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infections in the immunocompromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029115/whole-genome-next-generation-sequencing-to-study-within-host-evolution-of-chronic-norovirus-infection-among-immunocompromised-patients
#1
J van Beek, M de Graaf, S L Smits, C M E Schapendonk, G M G M Verjans, H Vennema, A A van der Eijk, M V T Phan, M L Cotten, M P G Koopmans
Background: The genus Norovirus comprises large genetic diversity and new GII.4 variants emerge every 2-3 years. It is unknown in which host these new variants originate. Here we study whether prolonged shedders within the immunocompromised population could be a reservoir for newly emerging strains. Methods: Faecal samples (n=65) from immunocompromised patients (n=16) were retrospectively selected. Isolated viral RNA was enriched by hybridization with a custom norovirus whole-genome RNA bait set and deep sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024283/mechanisms-of-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-a-focus-on-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-interactions
#2
REVIEW
Aline Semblano Carreira Falcão, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Dorotéa de Fátima Lobato da Silva, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Luiz Fábio Magno Falcão, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread opportunistic herpesvirus that causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals. It has a high prevalence worldwide that is linked with socioeconomic factors. Similar to other herpesviruses, HCMV has the ability to establish lifelong persistence and latent infection following primary exposure. HCMV infects a broad range of cell types. This broad tropism suggests that it may use multiple receptors for host cell entry. The identification of receptors used by HCMV is essential for understanding viral pathogenesis, because these receptors mediate the early events necessary for infection...
October 11, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020942/peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-due-to-tsukamurella-pulmonis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Jun Suzuki, Teppei Sasahara, Masaki Toshima, Yuji Morisawa
BACKGROUND: Tsukamurella pulmonis is an aerobic gram-positive and rod-shaped organism that causes central catheter-related bloodstream infections in immunocompromised hosts. However, peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related bloodstream infections due to this organism have not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 48-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and diffuse large B cell lymphoma who received five courses of chemotherapy including rituximab , cyclophosphamide , doxorubicin hydrochloride , vincristine , and prednisone via a PICC...
October 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017236/host-innate-immunity-against-hepatitis-e-virus-and-viral-evasion-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Sangmin Kang, Jinjong Myoung
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections cause epidemic or sporadic acute hepatitis, which are mostly self-limiting. However, viral infection in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women may result in serious consequences such as chronic hepatitis and liver damages, mortality of the latter of which reaches up to 20~30%. Type I Interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral immunity is known to be the first line defense against virus infection. Upon HEV infection in the cell, the virus genome is recognized by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to rapid activation of intracellular signaling cascades...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988902/-evaluation-of-fusarium-spp-pathogenicity-in-plant-and-murine-models
#5
Consuelo M Forero-Reyes, Angela M Alvarado-Fernández, Ana M Ceballos-Rojas, Lady C González-Carmona, Melva Y Linares-Linares, Rubiela Castañeda-Salazar, Adriana Pulido-Villamarín, Manuel E Góngora-Medina, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino, María X Rodríguez-Bocanegra
The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice...
October 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983867/mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-infections-in-children-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Arick P Sabin, Patricia Ferrieri, Susan Kline
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infections in children with Mycobacterium abscessus complex represent a particular challenge for clinicians. Increasing incidence of these infections worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. Published medical literature was reviewed, with emphasis on material published in the past 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing availability of new diagnostic tools, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and custom PCRs, has provided unique insights into the subspecies within the complex and improved diagnostic certainty...
