days. Often, the virions are shed in stool for several days after the symptoms recede, which in turn can lead to further contamination and transmission. Moreover, a number of reports have considered that chronic norovirus infections, i.e., lasting months and years, might even function as reservoirs for the generation of novel strains that can escape the herd immunity or have modified binding interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405337/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-associated-with-babesiosis
#9
Roshni Narurkar, Aleksandra Mamorska-Dyga, John C Nelson, Delong Liu
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is endemic in selected areas in North America. Babesia infection is commonly associated with anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia and elevated liver enzymes. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is known to be caused by parasitic and viral infections but has not been well characterized. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe two cases diagnosed with babesiosis triggering severe AIHA. One case had history of splenectomy, and the other was an elderly patient...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403373/different-inoculum-loads-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induce-reduction-of-myenteric-neurons-of-the-rat-colon
#10
Rafael Isolani Ferezin, Suellen Lais Vicentino-Vieira, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, João Luis Garcia, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant'Ana
Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an important health problem, especially in immunocompromised hosts. T. gondii uses the gut wall as an infection gateway, with tropism for muscular and nervous tissues causing intestinal alterations, including some in the enteric nervous system. This study aims at investigating the colon of rats infected by T. gondii in order to understand how the amount of oocysts influences in myenteric neuronal changes. Sixty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into six groups...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403220/a-derivative-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-binds-to-the-trimer-of-human-cytomegalovirus-and-inhibits-entry-into-fibroblasts-and-endothelial-cells
#11
Cora Stegmann, Daniel Hochdorfer, Diana Lieber, Narmadha Subramanian, Dagmar Stöhr, Kerstin Laib Sampaio, Christian Sinzger
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widely distributed herpesvirus that causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts. Inhibitors of viral DNA replication are available, but adverse effects limit their use. Alternative antiviral strategies may include inhibition of entry. We show that soluble derivatives of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-alpha), a putative receptor of HCMV, can inhibit HCMV infection of various cell types. A PDGFR-alpha-Fc fusion protein binds to and neutralizes cell-free virus particles at an EC50 of 10-30 ng/ml...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403059/mycobacterium-gordonae-skin-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#12
Bridget Freyne, Nigel Curtis
Mycobacterium gordonae is a slow growing, pigmented, nontuberculous mycobacterium. It is commonly associated with environmental contamination of clinical specimens, but it is also a recognized pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. We describe an immunocompetent child with a spontaneously occurring skin ulcer on the face caused by M. gordonae infection.
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401893/bacteriophages-from-expec-reservoirs-kill-pandemic-multidrug-resistant-strains-of-clonal-group-st131-in-animal-models-of-bacteremia
#13
Sabrina I Green, Jason T Kaelber, Li Ma, Barbara W Trautner, Robert F Ramig, Anthony W Maresso
Multi-drug resistant (MDR) enteric bacteria are of increasing global concern. A clonal group, Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131, harbors both MDR and a deadly complement of virulence factors. Patients with an immunocompromised system are at high risk of infections with these E. coli and there is strong epidemiologic evidence that the human intestinal tract, as well as household pets, may be a reservoir. Here, we examine if phages are an effective treatment strategy against this clonal group in murine models of bacteremia that recapitulate clinical infections...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400668/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-in-immunocompetent-hosts
#14
Manit K Gundavda, Hitendra G Patil, Vikas M Agashe, Rajeev Soman, Camilla Rodriques, Ramesh B Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were considered saprophytic organisms for many years but now are recognized as human pathogens. Although humans are routinely exposed to NTM, the rate of clinical infection is low. Such infections usually occur in the elderly and in patients who are immunocompromised. However, there has been an increasing incidence in recent years of infections in immunocompetent hosts. NTM infections in immunocompetent individuals are secondary to direct inoculation either contamination from surgical procedures or penetrating injuries rather than hematogenous dissemination...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400528/within-host-evolution-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-during-chronic-infection-of-seven-australasian-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#15
Linda T Viberg, Derek S Sarovich, Timothy J Kidd, James B Geake, Scott C Bell, Bart J Currie, Erin P Price
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive lung function decline. CF patients are at an increased risk of respiratory infections, including those by the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. Here, we compared the genomes of B. pseudomallei isolates collected between ~4 and 55 months apart from seven chronically infected CF patients. Overall, the B. pseudomallei strains showed evolutionary patterns similar to those of other chronic infections, including emergence of antibiotic resistance, genome reduction, and deleterious mutations in genes involved in virulence, metabolism, environmental survival, and cell wall components...
