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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512524/promoting-the-multidimensional-character-of-scientific-reasoning
#1
William S Bradshaw, Jennifer Nelson, Byron J Adams, John D Bell
This study reports part of a long-term program to help students improve scientific reasoning using higher-order cognitive tasks set in the discipline of cell biology. This skill was assessed using problems requiring the construction of valid conclusions drawn from authentic research data. We report here efforts to confirm the hypothesis that data interpretation is a complex, multifaceted exercise. Confirmation was obtained using a statistical treatment showing that various such problems rank students differently-each contains a unique set of cognitive challenges...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511009/the-development-of-target-specific-pose-filter-ensembles-to-boost-ligand-enrichment-for-structure-based-virtual-screening
#2
Jie Xia, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Huabin Hu, Song Wu, Xiang Simon Wang
Structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) has become an indispensable technique for hit identification at the early stage of drug discovery. However, the accuracy of current scoring functions is not high enough to confer success to every targets thus remains to be improved. Precedently, we developed binary pose filter (PF) using knowledge derived from the protein-ligand interface of single X-ray structure of specific target. This novel approach had been validated as an effective way to improve ligand enrichment...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501362/mode-of-conception-does-not-appear-to-affect-placental-volume-in-the-first-trimester
#3
Sara J Churchill, Erica T Wang, Marcy Akhlaghpour, Ellen H Goldstein, Dina Eschevarria, Naomi Greene, Matthew Macer, Temeka Zore, John Williams, Margareta D Pisarska
OBJECTIVE: To study whether infertility treatments, including IVF and non-IVF fertility treatments, are associated with diseases of placental insufficiency in early gestation. First trimester placental volumes by ultrasound and chorionic villi weight during sampling (CVS) were performed to detect differences between pregnancies conceived spontaneously versus with fertility treatments. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Academic tertiary center...
May 10, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492549/enhanced-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-co-overexpressing-bdnf-and-vegf-in-a-rat-model-of-cardiac-arrest-induced-global-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Lili Zhou, Qingming Lin, Peng Wang, Lan Yao, Kahong Leong, Zhiqun Tan, Zitong Huang
Cardiac arrest-induced global cerebral ischemia injury (CA-GCII) usually leads to a poor neurological outcome without an effective treatment. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) may provide a potential cell-based therapy against neurologic disorders through induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To optimize the neuroprotective efficacy of BMMSCs further, in this study we have derived BMMSCs, which co-overexpress both BDNF and VEGF, and tested them for the treatment of CA-GCII in a rat model...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487646/human-inspired-eigenmovement-concept-provides-coupling-free-sensorimotor-control-in-humanoid-robot
#5
Alexei V Alexandrov, Vittorio Lippi, Thomas Mergner, Alexander A Frolov, Georg Hettich, Dusan Husek
Control of a multi-body system in both robots and humans may face the problem of destabilizing dynamic coupling effects arising between linked body segments. The state of the art solutions in robotics are full state feedback controllers. For human hip-ankle coordination, a more parsimonious and theoretically stable alternative to the robotics solution has been suggested in terms of the Eigenmovement (EM) control. Eigenmovements are kinematic synergies designed to describe the multi DoF system, and its control, with a set of independent, and hence coupling-free, scalar equations...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480231/an-interprofessional-curriculum-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-improves-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-appropriate-antimicrobial-use-and-collaboration
#6
Conan MacDougall, Brian S Schwartz, Lisa Kim, Mari Nanamori, Sharmin Shekarchian, Peter V Chin-Hong
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial use can threaten patient safety and is the focus of collaborative physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship teams. However, antimicrobial stewardship is not comprehensively taught in medical or pharmacy school curricula. Addressing this deficiency can teach an important concept as well as model interprofessional healthcare. METHODS: We created an antimicrobial stewardship curriculum consisting of an online learning module and workshop session that combined medical and pharmacy students, with faculty from both professions...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477340/a-neural-network-approach-for-fast-automated-quantification-of-dir-performance
#7
John Neylon, Yugang Min, Daniel A Low, Anand Santhanam
PURPOSE: A critical step in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) workflow is deformably registering the simulation CT with the daily or weekly volumetric imaging. Quantifying the deformable image registration accuracy under these circumstances is a complex task due to the lack of known ground-truth landmark correspondences between the source data and target data. Generating landmarks manually (using experts) is time-consuming, and limited by image quality and observer variability. While image similarity metrics (ISM) may be used as an alternative approach to quantify the registration error, there is a need to characterize the ISM values by developing a non-linear cost function and translate them to physical distance measures in order to enable fast, quantitative comparison of registration performance...
