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Validation concepts performance sports

Roger M Enoka, Jacques Duchateau
Despite flourishing interest in the topic of fatigue-as indicated by the many presentations on fatigue at the 2015 annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine-surprisingly little is known about its impact on human performance. There are two main reasons for this dilemma: (1) the inability of current terminology to accommodate the scope of the conditions ascribed to fatigue, and (2) a paucity of validated experimental models. In contrast to current practice, a case is made for a unified definition of fatigue to facilitate its management in health and disease...
March 25, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sebastian Schindler, Wanja Wolff
The direct assessment of explicit attitudes toward performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports, can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure automatic associations toward a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures). Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Jean-Benoît Morin, Pierre Samozino
Recent studies have brought new insights into the evaluation of power-force-velocity profiles in both ballistic push-offs (eg, jumps) and sprint movements. These are major physical components of performance in many sports, and the methods the authors developed and validated are based on data that are now rather simple to obtain in field conditions (eg, body mass, jump height, sprint times, or velocity). The promising aspect of these approaches is that they allow for more individualized and accurate evaluation, monitoring, and training practices, the success of which is highly dependent on the correct collection, generation, and interpretation of athletes' mechanical outputs...
March 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jia Han, Judith Anson, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Yu Liu
Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control...
2015: BioMed Research International
Joy C Macdermid, Karin Grävare Silbernagel
Synopsis Clinical measurement studies that address outcome evaluation for patients with tendinopathy should consider conceptual, clinical, practical, and measurement issues to guide the selection of valid measures. Clinical outcomes reported in research studies can provide benchmarks that assist with interpretation of scores during clinical decision making. Given the pathophysiology and functional impacts of tendinopathy, there is a need for outcome measures that assess physical impairments, activity performance, and patient-reported symptoms and function...
November 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Herbert W Marsh, Rhonda G Craven
We (Marsh & Craven, 1997) have claimed that academic self-concept and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other. Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2003) have claimed that self-esteem has no benefits beyond seductive pleasure and may even be detrimental to subsequent performance. Integrating these seemingly contradictory conclusions, we distinguish between (a) older, unidimensional perspectives that focus on global self-esteem and underpin the Baumeister et al. review and (b) more recent, multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and are the basis of our claim...
June 2006: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Irene R Faber, Paul M J Bustin, Frits G J Oosterveld, Marije T Elferink-Gemser, Maria W G Nijhuis-Van der Sanden
Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports, and (2) to evaluate these instruments regarding their validity for talent development. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect and SPORTDiscus (1990 to 31 March 2014)...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Andreas Thomas, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
The qualitative and quantitative determination of insulin from human blood samples is an emerging topic in doping controls as well as in other related disciplines (e.g. forensics). Beside the therapeutic use, insulin represents a prohibited, performance enhancing substance in sports drug testing. In both cases accurate, sensitive, specific, and unambiguous determination of the target peptide is of the utmost importance. The challenges concerning identifying insulins in blood by liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS) are detecting the basal concentrations of approximately 0...
November 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
Gamal Abdalla, Erin Moran-Atkin, Grace Chen, Michael A Schweitzer, Thomas H Magnuson, Kimberley E Steele
BACKGROUND: The concept of warming-up before a performance has been accepted across many disciplines including sports and music. In contrast, it is uncommon for a surgeon to "warm-up" prior to operating. OBJECTIVE: To date, few studies from various specialties have attempted to answer this question whether warm-up improved the intraoperative performance of the surgeon. However, there has not been a systematic review of these studies. The aim of our systematic review is to assess the effect of warming-up preoperatively on the laparoscopic performance of the surgeon...
June 2015: Surgical Endoscopy
Derek J Roberts, Jean-Francois Ouellet, Paul B McBeth, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Elijah Dixon, Chad G Ball
BACKGROUND: The "weekend warrior" engages in demanding recreational sporting activities on weekends despite minimal physical activity during the week. We sought to identify the incidence and injury patterns of major trauma from recreational sporting activities on weekends versus weekdays. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Alberta Trauma Registry comparing all adults who were severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) while engaging in physical activity on weekends versus weekdays between 1995 and 2009...
June 2014: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Jennifer Meggs, Christopher Ditzfeld, Jim Golby
The present study examines the relationship between individual differences in evaluative self-organisation and mental toughness in sport, proposing that motivation and emotional resiliency (facets of mental toughness) stem from differences in core self. A cross-sectional assessment of 105 athletes competing at a range of performance levels took part in an online study including measures of self-reported mental toughness (Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire; Sheard, M., Golby, J., & van Wersch, A. (2009). Progress towards construct validation of the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ)...