October 5, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974616/murine-cytomegalovirus-spreads-by-dendritic-cell-recirculation
#7
Helen E Farrell, Kimberley Bruce, Clara Lawler, Martha Oliveira, Rhonda Cardin, Nicholas Davis-Poynter, Philip G Stevenson
Herpesviruses have coevolved with their hosts over hundreds of millions of years and exploit fundamental features of their biology. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) colonize blood-borne myeloid cells, and it has been hypothesized that systemic dissemination arises from infected stem cells in bone marrow. However, poor CMV transfer by stem cell transplantation argues against this being the main reservoir. To identify alternative pathways for CMV spread, we tracked murine CMV (MCMV) colonization after mucosal entry. We show that following intranasal MCMV infection, lung CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DC) migrated sequentially to lymph nodes (LN), blood, and then salivary glands...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974017/nutritional-requirements-and-their-importance-for-virulence-of-pathogenic-cryptococcus-species
#8
REVIEW
Rhys A Watkins, Jason S King, Simon A Johnston
Cryptococcus sp. are basidiomycete yeasts which can be found widely, free-living in the environment. Interactions with natural predators, such as amoebae in the soil, are thought to have promoted the development of adaptations enabling the organism to survive inside human macrophages. Infection with Cryptococcus in humans occurs following inhalation of desiccated yeast cells or spore particles and may result in fatal meningoencephalitis. Human disease is caused almost exclusively by the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, which predominantly infects immunocompromised patients, and the Cryptococcus gattii species complex, which is capable of infecting immunocompetent individuals...
September 30, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948456/agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-transformation-an-efficient-tool-for-targeted-gene-disruption-in-talaromyces-marneffei
#9
Xing Xiao, Jiao Feng, Yu Li, Zhiwen Chen, Minglan Shi, Liyan Xi, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Junmin Zhang
Talaromyces marneffei causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. An efficient tool for genetic manipulation of T. marneffei will allow for increased understanding of this thermally dimorphic fungus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was optimized for targeted gene disruption in T. marneffei using the plasmid pDHt/acuD::pyrG. Molecular analyses of transformants were performed by PCR, Southern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 was more efficient at transformation than strain AGL-1 in ATMT via solid co-cultivation...
September 25, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942047/the-course-of-infection-caused-by-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-genotype-iii-in-immunocompetent-and-immunodeficient-mice
#10
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Martin Kváč
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. cuniculi III had very massive onset in immunocompetent host characterized by the presence of this parasite in all organs and tissues within one week after peroral infection. Encephalitozoonosis caused by E. cuniculi III had very progressive spreading into all organs within first week post inoculation in immunocompromised SCID mice and led to the death of the host...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939438/comparative-whole-genome-analysis-of-three-consecutive-salmonella-diarizonae-isolates
#11
Roman G Gerlach, Steffi Walter, Michael McClelland, Christiane Schmidt, Matthias Steglich, Rita Prager, Jennifer K Bender, Stephan Fuchs, Christoph Schoerner, Wolfgang Rabsch, Werner Lang, Jonathan Jantsch
Infections of very young children or immunocompromised people with Salmonella of higher subspecies are a well-known phenomenon often associated with contact to cold-blooded animals. We describe the molecular characterization of three S. enterica subsp. diarizonae strains, isolated consecutively over a period of several months from a hospital patient suffering from diarrhea and sepsis with fatal outcome. With the initial isolate the first complete genome sequence of a member of subsp. diarizonae is provided and based on this reference we revealed the genomic differences between the three isolates by use of next-generation sequencing and confirmed by phenotypical tests...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933846/inhibition-of-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-1-cdpk1-by-pyrazolopyrimidine-analogs-decreases-establishment-and-reoccurrence-of-central-nervous-system-disease-by-toxoplasma-gondii
#12
Florentine U Rutaganira, Jennifer Barks, Mary Savari Dhason, Qiuling Wang, Michael S Lopez, Shaojun Long, Joshua B Radke, Nathaniel G Jones, Amarendar R Maddirala, James W Janetka, Majida El Bakkouri, Raymond Hui, Kevan M Shokat, L David Sibley
Calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) is an essential enzyme in the opportunistic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. CDPK1 controls multiple processes that are critical to the intracellular replicative cycle of T. gondii including secretion of adhesins, motility, invasion, and egress. Remarkably, CDPK1 contains a small glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP binding pocket making it sensitive to ATP-competitive inhibitors with bulky substituents that complement this expanded binding pocket. Here we explored structure-activity relationships of a series of pyrazolopyrimidine inhibitors of CDPK1 with the goal of increasing selectivity over host enzymes, improving antiparasite potency, and improving metabolic stability...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933757/the-mechanisms-for-within-host-influenza-virus-control-affect-model-based-assessment-and-prediction-of-antiviral-treatment
#13
Pengxing Cao, James M McCaw
Models of within-host influenza viral dynamics have contributed to an improved understanding of viral dynamics and antiviral effects over the past decade. Existing models can be classified into two broad types based on the mechanism of viral control: models utilising target cell depletion to limit the progress of infection and models which rely on timely activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to control the infection. In this paper, we compare how two exemplar models based on these different mechanisms behave and investigate how the mechanistic difference affects the assessment and prediction of antiviral treatment...