May 5, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472337/eeg-datasets-for-motor-imagery-brain-computer-interface
#8
Hohyun Cho, Minkyu Ahn, Sangtae Ahn, Moonyoung Kwon, Sung Chan Jun
BACKGROUND: Most investigators of brain computer interface (BCI) research believe that BCI can be achieved through induced neuronal activity from the cortex, but not by evoked neuronal activity. Motor imagery (MI) based BCI is one of the standard concepts of BCI, in that the user can generate induced activity by imagining motor movements. However, variations in performance over sessions and subjects are too severe to overcome easily; therefore, a basic understanding and investigation of BCI performance variation is necessary to find critical evidence of performance variation...
May 4, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472232/privacy-preserving-evaporative-cooling-feature-selection-and-classification-with-relief-f-and-random-forests
#9
Trang T Le, W Kyle Simmons, Masaya Misaki, Jerzy Bodurka, Bill C White, Jonathan Savitz, Brett A McKinney
Motivation: Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed...
May 4, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470244/a-novel-computational-model-based-on-super-disease-and-mirna-for-potential-mirna-disease-association-prediction
#10
Xing Chen, Zhi-Chao Jiang, Di Xie, De-Shuang Huang, Qi Zhao, Gui-Ying Yan, Zhu-Hong You
In recent years, more and more studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in various complex human diseases and could be regarded as important biomarkers for cancer detection in early stages. Developing computational models to predict potential miRNA-disease associations has become a research hotspot for significant reduction of experimental time and cost. Considering the various disadvantages of previous computational models, we proposed a novel computational model based on super-disease and miRNA for potential miRNA-disease association prediction (SDMMDA) to predict potential miRNA-disease associations by integrating known associations, disease semantic similarity, miRNA functional similarity, and Gaussian interaction profile kernel similarity for diseases and miRNAs...
May 4, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468679/validation-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-commitment-to-hip-protectors-c-hip-index-in-long-term-care-providers-of-british-columbia-canada-a-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Alexandra M B Korall, Judith Godin, Fabio Feldman, Ian D Cameron, Pet-Ming Leung, Joanie Sims-Gould, Stephen N Robinovitch
BACKGROUND: If worn during a fall, hip protectors substantially reduce risk for hip fracture. However, a major barrier to their clinical efficacy is poor user adherence. In long-term care, adherence likely depends on how committed care providers are to hip protectors, but empirical evidence is lacking due to the absence of a psychometrically valid assessment tool. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a convenience sample of 529 paid care providers. We developed the 15-item C-HiP Index to measure commitment, comprised of three subscales: affective, cognitive and behavioural...
May 3, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465406/helistroke-neurointerventionalist-helicopter-transport-for-interventional-stroke-treatment-proof-of-concept-and-rationale
#12
Ferdinand K Hui, Amgad El Mekabaty, Jacky Schultz, Kelvin Hong, Karen Horton, Victor Urrutia, Imama Naqvi, Shawn Brast, John K Lynch, Zurab Nadareishvili
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is increasingly recognized that time is one of the key determinants in acute stroke outcome when interventional stroke therapy is applied. With increasing device efficacy and understanding of imaging triage options, reducing pre-treatment time loss may be a critical component of improving interventional stroke outcomes for the population at large. Time sensitive procedures such as organ harvest have transported physicians to the patient site to improve time to procedure...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464923/enriching-the-international-clinical-nomenclature-with-chinese-daily-used-synonyms-and-concept-recognition-in-physician-notes
#13
Rui Zhang, Jialin Liu, Yong Huang, Miye Wang, Qingke Shi, Jun Chen, Zhi Zeng
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the entities in everyday clinical text are often expressed in a way that varies from how they are expressed in the nomenclature. Owing to lots of synonyms, abbreviations, medical jargons or even misspellings in the daily used physician notes in clinical information system (CIS), the terminology without enough synonyms may not be adequately suitable for the task of Chinese clinical term recognition. METHODS: This paper demonstrates a validated system to retrieve the Chinese term of clinical finding (CTCF) from CIS and map them to the corresponding concepts of international clinical nomenclature, such as SNOMED CT...
