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infections in the immunocompromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213274/natural-killer-cells-in-antifungal-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Stanislaw Schmidt, Lars Tramsen, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Invasive fungal infections are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as patients suffering from hematological malignancies or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantion. In addition, other populations such as human immunodeficiency virus-patients are at higher risk for invasive fungal infection. Despite the availability of new antifungal compounds and better supportive care measures, the fatality rate of invasive fungal infection remained unacceptably high...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213115/modulation-of-immune-signaling-and-metabolism-highlights-host-and-fungal-transcriptional-responses-in-mouse-models-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#2
Shiv D Kale, Tariq Ayubi, Dawoon Chung, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Andrew Leber, Ha X Dang, Saikumar Karyala, Raquel Hontecillas, Christopher B Lawrence, Robert A Cramer, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Incidences of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, an infection caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus, have increased due to the growing number of immunocompromised individuals. While A. fumigatus is reliant upon deficiencies in the host to facilitate invasive disease, the distinct mechanisms that govern the host-pathogen interaction remain enigmatic, particularly in the context of distinct immune modulating therapies. To gain insights into these mechanisms, RNA-Seq technology was utilized to sequence RNA derived from lungs of 2 clinically relevant, but immunologically distinct murine models of IPA on days 2 and 3 post inoculation when infection is established and active disease present...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212977/-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-complicated-by-concomitant-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-and-corynebacterium-striatum-bacteremia-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Yuta Katayama, Kouhei Kyo, Koji Iwato, Takeshi Okatani, Ryota Imanaka, Mitsuhiro Itagaki, Shinya Katsutani, Hideki Asaoku
A 54-year-old woman with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling. Subsequently, she suffered from chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) and received medical treatment. Fever developed on day 697 and resulted in a shock state at 10 h after the visit. Achromobacter xylosoxidans was detected in the initial blood culture on day 699. General conditions exacerbated even after the start of meropenem hydrate (MEPM, Meropen®) administration, with Corynebacterium striatum detected as an additional species in the initial blood culture on day 701...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212935/tetraspanin-cd63-bridges-autophagic-and-endosomal-processes-to-regulate-exosomal-secretion-and-intracellular-signaling-of-epstein-barr-virus-lmp1
#4
Stephanie N Hurwitz, Mujeeb R Cheerathodi, Dingani Nkosi, Sara B York, David G Meckes
The tetraspanin protein CD63 has been recently described as a key factor in extracellular vesicle (EV) production and endosomal cargo sorting. In the context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, CD63 is required for the efficient packaging of the major viral oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) into exosomes and other EV populations, and acts as a negative regulator of LMP1 intracellular signaling. Accumulating evidence has also pointed to intersections of the endosomal and autophagy pathways in maintaining cellular secretory processes, and as sites for viral assembly and replication...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208932/mouse-papillomavirus-infection-persists-in-mucosal-tissues-of-an-immunocompetent-mouse-strain-and-progresses-to-cancer
#5
Nancy M Cladel, Lynn R Budgeon, Karla K Balogh, Timothy K Cooper, Sarah A Brendle, Neil D Christensen, Todd D Schell, Jiafen Hu
Mouse papillomavirus has shown broad tissue tropism in nude mice. Previous studies have tested cutaneous infections in different immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse strains. In the current study, we examined mucosal infection in several immunocompetent and immunocompromised mouse strains. Viral DNA was monitored periodically by Q-PCR of lavage samples. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to determine viral capsid protein and viral DNA respectively. All athymic nude mouse strains showed active infections at both cutaneous and mucosal sites...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208743/latency-associated-expression-of-human-cytomegalovirus-us28-attenuates-cell-signaling-pathways-to-maintain-latent-infection
#6
Benjamin A Krishna, Emma L Poole, Sarah E Jackson, Martine J Smit, Mark R Wills, John H Sinclair
Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latent infection from early myeloid lineage cells constitutes a threat to immunocompromised or immune-suppressed individuals. Consequently, understanding the control of latency and reactivation to allow targeting and killing of latently infected cells could have far-reaching clinical benefits. US28 is one of the few viral genes that is expressed during latency and encodes a cell surface G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which, during lytic infection, is a constitutive cell-signaling activator...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205554/vapa-of-rhodococcus-equi-binds-phosphatidic-acid
#7
Lindsay M Wright, Emily M Carpinone, Terry L Bennett, Mary K Hondalus, Vincent J Starai
Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that primarily causes pneumonia in foals less than six months in age and immunocompromised people. Previous studies determined that the major virulence determinant of R. equi is the surface bound virulence associated protein A (VapA). The presence of VapA inhibits the maturation of R. equi-containing phagosomes and promotes intracellular bacterial survival, as determined by the inability of vapA deletion mutants to replicate in host macrophages...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204910/who-is-the-patient-at-risk-of-cmv-recurrence-a-review-of-the-current-scientific-evidence-with-a-focus-on-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Jan Styczynski
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an agent of global infection, and its acquisition in a population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity. After primary infection, CMV remains in the host cells in latent form, and it can reactivate in the case of immune suppression. The risk of CMV recurrence is dependent on the level of incompetency of the immune system, manifested as an impairment of T-cell immunity, including the presence and function of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This article presents data on the incidence of CMV recurrence in groups of immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and other groups of patients, based on a summary of reported data...
