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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213092/prediction-of-thyroid-c-cell-carcinogenicity-after-chronic-administration-of-glp1-r-agonists-in-rodents
#1
Willem van den Brink, Annette Emerenciana, Francesco Bellanti, Oscar Della Pasqua, Jan Willem van der Laan
Increased incidence of C-cell carcinogenicity has been observed for glucagon-like-protein-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists in rodents. It is suggested that the duration of exposure is an indicator of carcinogenic potential in rodents of the different products on the market. Furthermore, the role of GLP-1-related mechanisms in the induction of C-cell carcinogenicity has gained increased attention by regulatory agencies. This study proposes an integrative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) framework to identify explanatory factors and characterize differences in carcinogenic potential of the GLP-1r agonist products...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212963/clinician-reported-outcome-assessments-of-treatment-benefit-report-of-the-ispor-clinical-outcome-assessment-emerging-good-practices-task-force
#2
John H Powers, Donald L Patrick, Marc K Walton, Patrick Marquis, Stefan Cano, Jeremy Hobart, Maria Isaac, Spiros Vamvakas, Ashley Slagle, Elizabeth Molsen, Laurie B Burke
A clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) assessment is a type of clinical outcome assessment (COA). ClinRO assessments, like all COAs (patient-reported, observer-reported, or performance outcome assessments), are used to 1) measure patients' health status and 2) define end points that can be interpreted as treatment benefits of medical interventions on how patients feel, function, or survive in clinical trials. Like other COAs, ClinRO assessments can be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. A ClinRO assessment is conducted and reported by a trained health care professional and requires specialized professional training to evaluate the patient's health status...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210653/biologic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-partial-tears-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-a-current-concepts-review
#3
Ignacio Dallo, Jorge Chahla, Justin J Mitchell, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido, John A Feagin, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been established as the gold standard for treatment of complete ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in active, symptomatic individuals. In contrast, treatment of partial tears of the ACL remains controversial. Biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques are expanding in an attempt to regenerate and improve healing and outcomes of both the native ACL and the reconstructed graft tissue. PURPOSE: To review the biologic treatment options for partial tears of the ACL...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210243/a-basic-guide-to-real-time-pcr-in-microbial-diagnostics-definitions-parameters-and-everything
#4
REVIEW
Petr Kralik, Matteo Ricchi
Real time PCR (quantitative PCR, qPCR) is now a well-established method for the detection, quantification, and typing of different microbial agents in the areas of clinical and veterinary diagnostics and food safety. Although the concept of PCR is relatively simple, there are specific issues in qPCR that developers and users of this technology must bear in mind. These include the use of correct terminology and definitions, understanding of the principle of PCR, difficulties with interpretation and presentation of data, the limitations of qPCR in different areas of microbial diagnostics and parameters important for the description of qPCR performance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205601/virtual-human-as-a-new-diagnostic-tool-a-proof-of-concept-study-in-the-field-of-major-depressive-disorders
#5
Pierre Philip, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Patricia Sagaspe, Etienne De Sevin, Jérôme Olive, Stéphanie Bioulac, Alain Sauteraud
Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are promising software to communicate with patients but no study has tested them in the diagnostic field of mental disorders. The aim of this study was 1) to test the performance of a diagnostic system for major depressive disorders (MDD), based on the identification by an ECA of specific symptoms (the MDD DSM 5 criteria) in outpatients; 2) to evaluate the acceptability of such an ECA. Patients completed two clinical interviews in a randomized order (ECA versus psychiatrist) and filled in the Acceptability E-scale (AES) to quantify the acceptability of the ECA...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205307/segmentation-of-organs-at-risks-in-head-and-neck-ct-images-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#6
Bulat Ibragimov, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Accurate segmentation of organs-at-risks (OARs) is the key step for efficient planning of radiation therapy for head and neck (HaN) cancer treatment. In the work, we proposed the first deep learning-based algorithm, for segmentation of OARs in HaN CT images, and compared its performance against state-of-the-art automated segmentation algorithms, commercial software, and interobserver variability. METHODS: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-a concept from the field of deep learning-were used to study consistent intensity patterns of OARs from training CT images and to segment the OAR in a previously unseen test CT image...
