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infections in the immunocompromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814908/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-presenting-with-lung-mass-report-of-7-cases-and-review-of-literature
#1
Kanet Kanjanapradit, Zdravko Kosjerina, Wiwatana Tanomkiat, Warangkana Keeratichananont, Siripen Panthuwong
Pulmonary cryptococcosis is commonly found in immunocompromised patients. This microorganism rarely infects immunocompetent individuals, and when it does, it causes mild symptoms. The radiological findings of this disease may involve an intrapulmonary mass that mimics lung tumor. The objective of this study was to review the clinicopathological information, radiological findings, and treatment of patients who presented with intrapulmonary mass due to cryptococcosis. This study collected data from 7 patients who were treated at Songklanagarind Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand, between 2009 and 2014...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814517/zinc-salts-block-hepatitis-e-virus-replication-by-inhibiting-the-activity-of-viral-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase
#2
Nidhi Kaushik, Chandru Subramani, Saumya Anang, Rajagopalan Muthumohan, Shalimar, Baibaswata Nayak, C T Ranjith-Kumar, Milan Surjit
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, self limiting hepatitis in normal individuals and leads to chronic disease in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women results in a more severe outcome, with the mortality rate going upto 30%. Though the virus usually causes sporadic infection, epidemics have been reported in developing and resource starved countries. No specific anti-viral exists against HEV. A combination of interferon and ribavirin therapy has been used to control the disease with some success...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814408/intrinsic-maturational-neonatal-immune-deficiencies-and-susceptibility-to-group-b-streptococcus-infection
#3
REVIEW
Michelle L Korir, Shannon D Manning, H Dele Davies
Although a normal member of the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiota, group B Streptococcus (GBS) can also occasionally be the cause of highly invasive neonatal disease and is an emerging pathogen in both elderly and immunocompromised adults. Neonatal GBS infections are typically transmitted from mother to baby either in utero or during passage through the birth canal and can lead to pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis within the first few months of life. Compared to the adult immune system, the neonatal immune system has a number of deficiencies, making neonates more susceptible to infection...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810045/scleral-buckle-infection-with-pseudallescheria-boydii
#4
Janice C Law, Mark P Breazzano, Dean Eliott
Pseudallescheria boydii is a ubiquitous fungus that infects soft tissues and is known to cause ocular disease, including keratitis and endophthalmitis, in rare cases. In immunocompromised hosts, P. boydii can disseminate to or from the eye and other organs with lethal consequences. Postoperative P. boydii infections have, in rare cases, complicated several types of ocular surgeries in immunocompetent patients, but never for a scleral buckle. The authors present the first case of an infected scleral buckle from P...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#5
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800119/new-insights-contributing-to-the-development-of-effective-vaccines-and-therapies-to-reduce-the-pathology-caused-by-hrsv
#6
REVIEW
Nicolás M S Gálvez, Jorge A Soto, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. Its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. It is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hRSV is due in part to the activity of several viral proteins that modulate the host immune response, enhancing a Th2-like pro-inflammatory state, with the secretion of cytokines that promote the infiltration of immune cells to the lungs, with consequent damage...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797733/propagation-of-respiratory-viruses-in-human-airway-epithelia-reveals-persistent-virus-specific-signatures
#7
Manel Essaidi-Laziosi, Francisco Brito, Sacha Benaoudia, Léna Royston, Valeria Cagno, Mélanie Fernandes-Rocha, Isabelle Piuz, Evgeny Zdobnov, Song Huang, Samuel Constant, Marc-Olivier Boldi, Laurent Kaiser, Caroline Tapparel
BACKGROUND: Leading etiologies of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses typically cause self-limited diseases, though severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses, respiratory enteroviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but due to the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797484/overview-of-treatment-approaches-for-fungal-infections
