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Validity concepts performance

Zhijun Li, Kim A Munro, Mina Narouz, Bin Hao, Cathleen M Crudden, J Hugh Horton, Hongxia Hao
Surface chemistry is a key enabler for various biosensing applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors routinely employ thiol-based chemistry for the linker layer between gold-coated support surfaces and functional biosensor surfaces. However, there is a growing awareness that such sensor surfaces are prone to oxidation/degradation problems in the presence of oxygen, and previous efforts to improve the stability have shown limited advancements. As an alternative, recent studies employing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) self assembled monolayers (SAMs) deposited on gold have shown significant promise in this area...
October 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yunli Dang, Zhiyong Zhao, Ming Tang, Can Zhao, Lin Gan, Songnian Fu, Tongqing Liu, Weijun Tong, Perry Ping Shum, Deming Liu
Featuring a dependence of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) on temperature and strain changes over a wide range, Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors are however essentially subjected to the relatively poor temperature/strain measurement resolution. On the other hand, phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) offers ultrahigh temperature/strain measurement resolution, but the available frequency scanning range is normally narrow thereby severely restricts its measurement dynamic range...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Faisal Riaz, Muaz A Niazi
This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented...
2017: PloS One
Eslam Montaser, José-Luis Díez, Jorge Bondia
BACKGROUND: Linear empirical dynamic models have been widely used for glucose prediction. The extension of the concept of seasonality, characteristic of other domains, is explored here for the improvement of prediction accuracy. METHODS: Twenty time series of 8-hour postprandial periods (PP) for a same 60g-carbohydrate meal were collected from a closed-loop controller validation study. A single concatenated time series was produced representing a collection of data from similar scenarios, resulting in seasonality...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Nuno M Oliveira, Rui L Reis, João F Mano
Biological tissues are recurrently exposed to several dynamic mechanical forces that influence cell behavior. On this work, the focus is on the shear stress forces induced by fluid flow. The study of flow-induced effects on cells leads to important advances in cardiovascular, cancer, stem cell, and bone biology understanding. These studies are performed using cell culture flow (CCF) systems, mainly parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC), and microfluidic systems. Here, it is proposed an original CCF system based on the open fluidics concept...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Pascale M Le Blanc, Beatrice I J M Van der Heijden, Tinka Van Vuuren
Though the importance of sustainable employability throughout people's working life is undisputed, up till now only one attempt for a conceptual definition has been made (van der Klink et al., 2016). Following the suggestions to further refine and improve this definition recently put forward by Fleuren et al. (2016), we propose an approach to sustainable employability that is based on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) framework, and incorporates three indicators: the ability, the motivation, and the opportunity to continue working, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Nathália Brandolim Becker, Rute Isabel Santos Martins, Saul de Neves Jesus, Roberto Chiodelli, Michael Stephen Rieber
Sleep health is a new and important concept. Considering the need to expand the research on sleep from the health perspective, this research proposes to validate a Sleep Health Scale (SHS) for use with the Portuguese adult population. A sample of 540 community-dwelling adults aged 18-90 years old was included. The SHS scores ranged from 0 to 30 with a mean of 19.09 (SD ± 6.49). The distribution indicated that all socio demographic variables (age, gender, and literacy) influenced sleep health. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) demonstrated one factor for this measurement model with poor indices (Chi-square (df) = 55...
October 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Liang Shang, Chuanjun Liu, Yoichi Tomiura, Kenshi Hayashi
Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) has been used in various fields as a valuable method to identify odor-active components from a complex mixture. Since human assessors are employed as a detector to obtain the olfactory perception of separated odorants, the GC-O technique is limited by its subjectivity, variability, and high cost of the trained panelist. Here, we present a proof-of-concept model by which odor information can be obtained by machine-learning based prediction from molecular parameters (MPs) of odorant molecules...
October 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tricia Adjei, Wilhelm Von Rosenberg, Valentin Goverdovsky, Katarzyna Powezka, Usman Jaffer, Danilo P Mandic
Varicose vein surgeries are routine outpatient procedures, which are often performed under local anaesthesia. The use of local anaesthesia both minimises the risk to patients and is cost effective, however, a number of patients still experience pain during surgery. Surgical teams must therefore decide to administer either a general or local anaesthetic based on their subjective qualitative assessment of patient anxiety and sensitivity to pain, without any means to objectively validate their decision. To this end, we develop a 3-D polynomial surface fit, of physiological metrics and numerical pain ratings from patients, in order to model the link between the modulation of cardiovascular responses and pain in varicose vein surgeries...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Francesco Belotti, Francesco Doglietto, Alberto Schreiber, Marco Ravanelli, Marco Ferrari, Davide Lancini, Vittorio Rampinelli, Lena Hirtler, Barbara Buffoli, Andrea Bolzoni Villaret, Roberto Maroldi, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Piero Nicolai, Marco Maria Fontanella
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic visualization does not necessarily correspond to an adequate working space. The need of balancing invasiveness and adequacy of sellar tumor exposure has recently led to the description of multiple endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches. Comparative anatomical data on these variants are lacking. OBJECT: To quantitatively compare endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches to the sella and parasellar region, using the concept of "surgical pyramid"...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Rostam Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Gota Morota, Francisco Peñagaricano
The genomic prediction of unobserved genetic values or future phenotypes for complex traits has revolutionized agriculture and human medicine. Fertility traits are undoubtedly complex traits of great economic importance to the dairy industry. Although genomic prediction for improved cow fertility has received much attention, bull fertility largely has been ignored. The first aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genomic prediction of sire conception rate (SCR) in US Holstein dairy cattle. Standard genomic prediction often ignores any available information about functional features of the genome, although it is believed that such information can yield more accurate and more persistent predictions...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Wei Jing, Jonathan W Roberts, Dixy E Green, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Many injectable drugs require delivery strategies for enhancing their pharmacokinetics due to rapid loss via renal filtration if possess low molecular weight (<60-70 kDa) and/or clearance by the body's components (e.g., proteases, antibodies, high-efficiency receptors) in their native form. FDA-approved polyethylene glycol [PEG] is a vehicle for improving therapeutics, but artificial polymers have potential biocompatibility and immunogenicity liabilities. Here we utilized a natural vertebrate carbohydrate, heparosan [HEP], the biosynthetic precursor of heparan sulfate and heparin, to enhance performance of a biologic drug...