2014: Journal of Sports Sciences
Josko Sindik, Sasa Missoni
The purpose of this study is to adapt imported instruments for measuring multidimensional perfectionism in sport situations and perceived group cohesion, in terms of construct validity and reliability, as well as from the aspect of interpretability, addressed on Croatian samples of athletes. Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) and Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MSSP) are applied. The sample of 223 male Croatian athletes comprises of N1 = 107 top basketball players from nine teams in A-1 Croatian Basketball League and N2 = 116 recreational table tennis players who play in Table Tennis Organization of Clubs and Actives in Zagreb...
May 2013: Collegium Antropologicum
Natalie K Sandel, Mark R Lovell, Nathan E Kegel, Michael W Collins, Anthony P Kontos
Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes' self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS)...
2013: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Kimberly G Harmon, Jonathan A Drezner, Matthew Gammons, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Mark Halstead, Stanley A Herring, Jeffrey S Kutcher, Andrea Pana, Margot Putukian, William O Roberts
UNLABELLED: PURPOSE OF THE STATEMENT: ▸ To provide an evidence-based, best practises summary to assist physicians with the evaluation and management of sports concussion. ▸ To establish the level of evidence, knowledge gaps and areas requiring additional research. IMPORTANCE OF AN AMSSM STATEMENT: ▸ Sports medicine physicians are frequently involved in the care of patients with sports concussion. ▸ Sports medicine physicians are specifically trained to provide care along the continuum of sports concussion from the acute injury to return-to-play (RTP) decisions...
January 2013: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, Carlos M Tejero-González, Oscar L Veiga
BACKGROUND: One of the main problems of health in the first world is the increase of physical inactivity. In this respect, adolescence has been identified as a critic period with high decline of physical activity. Therefore, a relevant line of research is the understanding of this social phenomenon. The aim of this study was to design a scale to assess perceived barriers to physical activity on adolescents. METHODS: A convenience sample of 160 Spanish adolescents (84 girls), between 12 and 18 years old, was recruited for this study...
July 2012: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Kerry J Mann, Suzi Edwards, Eric J Drinkwater, Stephen P Bird
PURPOSE: Patellar tendon abnormality (PTA) on diagnostic imaging is part of the diagnostic criteria for patellar tendinopathy. PTA and altered landing strategies are primary risk factors that increase the likelihood of asymptomatic athletes developing patellar tendinopathy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the risk factors that are predictors of the presence and severity of a PTA in junior pre-elite athletes. METHODS: Ten junior pre-elite male basketball athletes with a PTA were matched with 10 athletes with normal patellar tendons...
March 2013: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
John O'Reilly, Stephen H S Wong
Methods of assessing soccer players' performance have developed significantly in recent times. The fitness profiles and skill levels of a prospective elite soccer player is a valuable resource for coaches in the process of identifying talent. Traditional means to measure aerobic fitness have centred on the 'aerobic capacity' or '&OV0312;O(2max)' test (also known as the maximal oxygen consumption test) but, over time, this has been shown not to be a sensitive measure for specific aspects of soccer in a match situation...
December 1, 2012: Sports Medicine
Ines Möller, Andreas Thomas, Philippe Delahaut, Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have frequently been confessed to be illicitly used in elite sports due to their endurance enhancing effects. Recently, peginesatide, the first representative of a new generation of ESAs, referred to as Erythropoietin (EPO)-mimetic peptides, obtained approval in the USA under the trade name Omontys(®) for the treatment of anaemic patients. Lacking sequence homology with EPO, it consists of a pegylated homodimeric peptide of approximately 45 kDa, and thus, specific approaches for the determination of peginesatide in blood were developed as conventional detection assays for EPO do not allow for the analysis of the EPO-mimetic peptides...
November 2012: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ignacio Pedrosa, Eduardo García-Cueto, Javier Suárez-Álvarez, Blanca Pérez Sánchez
Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6...
2012: Psicothema
A M Zagatto, C A Gobatto
The aim of this study was to verify the validity of the curvature constant parameter (W'), calculated from 2-parameter mathematical equations of critical power model, in estimating the anaerobic capacity and anaerobic work capacity from a table tennis-specific test. Specifically, we aimed to i) compare constants estimated from three critical intensity models in a table tennis-specific test (Cf); ii) correlate each estimated W' with the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD); iii) correlate each W' with the total amount of anaerobic work (W ANAER) performed in each exercise bout performed during the Cf test...
August 2012: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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