#8
REVIEW
Eva M Carmona, Andrew H Limper
Invasive fungal diseases cause high morbidity and mortality in an immunocompromised host. Antifungals are the drugs of choice and can be divided into 4 main groups: polyenes, azoles, echinocandins, and pyrimidine analogues. Each class has its specific mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, and pharmacokinetic and side effects. It is important to understand the precise use of the established and new antifungal agents to successfully manage these complex infections in an already tenuous and frail host. This article discusses the main characteristics, clinical uses, and secondary effects of the main antifungals used in clinical practice...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797245/fungal-biomarker-discovery-by-integration-of-classifiers
#9
João Pedro Saraiva, Marcus Oswald, Antje Biering, Daniela Röll, Cora Assmann, Tilman Klassert, Markus Blaess, Kristin Czakai, Ralf Claus, Jürgen Löffler, Hortense Slevogt, Rainer König
BACKGROUND: The human immune system is responsible for protecting the host from infection. However, in immunocompromised individuals the risk of infection increases substantially with possible drastic consequences. In extreme, systemic infection can lead to sepsis which is responsible for innumerous deaths worldwide. Amongst its causes are infections by bacteria and fungi. To increase survival, it is mandatory to identify the type of infection rapidly. Discriminating between fungal and bacterial pathogens is key to determine if antifungals or antibiotics should be administered, respectively...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793935/utilization-of-electronic-health-record-events-to-conduct-a-tuberculosis-contact-investigation-in-a-high-risk-oncology-unit
#10
Shauna C Usiak, Fabian A Romero, Patrice Schwegman, Violet Fitzpatrick, MaryAnn Connor, Janet Eagan, Arthur E Brown, Mini Kamboj
OBJECTIVE To describe the utilization of electronic medical data resources, including health records and nursing scheduling resources, to conduct a tuberculosis (TB) exposure investigation in a high-risk oncology unit. SETTING A 42-bed inpatient unit with a mix of surgical and medical patients at a large tertiary-care cancer center in New York City. PARTICIPANTS High-risk subjects and coworkers exposed to a healthcare worker (HCW) with cavitary smear positive lung TB. RESULTS During the 3-month exposure period, 270 patients were admitted to the unit; 137 of these (50...
August 10, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791878/role-of-ergothioneine-in-microbial-physiology-and-pathogenesis
#11
Bridgette M Cumming, Krishna C Chinta, Vineel P Reddy, Adrie Jc Steyn
SIGNIFICANCE: L-ergothioneine is synthesized in actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, methylobacteria and some fungi. In contrast to other low molecular weight redox buffers, glutathione and mycothiol, ergothioneine is primarily present as a thione rather than a thiol at physiological pH, which makes it resistant to autoxidation. Ergothioneine regulates microbial physiology and enables survival of the microbes under stressful conditions encountered in their natural environments. In particular, ergothioneine enables pathogenic microbes, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), to withstand hostile environments within the host to establish infection...
August 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782479/candida-infections-and-human-defensins
#12
Vania Polesello, Ludovica Segat, Sergio Crovella, Luisa Zupin
Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. Indeed Candida spp. are present as commensal flora in the host human body but they can switch into a pathological form inducing cellular damage and disease. Among Candida strains, C. albicans is the most prevalent in both mucosal and systemic infections. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence...
August 7, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782323/disseminated-cryptococcosis-mimicking-miliary-tuberculosis-with-generalized-lymphadenopathy-in-immunocompetent-host
#13
Sompal, Manoj Gupta, Shishir Soni, Rohit Mehtani, Anil Bharani
Cryptococcosis is a rare opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised host.1,2 Diagnosis of disseminated fungal infections is rarely thought of in immunocompetent hosts. In developing countries where tuberculosis is endemic, Cryptococcosis is often misdiagnosed as tuberculosis.3,4 A 14 year old girl, misdiagnosed as miliary tuberculosis with Koch's abdomen on ATT, presented with seizures. After extensive workup, she was found to have disseminated Cryptococcosis, not tuberculosis. This case report shows the similarity in presentation of tuberculosis and Cryptococcosis, and hence Cryptococcosis should always be kept as a differential diagnosis of tuberculosis...