August 23, 2017: Glycobiology
Zhengwei Xie, Tianyu Zhang, Qi Ouyang
Motivation: One of the long-expected goals of genome-scale metabolic modelling is to evaluate the influence of the perturbed enzymes on flux distribution. Both ordinary differential equation (ODE) models and constraint-based models, like Flux balance analysis (FBA), lack the capacity to perform metabolic control analysis (MCA) for large-scale networks. Results: In this study, we developed a hyper-cube shrink algorithm (HCSA) to incorporate the enzymatic properties into the FBA model by introducing a pseudo reaction V constrained by enzymatic parameters...
September 13, 2017: Bioinformatics
Bindu Salim, M V Athira, A Kandaswamy, Madhulika Vijayakumar, T Saravanan, Thiagarajan Sairam
Breast cancer is identified as the highest cause of death in women suffering from cancer. Early diagnosis is the key to increase the survival of breast cancer victims. Molecular diagnosis using biomarkers have advanced much in the recent years. The cost involved in such diagnosis is not affordable for most of the population. The concept being investigated here is to realize a simple diagnosis system for screening cancer by way of a blood test utilizing a miRNA based biomarker with a complementary molecular beacon probe...
September 30, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Maddalena Grazzini, Luca Pieri, Francesca Santomauro, Maria Ciancio, Chiara Lorini
BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) is a complex concept with multiple components; it involves the ability to effectively use and interpret texts, documents, and numbers. THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: to measure HL levels among a sample of adult Italian patients; to develop and validate the Italian version of the single-item literacy screener (SILS); to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the SILS as an indicator of limited reading ability regarding health documents, compared to the newest vital sign (NVS)...
July 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Eva Lendaro, Enzo Mastinu, Bo Håkansson, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Phantom motor execution (PME), facilitated by myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) and virtual reality (VR), is positioned to be a viable option to treat phantom limb pain (PLP). A recent clinical trial using PME on upper-limb amputees with chronic intractable PLP yielded promising results. However, further work in the area of signal acquisition is needed if such technology is to be used on subjects with lower-limb amputation. We propose two alternative electrode configurations to conventional, bipolar, targeted recordings for acquiring surface electromyography...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Diane Poulin-Dubois, Jessica Yott
There is currently a hot debate in the literature regarding whether or not infants have a true theory of mind (ToM) understanding. According to the mentalistic view, infants possess the same false belief understanding that older children have but their competence is masked by task demands. On the other hand, others have proposed that preverbal infants are incapable of mental state attribution and simply respond to superficial features of the events in spontaneous-responses tasks. In the current study, we aimed to clarify the nature of infants' performance in tasks designed to assess implicit theory of mind (ToM) by adopting a within-subject design that involved testing 18-month-old infants on two batteries of tasks measuring the same four ToM constructs (intention, desire, true belief, and false belief)...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Science
Hua He, Wenjuan Wang, Wan Tang
The density function is a fundamental concept in data analysis. When a population consists of heterogeneous subjects, it's often of great interest to estimate the density functions of the subpopulations. Nonparametric methods such as kernel smoothing estimates may be applied to each subpopulation to estimate the density functions if there are no missing values. In situations where the membership for a subpopulation is missing, kernel smoothing estimates using only subjects with membership available are valid only under missing complete at random (MCAR)...
July 2017: Advances in Statistical Analysis: AStA: a Journal of the German Statistical Society
Emuella Flood, Debra G Silberg, Beverly Romero, Kathleen Beusterien, M Haim Erder, Carmen Cuffari
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to develop patient-reported (PRO) and observer-reported (ObsRO) outcome measures of ulcerative colitis (UC) signs/symptoms in children aged 5-17 with mild/moderate UC. The daily ulcerative colitis signs and symptoms scale (DUCS) was developed in two phases. Phase I involved concept elicitation interviews with patients and healthcare providers, review of website posts and item generation. Phase II involved cognitive debriefing and assessment of usability and feasibility of the eDiaries...
September 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Mayra Rauseo Vera, Luis Arturo Gutiérrez-González, Irama Maldonado, Soham Al Snih
INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are disabling diseases with a prevalence of 1.9% in the general population. The indices designed for monitoring the disease should be valid, reliable and cross-culturally adapted for decision-making concerning the appropriate treatment. Changing an adjective or pronoun in a self-administered questionnaire could be the big difference in condensing an idea in a few words and transmitting that concept to all those who share the same language. OBJECTIVES: To develop a Venezuelan version of the original English version of the BASDAI/BASFI and to evaluate its reliability and validity in Venezuelan patients with SpA...
September 21, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
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