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General neurology

Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Christopher Eric McCoy, Angelica Loza-Gomez, James Lee Puckett, Samantha Costantini, Patrick Penalosa, Craig Anderson, Carl Schultz
BACKGROUND: The association between ambulation at the scene of a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and spinal injury has never been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ambulation and spinal injury in patients involved in a MVC. METHODS: Prospective analytical-observational cohort study. Inclusion: patients sustaining traumatic injury in a MVC. Exclusion: < 18 years old, pregnancy. PRIMARY OUTCOME: spinal injury defined as injury to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal cord, bones, or ligaments...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Saleem I Abdulrauf, Peter Vuong, Ritesh Patel, Raghu Sampath, Ahmed M Ashour, Lauren M Germany, Jonathon Lebovitz, Colt Brunson, Yuvraj Nijjar, J Kyle Dryden, Maheen Q Khan, Mihaela G Stefan, Evan Wiley, Ryan T Cleary, Connor Reis, Jodi Walsh, Paula Buchanan
OBJECTIVE Risk of ischemia during aneurysm surgery is significantly related to temporary clipping time and final clipping that might incorporate a perforator. In this study, the authors attempted to assess the potential added benefit to patient outcomes of "awake" neurological testing when compared with standard neurophysiological testing performed under general anesthesia. The procedure is performed after the induction of conscious sedation, and for the neurological testing, the patient is fully awake. METHODS The authors conducted an institutional review board-approved prospective study of clipping unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in 30 consecutive adult patients who underwent awake clipping...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
H Liu, R Tariq, G L Liu, H Yan, A D Kaye
The intrathecal space has become an important anatomic site for medical intervention not only in anesthesia practice, but also in many other medical specialties. Undesired/inadvertent intrathecal injections (UII) are generally rare. There is tremendous variation in reported inadvertent administrations via an intrathecal route in the literature, mainly as individual cases and very small case-series reports. This review aims to identify potential sources of UII, its clinical presentations, and appropriate management...
October 21, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Daniel Stäb, Steffen Bollmann, Christian Langkammer, Kristian Bredies, Markus Barth
With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields...
October 20, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Jorge Mejia, Ana Claudia Camargo Miranda, Ana Claudia Ranucci Durante, Larissa Rolim de Oliveira, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de Barboza, Katerin Taboada Rosell, Daniele Pereira Jardim, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Marilia Alves Dos Reis, Marcela Forli Catanoso, Orfa Yineth Galvis-Alonso, Francisco Romero Cabral
Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein...
July 2016: Einstein
Mandeep S Tamber, Dimitrios Nikas, Alexandra Beier, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine Mazzola, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist on the role of cranial-molding orthosis (helmet) therapy for patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: To address the clinical question: "Does helmet therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" and to make treatment recommendations based on the available evidence. METHODS: The US National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried by using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Gabriella Di Lascio, Edvin Prifti, Elmi Messai, Adriano Peris, Guy Harmelin, Roland Xhaxho, Albana Fico, Guido Sani, Massimo Bonacchi
INTRODUCTION: Status asthmaticus is a life-threatening condition characterized by progressive respiratory failure due to asthma that is unresponsive to standard therapeutic measures. We used extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to treat patients with near-fatal status asthamticus who did not respond to aggressive medical therapies and mechanical ventilation under controlled permissive hypercapnia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and October 2015, we treated 16 adult patients with status asthmaticus (8 women, 8 men, mean age: 50...
October 6, 2016: Perfusion
Valerie E Kelly, Sara J Morgan, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Brian J Hafner
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that greater perceived cognitive concerns are associated with worse mobility in a cohort of prosthesis users with lower limb loss (LLL). METHOD: We performed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional self-report data from a volunteer sample of people with LLL due to dysvascular and non-dysvacular causes. Perceived cognitive difficulties were assessed using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Applied Cognition - General Concerns (Neuro-QoL ACGC)...
