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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092680/utilizing-somatic-mutation-data-from-numerous-studies-for-cancer-research-proof-of-concept-and-applications
#1
D Amar, S Izraeli, R Shamir
Large cancer projects measure somatic mutations in thousands of samples, gradually assembling a catalog of recurring mutations in cancer. Many methods analyze these data jointly with auxiliary information with the aim of identifying subtype-specific results. Here, we show that somatic gene mutations alone can reliably and specifically predict cancer subtypes. Interpretation of the classifiers provides useful insights for several biomedical applications. We analyze the COSMIC database, which collects somatic mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as well as from many smaller scale studies...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089986/estimating-glomerular-filtration-rate-for-the-full-age-spectrum-from-serum-creatinine-and-cystatin-c
#2
Hans Pottel, Pierre Delanaye, Elke Schaeffner, Laurence Dubourg, Bjørn Odvar Eriksen, Toralf Melsom, Edmund J Lamb, Andrew D Rule, Stephen T Turner, Richard J Glassock, Vandréa De Souza, Luciano Selistre, Karolien Goffin, Steven Pauwels, Christophe Mariat, Martin Flamant, Natalie Ebert
BACKGROUND: We recently published and validated the new serum creatinine (Scr)-based full-age-spectrum equation (FAScrea) for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for healthy and kidney-diseased subjects of all ages. The equation was based on the concept of normalized Scr and shows equivalent to superior prediction performance to the currently recommended equations for children, adolescents, adults and older adults. METHODS: Based on an evaluation of the serum cystatin C (ScysC) distribution, we defined normalization constants for ScysC (QcysC = 0...
January 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088008/instruments-evaluating-the-quality-of-the-clinical-learning-environment-in-nursing-education-a-systematic-review-of-psychometric-properties
#3
REVIEW
Irene Mansutti, Luisa Saiani, Luca Grassetti, Alvisa Palese
BACKGROUND: The clinical learning environment is fundamental to nursing education paths, capable of affecting learning processes and outcomes. Several instruments have been developed in nursing education, aimed at evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environments; however, no systematic review of the psychometric properties and methodological quality of these studies has been performed to date. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were: 1) to identify validated instruments evaluating the clinical learning environments in nursing education; 2) to evaluate critically the methodological quality of the psychometric property estimation used; and 3) to compare psychometric properties across the instruments available...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079259/three-point-transfusion-risk-score-in-hepatectomy
#4
M Lemke, C H L Law, J Li, E Dixon, M Tun Abraham, R Hernandez Alejandro, S Bennett, G Martel, P J Karanicolas
BACKGROUND: Perioperative red blood cell transfusions are required in up to 23 per cent of patients undergoing hepatectomy. Previous research has developed three transfusion risk scores to assess risk of perioperative red blood cell transfusion. Here, the performance of these transfusion risk scores was evaluated in a multicentre cohort of patients who underwent hepatectomy and compared with that of a simplified transfusion risk score. METHODS: A database of patients undergoing hepatectomy at four specialized centres between 2008 and 2012 was developed...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078822/development-and-testing-of-a-grasper-for-notes-powered-by-variable-stiffness-pneumatic-actuation
#5
Michele Gabrio Antonelli, Pierluigi Beomonte Zobel, Francesco Durante, Fabio Gaj
BACKGROUND: In natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) the peritoneal cavity is reached through natural orifices (mouth, rectus and transvaginal duct), by means of little cuttings in the walls of hollow organs. Due to narrow spaces, NOTES needs robotic systems to assure operation/movement precision and patient safety. Variable stiffness actuation (VSA) assures both requirements. METHODS: The authors developed a grasper for NOTES, provided with VSA, to use as an end-effector for snail robot devices...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076641/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-checklist-5-pcl-5-and-life-events-checklist-5-lec-5-for-the-brazilian-context
#6
Eduardo de Paula Lima, Alina Gomide Vasconcelos, William Berger, Christian Haag Kristensen, Elizabeth do Nascimento, Ivan Figueira, Mauro Vitor Mendlowicz
Objective: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5 (PCL-5) and the Life Events Checklist 5 (LEC-5) for the Brazilian sociolinguistic context. Method: The adaptation process sought to establish conceptual, semantic, and operational equivalence between the original items of the questionnaire and their translated versions, following standardized protocols. Initially, two researchers translated the original version of the scale into Brazilian Portuguese...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075197/validation-of-an-established-prognostic-score-after-re-irradiation-of-recurrent-glioma
#7
Kerstin A Kessel, Josefine Hesse, Christoph Straube, Claus Zimmer, Friederike Schmidt-Graf, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Re-irradiation (Re-RT) is offered widely in clinical routine, and has been established as a key element in the treatment of recurrent gliomas. At our center, generally re-resection is performed widely by an experienced neurosurgical team. Thus, Re-RT mostly offered to patients with macroscopic residuals or irresectable lesions, is applied later compared to other centers. Therefore, we sought to validate the Combs Prognostic Score developed in 2012 using our independent patient cohort...
