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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243225/review-current-priorities-in-the-zika-response
#1
REVIEW
Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Jonathan Ballico de Moraes, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca
Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Although first isolated in 1947, only recently it emerged as a global threat, present in several countries resulting in a pandemic scenario. ZIKV infections may result in severe outcomes, such as neurological impairment, and with the intrinsic ability of inducing microcephaly in fetuses of infected pregnant women, the virus has become a major public health problem...
December 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191125/the-2017-aans-presidential-address-a-world-of-innovation
#2
Frederick A Boop
The 2016 scientific meeting of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) focused on the theme "A World of Innovation." In his presidential address, 2016 AANS President Frederick Boop compared the historical development of the specialty of neurological surgery with that of the development of global communications. In the early years, general surgeons training in the United States would spend post-residency time abroad learning from surgical masters in Europe and other places. Since Harvey Cushing's day, neurosurgeons from around the world continue to travel abroad, with many now coming to America for training at centers of excellence...
December 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185533/depression-in-epilepsy-migraine-and-multiple-sclerosis-epidemiology-and-how-to-screen-for-it
#3
REVIEW
Nathalie Jetté, Farnaz Amoozegar, Scott B Patten
Purpose of review: To provide an overview of the epidemiology of depression in chronic neurologic conditions that can affect individuals throughout the lifespan (epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis [MS]) and examine depression screening tools for adults with these conditions. Recent findings: Depression is common in neurologic conditions and can be associated with lower quality of life, higher health resource utilization, and poor adherence to treatment. It affects around 20%-30% of those with epilepsy, migraine, and MS, and evidence for a bidirectional association exists for each of these conditions...
April 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168789/lead-emissions-and-population-vulnerability-in-the-detroit-michigan-usa-metropolitan-area-2006-2013-a-spatial-and-temporal-analysis
#4
Heather Moody, Sue C Grady
Objective: The purpose of this research is to geographically model airborne lead emission concentrations and total lead deposition in the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA) from 2006 to 2013. Further, this study characterizes the racial and socioeconomic composition of recipient neighborhoods and estimates the potential for IQ (Intelligence Quotient) loss of children residing there. Methods: Lead emissions were modeled from emitting facilities in the DMA using AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model)...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162126/targeting-the-master-regulator-mtor-a-new-approach-to-prevent-the-neurological-of-consequences-of-parasitic-infections
#5
REVIEW
Sheila Donnelly, Wilhelmina M Huston, Michael Johnson, Natalia Tiberti, Bernadette Saunders, Bronwyn O'Brien, Catherine Burke, Maurizio Labbate, Valery Combes
A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117195/biological-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-west-african-lineages-of-west-nile-virus
#6
Gamou Fall, Nicholas Di Paola, Martin Faye, Moussa Dia, Caio César de Melo Freire, Cheikh Loucoubar, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102527/functional-assessment-of-a-series-of-paediatric-patients-receiving-neurointensive-treatment-new-functional-status-scale
#7
P Madurga-Revilla, J López-Pisón, P Samper-Villagrasa, R Garcés-Gómez, J P García-Íñiguez, M Domínguez-Cajal, I Gil-Hernández, S Viscor-Zárate
INTRODUCTION: Functional health, a reliable parameter of the impact of disease, should be used systematically to assess prognosis in paediatric intensive care units (PICU). Developing scales for the assessment of functional health is therefore essential. The Paediatric Overall and Cerebral Performance Category (POPC, PCPC) scales have traditionally been used in paediatric studies. The new Functional Status Scale (FSS) was designed to provide more objective results. This study aims to confirm the validity of the FSS compared to the classic POPC and PCPC scales, and to evaluate whether it may also be superior to the latter in assessing of neurological function...