February 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188198/best-practices-in-summative-assessment
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan D Kibble
The goal of this review is to highlight key elements underpinning excellent high-stakes summative assessment. This guide is primarily aimed at faculty members with the responsibility of assigning student grades and is intended to be a practical tool to help throughout the process of planning, developing, and deploying tests as well as monitoring their effectiveness. After a brief overview of the criteria for high-quality assessment, the guide runs through best practices for aligning assessment with learning outcomes and compares common testing modalities...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186843/risks-and-cough-aggravating-factors-in-prolonged-cough-epidemiological-observations-from-the-nagahama-cohort-study
#8
Hisako Matsumoto, Yumi Izuhara, Akio Niimi, Yasuharu Tabara, Tadao Nagasaki, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Kimihiko Murase, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Isao Ito, Shigeo Muro, Akihiro Sekine, Fumihiko Matsuda, Shinji Kosugi, Takeo Nakayama, Kazuo Chin, Michiaki Mishima
RATIONALE: Chronic cough hypersensitivity, a potentially important concept of chronic or prolonged cough, is featured by heightened cough response to low-intensity stimuli, which may be generated in the absence of airflow limitations or allergic conditions. However, there is little epidemiological evidence to support this. OBJECTIVES: In this large-scale community survey, we aimed to determine risks and cough-aggravating factors of prolonged cough, while focusing on serum IgE levels...
February 10, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179749/danish-translation-and-linguistic-validation-of-the-body-q-a-description-of-the-process
#9
Lotte Poulsen, Michael Rose, Anne Klassen, Kirsten K Roessler, Jens Ahm Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are increasingly being included in research and clinical practice to assess the patient point of view. Bariatric and body contouring surgery has the potential to improve or restore a patient's body image and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). A new PRO instrument, called the BODY-Q, has recently been developed specifically for this patient group. The aim of the current study was to translate and perform a linguistic validation of the BODY-Q for use in Danish bariatric and body contouring patients...
2017: European Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178144/an-elective-radiation-dose-of-46-gy-is-feasible-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treated-by-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-a-long-term-follow-up-result
#10
Tsung-Min Hung, Kang-Hsing Fan, Eric Yen-Chao Chen, Chien-Yu Lin, Chung-Jan Kang, Shiang-Fu Huang, Chun-Ta Liao, Shu-Hang Ng, Hung-Ming Wang, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang
The purpose of this study is to compare the treatment outcome of different radiation doses of elective neck irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).In total, 504 patients with nondisseminated NPC who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before radical IMRT between 2000 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into 2 groups based on the ENI dose: low ENI when the ENI dose was 46 Gy (n = 446) and high ENI when the ENI doses were 50 to 60 Gy (n = 58)...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174390/-surgical-regeneration-therapy-using-myoblast-sheets-for-severe-heart-failure
#11
Yoshiki Sawa
Heart failure is a life-threatening disorder worldwide, and the current end-stage therapies for severe heart failure are replacement therapies such as ventricular-assist devices and heart transplantation. Although these therapies have been reported to be useful, there are many issues in terms of the durability, complications, limited donors, adverse effect of continuous administration of immunosuppressive agents, and high costs involved. Recently, regenerative therapy based on genetic, cellular, or tissue engineering techniques has gained attention as a new therapy to overcome the challenges encountered in transplantation medicine...
January 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167336/trans-generation-enrichment-of-clozapine-responsiveness-trait-in-mice-using-a-subchronic-hypo-glutamatergic-model-of-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study
#12
Amir Krivoy, Irit Gil-Ad, Igor Tarasenko, Abraham Weizman, Michal Taler
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia patients who do not respond to clozapine treatment represent the most debilitating type of schizophrenia with unmet needs for novel interventions. To date there is no validated animal model for clozapine-refractory schizophrenia. METHODS: We used poor performance in the social preference (SP) test of C57/BL mice exposed to subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) as a correlate of negative signs of schizophrenia. Subsequently the mice were treated with clozapine and according to their SP they were defined as responding (i...