April 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387182/severe-dermatitis-associated-with-spontaneous-staphylococcus-xylosus-infection-in-rag-tpl2-mice
#16
Nicole V Acuff, Monica LaGatta, Tamas Nagy, Wendy T Watford
Staphylococcus xylosus is a commensal bacterium found on the skin and mucosal surfaces of SPF mice. S. xylosus is rarely pathogenic,most often causing skin lesions and dermatitis in immunocompromised mice, particularly those with impaired NADPHoxidase function. Here we report spontaneous infection with S. xylosus in Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice. Infection was characterized by the presence of alopecia, crusts, and scaly skin. S. xylosus was detected in the feces, skin, lymph nodes, and lungs of Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice and led to mortality or euthanasia due to humane endpoints...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376031/the-immune-response-to-epstein-barr-virus-and-implications-for-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder
#17
Olivia M Martinez, Sheri M Krams
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication in organ transplant recipients and is most often associated with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a common gammaherpes virus with tropism for B lymphocytes and infection in immunocompetent individuals is typically asymptomatic and benign. However, infection in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals can result in malignant B cell lymphoproliferations such as PTLD. EBV+ PTLD can arise following primary EBV infection, or because of reactivation of a prior infection, and represents a leading malignancy in the transplant population...
April 4, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375513/host-and-pathogen-biomarkers-for-severe-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#18
Carlos Juan, Carmen Peña, Antonio Oliver
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the leading causes of severe nosocomial infections, particularly affecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Here we review the current knowledge on the factors underlying the outcome of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections, including aspects related to the pathogen, the host, and treatment. Intestinal colonization and previous use of antibiotics are key risk factors for P. aeruginosa infections, whereas underlying disease, source of infection, and severity of acute presentation are key host factors modulating outcome; delayed adequate antimicrobial therapy is also independently associated with increased mortality...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369798/immunotherapy-for-infectious-diseases-in-haematological-immunocompromise
#19
REVIEW
Maria-Teresa Cutino-Moguel, Chris Eades, Katayoun Rezvani, Darius Armstrong-James
Opportunistic infections remain a major problem across a broad spectrum of immunocompromised haematological patient groups, with viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa all presenting significant challenges. Given the major difficulties in treating many of these infections with the currently available antimicrobial chemotherapeutic arsenal, and the rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance amongst all of the microbial kingdoms, novel strategies that enable host control or elimination of infection are urgently required...
May 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368496/characterization-of-human-cytomegalovirus-genome-diversity-in-immunocompromised-hosts-by-whole-genomic-sequencing-directly-from-clinical-specimens
#20
E Hage, G S Wilkie, S Linnenweber-Held, A Dhingra, N M Suárez, J J Schmidt, P Kay-Fedorov, E Mischak-Weissinger, A Heim, A Schwarz, T F Schulz, A J Davison, T Ganzenmueller
Background: Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow comprehensive studies of genetic diversity over the entire genome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a significant pathogen for immunocompromised individuals. Methods: NGS was performed on target-enriched sequence libraries prepared directly from a variety of clinical specimens (blood, urine, breast-milk, respiratory samples, biopsies and vitreous humor) obtained longitudinally or from different anatomical compartments from 20 HCMV-infected patients (renal transplant recipients, stem cell transplant recipients and congenitally infected children)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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