May 2, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464097/live-animal-assessments-of-rump-fat-and-muscle-score-in-angus-cows-and-steers-using-3-dimensional-imaging
#14
M J McPhee, B J Walmsley, B Skinner, B Littler, J P Siddell, L M Cafe, J F Wilkins, V H Oddy, A Alempijevic
The objective of this study was to develop a proof of concept for using off-the-shelf Red Green Blue-Depth (RGB-D) Microsoft Kinect cameras to objectively assess P8 rump fat (P8 fat; mm) and muscle score (MS) traits in Angus cows and steers. Data from low and high muscled cattle (156 cows and 79 steers) were collected at multiple locations and time points. The following steps were required for the 3-dimensional (3D) image data and subsequent machine learning techniques to learn the traits: 1) reduce the high dimensionality of the point cloud data by extracting features from the input signals to produce a compact and representative feature vector, 2) perform global optimization of the signatures using machine learning algorithms and a parallel genetic algorithm, and 3) train a sensor model using regression-supervised learning techniques on the ultrasound P8 fat and the classified learning techniques for the assessed MS for each animal in the data set...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448775/exploring-electronic-medical-record-and-self-administered-medication-risk-screening-tools-in-a-primary-care-clinic
#15
Mark J Makowsky, Ken Cor, Tat Wong
BACKGROUND: Electronic medical record (EMR) screening for indicators of medication risk could improve efficiency in identifying primary care clinic patients in need of clinical pharmacist care compared with patient self-reporting. OBJECTIVES: To (a) compare the performance of an EMR medication risk assessment questionnaire (MRAQ) with a self-administered (SA) MRAQ and (b) explore each tool's ability to predict indicators of health behavior, health status, and health care utilization...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448469/distributed-data-service-for-data-management-in-internet-of-things-middleware
#16
Ruben Cruz Huacarpuma, Rafael Timoteo de Sousa Junior, Maristela Terto de Holanda, Robson de Oliveira Albuquerque, Luis Javier García Villalba, Tai-Hoon Kim
The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) is closely related to a considerable increase in the number and variety of devices connected to the Internet. Sensors have become a regular component of our environment, as well as smart phones and other devices that continuously collect data about our lives even without our intervention. With such connected devices, a broad range of applications has been developed and deployed, including those dealing with massive volumes of data. In this paper, we introduce a Distributed Data Service (DDS) to collect and process data for IoT environments...
April 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447477/simultaneous-visualization-of-hydrogen-peroxide-and-water-concentrations-using-photofragmentation-laser-induced-fluorescence
#17
Kajsa Larsson, Marcus Aldén, Joakim Bood
A concept based on photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence (PFLIF) is for the first time demonstrated for simultaneous detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and water (H2O) vapor in various mixtures containing the two constituents in a bath of argon gas. A photolysis laser pulse at 248 nm dissociates H2O2 into OH fragments, whereupon a probe pulse, delayed 100 ns and tuned to an absorption line in the A(2)Σ(+) (v = 1) ← X(2)Π(v = 0) band of OH near 282 nm, induces fluorescence. The total OH fluorescence reflects the H2O2 concentration, while its spectral shape is utilized to determine the H2O concentration via a model predicting the ratio between the fluorescence intensities of the A(2)Σ(+) (v = 1) → X(2)Π(v = 1) and the A(2)Σ(+) (v = 0) → X(2)Π(v = 0) bands...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445486/a-metamodel-for-mobile-forensics-investigation-domain
#18
Abdulalem Ali, Shukor Abd Razak, Siti Hajar Othman, Arafat Mohammed, Faisal Saeed
With the rapid development of technology, mobile phones have become an essential tool in terms of crime fighting and criminal investigation. However, many mobile forensics investigators face difficulties with the investigation process in their domain. These difficulties are due to the heavy reliance of the forensics field on knowledge which, although a valuable resource, is scattered and widely dispersed. The wide dispersion of mobile forensics knowledge not only makes investigation difficult for new investigators, resulting in substantial waste of time, but also leads to ambiguity in the concepts and terminologies of the mobile forensics domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444867/urine-assay-for-tenofovir-to-monitor-adherence-in-real-time-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-as-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#19
H C Koenig, K Mounzer, G W Daughtridge, C E Sloan, L Lalley-Chareczko, G S Moorthy, S C Conyngham, A F Zuppa, L J Montaner, P Tebas
OBJECTIVES: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV infection. Adherence is critical for the success of PrEP, but current adherence measurements are inadequate for real-time adherence monitoring. We developed and validated a urine assay to measure tenofovir (TFV) to objectively monitor adherence to PrEP. METHODS: We developed a urine assay using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with high sensitivity/specificity for TFV that allowed us to determine TFV concentrations in log10 categories between 0 and 10 000 ng/mL...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436849/reverse-classification-accuracy-predicting-segmentation-performance-in-the-absence-of-ground-truth
#20
Vanya V Valindria, Ioannis Lavdas, Wenjia Bai, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Eric O Aboagye, Andrea G Rockall, Daniel Rueckert, Ben Glocker
When integrating computational tools such as automatic segmentation into clinical practice, it is of utmost importance to be able to assess the level of accuracy on new data, and in particular, to detect when an automatic method fails. However, this is difficult to achieve due to absence of ground truth. Segmentation accuracy on clinical data might be different from what is found through cross-validation because validation data is often used during incremental method development, which can lead to overfitting and unrealistic performance expectations...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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