January 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070644/-patient-perspective-of-pain-assessment-by-nursing-personnel-qualitative-cross-sectional-study-on-use-of-the-nrs
#8
L Gerken, A Windisch, R Thalhammer, S Olwitz, E Fay, H Al Hussini, B Reuschenbach
BACKGROUND: The assessment of pain as a part of adequate pain management is an integral part of the clinical routine. Much research has been carried out concerning use, relevance and validity of different assessment scales; however, patients' perspective of pain assessment has not yet been studied in Germany. The aim of the present study was to collate patients' experiences regarding pain assessment based on the numeric rating scale (NRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was conducted as a qualitative cross-sectional study based on the grounded theory methodology by Strauss and Corbin...
January 9, 2017: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069357/control-strategies-for-drug-product-continuous-direct-compression-state-of-control-product-collection-strategies-and-startup-shutdown-operations-for-the-production-of-clinical-trial-materials-and-commercial-products
#9
Ahmad Almaya, Lawrence De Belder, Robert Meyer, Karthik Nagapudi, Hung-Ren Homer Lin, Ian Leavesley, Jayanthy Jayanth, Gurjit Bajwa, James DiNunzio, Anthony Tantuccio, Dan Blackwood, Admassu Abebe
Continuous Manufacturing (CM) has emerged in the pharmaceutical industry as a paradigm shift with significant advantages related to cost, efficiency, flexibility and higher assurance of quality. The inherent differences from batch processes justify examining the CM control strategy more holistically. This paper describes the current thinking for the control and implementation of CM, using the example of a direct compression process and taking into consideration the ICH Q10 definition of "state of control" and process validation requirements...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066963/phenotiki-an-open-software-and-hardware-platform-for-affordable-and-easy-image-based-phenotyping-of-rosette-shaped-plants
#10
Massimo Minervini, Mario Valerio Giuffrida, Pierdomenico Perata, Sotirios A Tsaftaris
Phenotyping is important to understand plant biology but current solutions are either costly, not versatile or difficult to deploy. To solve this problem, we present Phenotiki, an affordable system for plant phenotyping which, relying on off-the-shelf parts, provides an easy to install and maintain platform, offering an out-of-box experience for a well established phenotyping need: imaging rosette-shaped plants. The accompanying software (with available source code) processes data originating from our device seamlessly and automatically...
January 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063607/do-great-teams-think-alike-an-examination-of-team-mental-models-and-their-impact-on%C3%A2-team%C3%A2-performance
#11
Aimee K Gardner, Daniel J Scott, Kareem R AbdelFattah
BACKGROUND: Team mental models represent the shared understanding of team members within their relevant environment. Thus, team mental models should have a substantial impact on a team's ability to engage in purposeful and coordinated action. We sought to examine the impact of shared team mental models on team performance and to investigate if team mental models increase over time as teams continue to work together. METHODS: New surgery interns were assigned randomly to 1 of 10 teams...
January 4, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061328/calcium-hypothesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-brain-aging-a%C3%A2-framework-for-integrating-new-evidence-into-a-comprehensive-theory-of-pathogenesis
#12
(no author information available yet)
This article updates the Calcium Hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease and brain aging on the basis of emerging evidence since 1994 (The present article, with the subtitle "New evidence for a central role of Ca(2+) in neurodegeneration," includes three appendices that provide context and further explanations for the rationale for the revisions in the updated hypothesis-the three appendices are as follows: Appendix I "Emerging concepts on potential pathogenic roles of [Ca(2+)]," Appendix II "Future studies to validate the central role of dysregulated [Ca(2+)] in neurodegeneration," and Appendix III "Epilogue: towards a comprehensive hypothesis...