December 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202712/global-gene-expression-reveals-stress-responsive-genes-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-mycelia
#9
Hiroki Takahashi, Yoko Kusuya, Daisuke Hagiwara, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Kanae Sakai, Tohru Gonoi
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a human fungal pathogen that causes aspergillosis in immunocompromised hosts. A. fumigatus is believed to be exposed to diverse environmental stresses in the host cells. The adaptation mechanisms are critical for infections in human bodies. Transcriptional networks in response to diverse environmental challenges remain to be elucidated. To gain insights into the adaptation to environmental stresses in A. fumigatus mycelia, we conducted time series transcriptome analyses...
December 4, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190379/fungal-specific-cyp51-inhibitor-vt-1598-demonstrates-in-vitro-activity-against-candida-and-cryptococcus-species-endemic-fungi-including-coccidioides-species-aspergillus-species-and-rhizopus-arrhizus
#10
Nathan P Wiederhold, Hoja P Patterson, Bich Hue Tran, Christopher M Yates, Robert J Schotzinger, Edward P Garvey
Background: Invasive fungal infections, including those caused by yeasts, moulds and endemic organisms, can be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, those with multiple comorbidities and occasionally immunocompetent hosts. Current antifungal agents are often limited by drug toxicities, drug interactions or the development of resistance. VT-1598 is a novel tetrazole that has greater specificity for fungal Cyp51 than currently available triazoles and thus the potential for clinically significant drug interactions is reduced...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190284/listeria-monocytogenes-switches-from-dissemination-to-persistence-by-adopting-a-vacuolar-lifestyle-in-epithelial-cells
#11
Mounia Kortebi, Eliane Milohanic, Gabriel Mitchell, Christine Péchoux, Marie-Christine Prevost, Pascale Cossart, Hélène Bierne
Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a foodborne disease that poses serious risks to fetuses, newborns and immunocompromised adults. This intracellular bacterial pathogen proliferates in the host cytosol and exploits the host actin polymerization machinery to spread from cell-to-cell and disseminate in the host. Here, we report that during several days of infection in human hepatocytes or trophoblast cells, L. monocytogenes switches from this active motile lifestyle to a stage of persistence in vacuoles...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188697/the-immune-system-basis-of-so-much-health-and-disease-4-immunocytes
#12
Crispian Scully, Eleni A Georgakopoulou, Yazan Hassona
The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system, this article covers cells of the immune system (immunocytes)...