July 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932346/insights-from-the-draft-genome-into-the-pathogenicity-of-a-clinical-isolate-of-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-em3
#14
Shicheng Chen, Marty Soehnlen, Frances P Downes, Edward D Walker
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is an emerging, healthcare-associated pathogen causing a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. We report the draft genome sequence of E. meningoseptica Em3, isolated from sputum from a patient with multiple underlying diseases. The genome has a length of 4,037,922 bp, a GC-content 36.4%, and 3673 predicted protein-coding sequences. Average nucleotide identity analysis (>95%) assigned the bacterium to the species E. meningoseptica. Genome analysis showed presence of the curli formation and assembly operon and a gene encoding hemagglutinins, indicating ability to form biofilm...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932040/a-rare-coexistence-of-aspergillosis-with-actinomycosis
#15
B Hari Vinay, Aditya Mohan, P Haritha, K Roja Lakshmi
Aspergillosis is a common systemic mycosis which affects immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Aspergillus spp. is wide spread in the environment in most countries, which renders an invasive form of disease. The presence conidial heads are pathognomic to aspergillosis in diagnosis. Actinomycosis is a subacute-to-chronic infection that causes sinus fistula, tract or abscess due to the invasion surrounding the soft tissue. Cervicofacial infection accounts for 50%-60% of all actinomycosis cases. The mandible and nasopharynx are the sites of predilection, but maxillary infection is rare...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928998/early-onset-prosthetic-joint-infection-and-bacteremia-due-to-campylobacter-fetus-subspecies-fetus
#16
Igor Dumic, Mohan Sengodan, Joni J Franson, Diego Zea, Poornima Ramanan
Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928729/high-throughput-genetic-screen-reveals-that-early-attachment-and-biofilm-formation-are-necessary-for-full-pyoverdine-production-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Donghoon Kang, Natalia V Kirienko
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a re-emerging, multidrug-resistant, opportunistic pathogen that threatens the lives of immunocompromised patients, patients with cystic fibrosis, and those in critical care units. One of the most important virulence factors in this pathogen is the siderophore pyoverdine. Pyoverdine serves several critical roles during infection. Due to its extremely high affinity for ferric iron, pyoverdine gives the pathogen a significant advantage over the host in their competition for iron. In addition, pyoverdine can regulate the production of multiple bacterial virulence factors and perturb host mitochondrial homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924031/cytoplasmic-copper-detoxification-in-salmonella-can-contribute-to-sodc-metalation-but-is-dispensable-during-systemic-infection
#18
Luke A Fenlon, James M Slauch
Salmonella Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S. Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922488/isolation-of-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-from-blood-cultures-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
Iker Falces-Romero, Emilio Cendejas-Bueno, María Pilar Romero-Gómez, Julio García-Rodríguez
Rhodotorula species have traditionally been considered as one of common non-virulent environmental inhabitant. They have emerged as an opportunistic pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised hosts and most infections have been associated with intravenous catheters in these patients. We review the isolates in blood cultures of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in our Hospital. We describe the demographic and clinical features of the cases and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Selected patients had an isolation of R...
September 18, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914348/immunogenicity-and-antimicrobial-effectiveness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-specific-bacteriophage-in-a-human-lung-in-vitro-model
#20
Joseph R Shiley, Kristen K Comfort, Jayne B Robinson
The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria is posing a serious threat to human health. For example, resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have resulted in untreatable and potentially lethal infections in both cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Due to the growing need for alternative treatment options, bacteriophage, or phage, therapy is gaining considerable attention. While previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of phage in combating persistent bacterial infections, there is currently a lack of knowledge regarding the host immunological response following phage exposure...
September 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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