June 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765557/the-voltage-dependent-anion-channels-vdac-of-mycobacterium-avium-phagosome-are-associated-with-bacterial-survival-and-lipid-export-in-macrophages
#14
Lia Danelishvili, Jessica J J Chinison, Tuan Pham, Rashmi Gupta, Luiz E Bermudez
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is associated with infection of immunocompromised individuals as well as patients with chronic lung disease. M. avium infects macrophages and actively interfere with the host killing machinery such as apoptosis and autophagy. Bacteria alter the normal endosomal trafficking, prevent the maturation of phagosomes and modify many signaling pathways inside of the macrophage by secreting effector molecules into the cytoplasm. To investigate whether M. avium needs to attach to the internal surface of the vacuole membrane before releasing efferent molecules, vacuole membrane proteins were purified and binding to the surface molecules present in intracellular bacteria was evaluated...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757888/rhodiolae-kirliowii-radix-et-rhizoma-and-crataegus-pinnatifida-fructus-extracts-effectively-inhibit-bk-virus-and-jc-virus-infection-of-host-cells
#15
San-Yuan Chen, Ru-Hsiou Teng, Meilin Wang, Pei-Lain Chen, Mien-Chun Lin, Cheng-Huang Shen, Chun-Nun Chao, Ming-Ko Chiang, Chiung-Yao Fang, Deching Chang
The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753224/aspergillus-fumigatus-protein-phosphatase-ppza-is-involved-in-iron-assimilation-secondary-metabolite-production-and-virulence
#16
Adriana Oliveira Manfiolli, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Stephen Dolan, Sean Doyle, Gary Jones, Diego M Riaño Pachón, Mevlüt Ulaş, Luke M Noble, Derek J Mattern, Axel A Brakhage, Vito Valiante, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Ozgur Bayram, Gustavo H Goldman
Metal restriction imposed by mammalian hosts during an infection is a common mechanism of defense to reduce or avoid the pathogen infection. Metals are essential for organism survival due to its involvement in several biological processes. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a disease that typically manifests in immunocompromised patients. A. fumigatus PpzA, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase Z (PPZ), has been recently identified as associated with iron assimilation. A. fumigatus has two high affinity mechanisms of iron acquisition during infection: reductive iron assimilation (RIA) and siderophore-mediated iron uptake...
July 28, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748841/prevalence-of-igg-antibodies-for-the-west-nile-virus-in-human-population-in-tripoli-libya
#17
Taher Shaibi, Walid K Saadawi, H Aghila, Badereddin B Annajar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: West Nile fever (WNF) is a mosquito-borne viral infection, circulated in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly Culex species. It is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites, and causes a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe men in go encepha- litis with some fatalities observed in older or immunocompromised patients. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission is considerably influenced by environmental conditions; and abundance of avifauna and mosquitoes...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747508/mutations-in-the-e2-glycoprotein-and-the-3-untranslated-region-enhance-chikungunya-virus-virulence-in-mice
#18
David W Hawman, Kathryn S Carpentier, Julie M Fox, Nicholas A May, Wes Sanders, Stephanie A Montgomery, Nathaniel J Moorman, Michael S Diamond, Thomas E Morrison
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal pain and inflammation and can persist for months to years after acute infection. Although studies in humans and experimentally-infected animals suggest that CHIKV infection persists in musculoskeletal tissues, the mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. To evaluate this further, we isolated CHIKV from the serum of persistently infected Rag1(-/-) mice at day 28. When inoculated into naïve WT mice, this persistently circulating CHIKV strain displayed a capacity for earlier dissemination and greater pathogenicity compared with the parental virus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736880/central-nervous-system-infection-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato-in-india-analysis-of-clinical-features-molecular-profile-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#19
Shayanki Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, Veenakumari H Bahubali, Netravathi Manjunath, Aarthi Swaminathan, Sayani Maji, Marimuthu Palaniappan, Satishchandra Parthasarathy, Nagarathna Chandrashekar
Cryptococcus gattii species complex has evolved as a pathogen in the last two decades causing infection among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to analyse the clinical features of CNS infection caused by C. gattii sensu lato, molecular and antifungal susceptibility profile of this pathogen. Cases diagnosed to have CNS cryptococcosis were included in the study. Cryptococcus recovered from patient's specimen was identified by standard protocol. Species confirmation, mating type and molecular type determination were performed by PCR based methods...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735154/accuracy-of-c-reactive-protein-as-a-bacterial-infection-marker-in-critically-immunosuppressed-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Vanessa Martins de Oliveira, Rafael Barberena Moraes, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Eliana Márcia Wendland
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a better understanding of the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a valid marker for the detection of bacterial infections in critically immunosuppressed patients. A high negative predictive value of CRP is also needed to rule out sepsis and bacterial infections in immunocompetent patients. However, few studies have evaluated the performance of CRP in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of CRP as a marker of infection in critically immunosuppressed patients...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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