May 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186472/combination-therapy-with-neuraminidase-and-polymerase-inhibitors-in-nude-mice-infected-with-influenza-virus
#13
Maki Kiso, Tiago J S Lopes, Seiya Yamayoshi, Mutsumi Ito, Makoto Yamashita, Noriko Nakajima, Hideki Hasegawa, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Treatment of immunocompromised, influenza virus-infected patients with the viral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir often leads to the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Combination therapy with compounds that target different steps in the viral life cycle may improve treatment outcomes and reduce the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Here, we infected immunocompromised nude mice with an influenza A virus and treated them with neuraminidase (oseltamivir, laninamivir) or viral polymerase (favipiravir) inhibitors, or combinations thereof...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184409/nanomaterials-for-alternative-antibacterial-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Hassan A Hemeg
Despite an array of cogent antibiotics, bacterial infections, notably those produced by nosocomial pathogens, still remain a leading factor of morbidity and mortality around the globe. They target the severely ill, hospitalized and immunocompromised patients with incapacitated immune system, who are prone to infections. The choice of antimicrobial therapy is largely empirical and not devoid of toxicity, hypersensitivity, teratogenicity and/or mutagenicity. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria further intensifies the clinical predicament as it directly impacts public health due to diminished potency of current antibiotics...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181357/aspergillus-osteomyelitis-of-the-ribs-in-immunocompetent-hosts-report-of-two-rare-cases
#15
Aditya Menon, Camilla Rodrigues, Rajeev Soman, Ayesha Sunavala, Vikas M Agashe
Introduction: Osteomyelitis is rarely caused by fungi, most common among them being Candida. Aspergillus is a rare cause of fungal osteomyelitis mimics tuberculous osteomyelitis. Aspergillus osteomyelitis (AO) of the ribs is relatively uncommon, with an incidence rate of only 9% among all reported cases of AO. With mortality rates of almost 25%, AO is on the rise attributed to increasing numbers of immunocompromised individuals. There are very few case reports of AO of ribs in immunocompetent individuals...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177510/disseminated-cryptococcosis-presenting-as-miliary-lung-shadows-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#16
Javed Ismail, Muthu Chidambaram, Jhuma Sankar, Shipra Agarwal, Rakesh Lodha
Disseminated cryptococcosis is infrequent in immunocompetent children. Pulmonary and central nervous system are the commonly involved sites of infection in an immunocompromised host. We report a fatal case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent host presenting as fever of unknown origin with miliary shadows on chest radiograph, mimicking tuberculosis. In countries with the heavy burden of tuberculosis, a high index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis of its close mimics like disseminated cryptococcosis...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176582/listeria-monocytogenes-towards-a-complete-picture-of-its-physiology-and-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Lilliana Radoshevich, Pascale Cossart
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for a disease called listeriosis, which is potentially lethal in immunocompromised individuals. This bacterium, first used as a model to study cell-mediated immunity, has emerged over the past 20 years as a paradigm in infection biology, cell biology and fundamental microbiology. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of human listeriosis and L. monocytogenes biology. We describe unsuspected modes of hijacking host cell biology, ranging from changes in organelle morphology to direct effects on host transcription via a new class of bacterial effectors called nucleomodulins...
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172358/the-immune-system-basis-of-so-much-health-and-disease-3-adaptive-immunity
#18
Crispian Scully, Eleni A Georgakopoulou, Yazan Hassona
The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system; this article covers adaptive immunity. Clinical relevance: Dental clinicians need a basic understanding of the immune system as it underlies health and disease...
April 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172336/the-immune-system-basis-of-so-much-health-and-disease-2-innate-immunity
#19
Crispian Scully, Eleni A Georgakopoulou, Yazan Hassona
The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system, this article covering innate immunity. Clinical relevance: Modern dental clinicians need a basic understanding of the immune system as it underlies health and disease...
March 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164434/isolated-cutaneous-granuloma-caused-by-candida-glabrata-a-rare-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Yibin Fan, Weili Pan, Guizhen Wang, Youming Huang, Yali Li, Wei Fang, Xiaohua Tao
The incidence of candidiasis due to non-albicans Candida species (especially Candida glabrata) has significantly increased in recent decades. Candida glabrata often invades immunocompromised hosts and causes systemic or mucosal infections, whereas cutaneous infections are rarely reported. We present a rare case of cutaneous infection caused by C. glabrata and review all similar cases available in the PubMed database. A patient was admitted to the hospital with a 2-month history of a plaque on the face. Histopathological examination displayed typical infectious granulomas in the deep dermis, and the pathogen was finally confirmed as C...
November 22, 2017: Mycopathologia
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