January 3, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060702/a-bayesian-nonparametric-model-for-disease-subtyping-application-to-emphysema-phenotypes
#13
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052483/natural-language-processing-to-ascertain-two-key-variables-from-operative-reports-in-ophthalmology
#14
Liyan Liu, Neal H Shorstein, Laura B Amsden, Lisa J Herrinton
PURPOSE: Antibiotic prophylaxis is critical to ophthalmology and other surgical specialties. We performed natural language processing (NLP) of 743 838 operative notes recorded for 315 246 surgeries to ascertain two variables needed to study the comparative effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in cataract surgery. The first key variable was an exposure variable, intracameral antibiotic injection. The second was an intraoperative complication, posterior capsular rupture (PCR), which functioned as a potential confounder...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048773/su-f-i-43-a-software-based-statistical-method-to-compute-low-contrast-detectability-in-computed-tomography-images
#15
M Chacko, S Aldoohan
PURPOSE: The low contrast detectability (LCD) of a CT scanner is its ability to detect and display faint lesions. The current approach to quantify LCD is achieved using vendor-specific methods and phantoms, typically by subjectively observing the smallest size object at a contrast level above phantom background. However, this approach does not yield clinically applicable values for LCD. The current study proposes a statistical LCD metric using software tools to not only to assess scanner performance, but also to quantify the key factors affecting LCD...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046892/su-g-brc-17-using-generalized-mean-for-equivalent-square-estimation
#16
S Zhou, Q Wu, Q Fan, Y Lei, S Li, X Li, R Ma, S Wang, X Wang, D Zheng, X Zhu, C Enke
PURPOSE: Equivalent Square (ES) is a widely used concept in radiotherapy. It enables us to determine many important quantities for a rectangular treatment field, without measurement, based on the corresponding values from its ES field. In this study, we propose a Generalized Mean (GM) type ES formula and compare it with other established formulae using benchmark datasets. METHODS: Our GM approach is expressed as ES=(w•fx^α+(1-w)•fy^α)^(1/α), where fx, fy, α, and w represent field sizes, power index, and a weighting factor, respectively...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043367/effectiveness-of-intrauterine-treatment-with-cephapirin-in-dairy-cows-with-purulent-vaginal-discharge
#17
N Tison, E Bouchard, L DesCôteaux, R C Lefebvre
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of cephapirin intrauterine treatment preceding a timed artificial insemination protocol in lactating dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharges (PVDs). Holstein dairy cows (n = 1247) from 18 herds were enrolled in a controlled randomized clinical trial. At 34 days in milk (DIM; ±7 days), cows had a genital examination (transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy, and uterine bacteriology). They were randomly assigned to either the control group (CONT, no treatment) or the treatment group (CEPH) consisting of 1 intrauterine infusion of 500-mg cephapirin benzathine (RCL) (Metricure, Merck Animal Health, Montreal, Canada) regardless of the uterine health status...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042844/sealdh-ii-an-autonomous-holistically-controlled-first-principles-tdlas-hygrometer-for-field-and-airborne-applications-design-setup-accuracy-stability-stress-test
#18
Bernhard Buchholz, Sören Kallweit, Volker Ebert
Instrument operation in harsh environments often significantly impacts the trust level of measurement data. While commercial instrument manufacturers clearly define the deployment conditions to achieve trustworthy data in typical standard applications, it is frequently unavoidable in scientific field applications to operate instruments outside these commercial standard application specifications. Scientific instrumentation, however, is employing cutting-edge technology and often highly optimized but also lacks long-term field tests to assess the field vs...
December 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039857/consistent-low-contrast-detectability-for-variable-patient-sizes-and-corresponding-dose-in-abdominal-ct
#19
Yifang Zhou, Jessica Nute, Alexander Scott, Christina Lee
PURPOSE: For CT dose optimization, one needs to address two important questions. The first is how various lesion specific detection tasks demand different patient doses for the same patient. The second is how the variation of the patient size requires different patient doses for the same lesion detection task. In this study, we attempted to find quantitative solutions to these questions by utilizing a wide range of abdomen phantoms. METHODS: A simplified model with a monochromatic fan-beam passing through a bowtie filter and an elliptical object was proposed...
December 31, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033626/-overview-and-introduction-of-a-treatment-concept-for-postoperative-care-and-mobilisation-after-free-flap-transplantation-in-the-lower-extremity
#20
M Cerny, J-T Schantz, H Erne, D Schmauss, R E Giunta, H-G Machens, T Schenck
Introduction: Free flap transplants for soft tissue reconstruction in the lower extremity are associated with a higher rate of complications compared with other areas. Mobilisation and the resulting hydrostatic pressure put strain on the flaps. In general, these effects are countered by slowly increasing hydrostatic pressure with the leg being compressed by elastic bandages. These postoperative regimes are also called dangling procedures or "flap training", but are not scientifically validated and therefore there is no consensus or guideline leading to a standard treatment regime...
December 2016: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
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