October 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Xiao-Fan Zhang, Wei Zou, Yuan Yang
Depression is an important post-stroke sequela with negative impact on mortality, functional outcome and quality of life. Changes in cytokines have been hypothesized to be associated with the etiology of post-stroke depression (PSD). The altere dhypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning is associated with the onset of depression. The activity of HPA could induce the fluctuations of cortisol levels. In this study, we prospectively checked interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cortisol levels in patients with early ischemic stroke...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Choung Ah Lee, Joon Pil Cho, Sang Cheon Choi, Hyuk Hoon Kim, Ju Ok Park
OBJECTIVE: Discharge against medical advice (DAMA) from the emergency department (ED) accounts for 0.1% to 2.7% of all ED discharges. DAMA carries a risk of increased mortality and readmissions. Our aim was to investigate the general characteristics of DAMA patients and the differences between them and non-DAMA patients. METHODS: We reviewed data collected by the National Emergency Medical Center between 2010 and 2011. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups, namely, the DAMA group and the non-DAMA group...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Soung Min Kim, Emmanuel K Amponsah, Hui Young Kim, Ik Jae Kwon, Hoon Myoung, Jong Ho Lee
: Ameloblastoma is the most common benign odontogenic tumor of the jaw, and expansional growth of a huge untreated ameloblastoma can result in disturbances in facial aesthetics and function, such as difficulty with mouth opening, swallowing, chewing, breathing, neurologic deficits, and pathologic fractures. Radical wide resection with safety margins and subsequent reconstruction is generally recommended. A fibular free flap (FFF) is commonly used to reconstruct the mandible in order to adequately restore both aesthetic appearance and function...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
M Ohlmeier, P Karras, E M Suero, D Grasmücke, M Aach, R Meindl, T A Schildhauer, M Citak
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to analyze the impact of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in developing heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients following spinal cord injury. SETTING: Department of Spinal Cord Injury and Department of General and Trauma Surgery, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2015, 67 patients with AS and SCI were included in the study...
October 18, 2016: Spinal Cord
Santoshi Billakota, Saurabh R Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is used in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting to detect seizures, especially nonconvulsive seizures and status epilepticus. The utility and impact of such monitoring in non-ICU patients are largely unknown. METHODS: Hospitalized patients who were not in an ICU and underwent cEEG monitoring in the first half of 2011 and 2014 were identified. Reason for admission, admitting service (neurologic and nonneurologic), indication for cEEG, comorbid conditions, duration of recording, EEG findings, whether an event/seizure was recorded, and impact of EEG findings on management were reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Panna Sanga, Nathaniel Katz, Elena Polverejan, Steven Wang, Kathleen M Kelly, Juergen Haeussler, John Thipphawong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of fulranumab in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic osteoarthritis (OA) knee or hip pain. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, phase-2 double-blind (DB) extension study, patients who were equally randomized to 1mgQ4wk, 3mgQ8wk, 3mgQ4wk, 6mgQ8wk, or10mgQ8wk fulranumab (s.c.) or placebo in the 12-week DB efficacy phase, and completed this DB efficacy phase, were eligible to continue the dose throughout a 92-week extension phase followed by a 24-week posttreatment follow-up (PFTU)...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Marta Dąbrowska-Bender, Magdalena Milewska, Aleksandra Gołąbek, Aneta Duda-Zalewska, Anna Staniszewska
BACKGROUND: Cerebral stroke is the major cause of disability in the modern world and, given its consequences, poses serious medical and social problems. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the quality of life of patients who suffered from an ischemic cerebral stroke with respect to various areas of life, including, in particular, clinical and psychoemotional factors. The study hypothesis states that the poststroke quality of life is reduced in the general context as well as in the context of specific areas of life...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
F Babany, S Hamdoun, P Denys, G Amarenco
: Sexual disorders are common after neurological diseases. The reconstruction of sexuality is a major issue after neurologic disability. Why is this topic not covered in rehabilitation medicine except specialized service? The aim of this pilot study was to assess the perception of the healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to understand why this topic was not addressed. We conducted a pilot, observational, monocentric study from February to March 2016 in HCPs from a neurologic rehabilitation hospital unit...
October 13, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
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