February 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163725/development-and-validation-of-a-pcr-elisa-for-the-diagnosis-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-infection-by-leishmania-leishmania-infantum
#13
Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso Medeiros, Luciana Inácia Gomes, Edward Oliveira, Carolina Senra Alves de Souza, Maria Vitória Mourão, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Letícia Helena Dos Santos Marques, Mariângela Carneiro, Ana Rabello
A kDNA PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (kDNA PCR-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) was developed. The detection limit of the reaction, precision measurements, and cut-off of the kDNA PCR-ELISA were defined in a proof-of-concept phase. A reference strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and a bank of 14 peripheral blood samples from immunocompetent patients with VL were characterized using techniques considered gold standards, and 11 blood samples obtained from healthy individuals of an endemic area were also assessed...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159514/self-assembling-complexes-between-binary-mixtures-of-lipids-with-different-linkers-and-nucleic-acids-promote-universal-mrna-dna-and-sirna-delivery
#14
Thibault Colombani, Pauline Peuziat, Laurence Dallet, Thomas Haudebourg, Mathieu Mével, Mathieu Berchel, Olivier Lambert, Damien Habrant, Bruno Pitard
Protein expression and RNA interference require efficient delivery of DNA or mRNA and small double stranded RNA into cells, respectively. Although cationic lipids are the most commonly used synthetic delivery vectors, a clear need still exists for a better delivery of various types of nucleic acids molecules to improve their biological activity. To optimize the transfection efficiency, a molecular approach consisting in modifying the chemical structure of a given cationic lipid is usually performed, but an alternative strategy could rely on modulating the supramolecular assembly of lipidic lamellar phases sandwiching the nucleic acids molecules...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158233/objective-monitoring-of-insecticide-treated-bednet-use-to-improve-malaria-prevention-smartnet-development-and-validation
#15
Paul J Krezanoski, Jeffrey I Campbell, Data Santorino, David R Bangsberg
Malaria is a serious health concern for three billion people worldwide, killing nearly 600,000 people a year. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are an effective and valuable tool for preventing malaria and hundreds of millions of ITNs have been distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, our current methods for measuring ITN use are inadequate to inform malaria prevention programs. The most common method, self-reported ITN use, is limited by 1) social desirability, 2) recall and 3) sampling bias...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155843/analysis-of-measurement-deviations-for-the-patient-specific-quality-assurance-using-intensity-modulated-spot-scanning-particle-beams
#16
Yongqiang Li, Wen Hsi
To analyze measurement deviations of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams, a commercial radiation dosimeter using 24 pin-point ionization chambers was utilized. Before clinical trial, the validations of radiation dosimeter as well as treatment planning system were executed. During clinical trial 165 measurements were performed on 36 patients enrolled. Two or three fields were used for each patient. Measurements were typically performed with the dosimeter placed at special regions of dose distribution along depth and lateral profiles...
February 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153543/adaptive-infinite-impulse-response-system-identification-using-modified-interior-search-algorithm-with-l%C3%A3-vy-flight
#17
Manjeet Kumar, Tarun Kumar Rawat, Apoorva Aggarwal
In this paper, a new meta-heuristic optimization technique, called interior search algorithm (ISA) with Lèvy flight is proposed and applied to determine the optimal parameters of an unknown infinite impulse response (IIR) system for the system identification problem. ISA is based on aesthetics, which is commonly used in interior design and decoration processes. In ISA, composition phase and mirror phase are applied for addressing the nonlinear and multimodal system identification problems. System identification using modified-ISA (M-ISA) based method involves faster convergence, single parameter tuning and does not require derivative information because it uses a stochastic random search using the concepts of Lèvy flight...
January 30, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152956/implementing-value-based-cancer-care-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-defining-breast-cancer-outcomes
#18
Tinisha L Mayo, Tracy E Spinks, Seohyun Lee, Carlos Hernando Barcenas, Benjamin D Smith, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Rosa F Hwang, Richard A Ehlers, Jesse C Selber, Ronald Stewart Walters, Debu Tripathy, Kelly Hunt, Thomas A Buchholz, Thomas W Feeley, Henry Mark Kuerer
: 16 Background: Value in healthcare (patient-centered outcomes achieved per dollar spent) unifies performance improvement goals with health outcomes of importance to patients. We describe the process through which value-based measures for breast cancer patients and dynamic capture of these metrics via our new electronic health record (EHR) were developed at our institution. METHODS: A review of the breast cancer literature was conducted on treatment options as well as expected outcomes and potential treatment complications...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152264/prediction-of-malignancy-by-a-radiomic-signature-from-contrast-agent-free-diffusion-mri-in-suspicious-breast-lesions-found-on-screening-mammography
#19
Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Daniel Paech, Philipp Kickingereder, Franziska Steudle, Wolfgang Lederer, Heidi Daniel, Michael Götz, Nils Gählert, Diana Tichy, Manuel Wiesenfarth, Frederik B Laun, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, David Bonekamp
PURPOSE: To assess radiomics as a tool to determine how well lesions found suspicious on breast cancer screening X-ray mammography can be categorized into malignant and benign with unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) mammography with diffusion-weighted imaging and T2 -weighted sequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From an asymptomatic screening cohort, 50 women with mammographically suspicious findings were examined with contrast-enhanced breast MRI (ceMRI) at 1.5T. Out of this protocol an unenhanced, abbreviated diffusion-weighted imaging protocol (ueMRI) including T2 -weighted, (T2 w), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and DWI with background suppression (DWIBS) sequences and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were extracted...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148234/assessing-the-validity-of-the-icecap-a-capability-measure-for-adults-with-depression
#20
Paul Mark Mitchell, Hareth Al-Janabi, Sarah Byford, Willem Kuyken, Jeff Richardson, Angelo Iezzi, Joanna Coast
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are increasingly important considerations in determining which mental health services are funded. Questions have been raised concerning the validity of generic health status instruments used in economic evaluation for assessing mental health problems such as depression; measuring capability wellbeing offers a possible alternative. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of the ICECAP-A capability instrument for individuals with depression...
February 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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