November 1, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074346/an-embryonic-100%C3%AE-g-l-lead-exposure-results-in-sex-specific-expression-changes-in-genes-associated-with-the-neurological-system-in-female-or-cancer-in-male-adult-zebrafish-brains
#8
Jinyoung Lee, Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
Developmental lead (Pb) exposure is linked to neurological health issues. Results from non-human primate and rodent studies suggest detrimental effects of an early life Pb exposure, showing transcriptional disturbances and pathological evidence of Alzheimer's disease in the adult animal brain. To elucidate the impacts of an embryonic Pb exposure on the adult brain, transcriptomic analysis was completed on the brain of zebrafish aged 12months exposed to a control treatment or to an embryonic 100μg/L Pb exposure by sex...
October 23, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055459/smoking-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-using-the-bradford-hill-criteria-for-causation
#9
REVIEW
Michelle L Degelman, Katya M Herman
BACKGROUND: Despite being one of the most common neurological disorders globally, the cause(s) of multiple sclerosis (MS) remain unknown. Cigarette smoking has been studied with regards to both the development and progression of MS. The Bradford Hill criteria for causation can contribute to a more comprehensive evaluation of a potentially causal risk factor-disease outcome relationship. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between smoking and both MS risk and MS progression, subsequently applying Hill's criteria to further evaluate the likelihood of causal associations...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037977/toxocariasis-in-humans-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Felix Lötsch, Rieke Vingerling, Rene Spijker, Martin Peter Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a globally distributed zoonosis. The most important definitive hosts are dogs, whereas humans serve as paratenic hosts. Transmission to humans occurs by accidental ingestion of eggs, e.g. by consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. Although exposure to Toxocara is usually considered as relatively benign, it is implicated in a range of neurological, ophthalmologic and other organ-specific conditions, some of them with grave consequences. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, presentation and risk factors of exposure to Toxocara in Africa...
October 13, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022129/the-utility-of-local-anesthesia-for-neurosurgical-interventions-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-case-series
#11
Jessica Eaton, Asma Bilal Hanif, Suzgisam Mzumara, Anthony Charles
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, and injury to the central nervous system is the most common cause of death in these patients. While the provision of surgical services is being recognized as essential to global public health efforts, specialty areas such as neurosurgery remain overlooked. METHOD: This is a retrospective case review of patients with operable lesions, such as extra-axial hematomas and unstable depressed skull fractures that underwent neurosurgical interventions under local anesthesia...
October 11, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981484/human-adenovirus-surveillance-united-states-2003-2016
#12
Alison M Binder, Holly M Biggs, Amber K Haynes, Christina Chommanard, Xiaoyan Lu, Dean D Erdman, John T Watson, Susan I Gerber
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Adenoviridae; seven species (A-G) and >60 genotypes are known to cause human infection (1). Clinical manifestations associated with HAdV infection include fever, acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. HAdV infection can be severe, particularly among immunocompromised patients, and can cause respiratory failure, disseminated infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, neurologic disease, and death (1,2). Illness tends to occur sporadically and without demonstrated seasonality...
October 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976987/assessing-the-neuroprotective-benefits-for-babies-of-antenatal-magnesium-sulphate-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#13
Caroline A Crowther, Philippa F Middleton, Merryn Voysey, Lisa Askie, Lelia Duley, Peter G Pryde, Stéphane Marret, Lex W Doyle
BACKGROUND: Babies born preterm are at an increased risk of dying in the first weeks of life, and those who survive have a higher rate of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with babies born at term. The aim of this individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis (MA) was to assess the effects of antenatal magnesium sulphate, compared with no magnesium treatment, given to women at risk of preterm birth on important maternal and fetal outcomes, including survival free of CP, and whether effects differed by participant or treatment characteristics such as the reason the woman was at risk of preterm birth, why treatment was given, the gestational age at which magnesium sulphate treatment was received, or the dose and timing of the administration of magnesium sulphate...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967695/intravenous-immunoglobulin-for-the-treatment-of-childhood-encephalitis
#14
REVIEW
Mildred A Iro, Natalie G Martin, Michael Absoud, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a syndrome of neurological dysfunction due to inflammation of the brain parenchyma, caused by an infection or an exaggerated host immune response, or both. Attenuation of brain inflammation through modulation of the immune response could improve patient outcomes. Biological agents such as immunoglobulin that have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties may therefore be useful as adjunctive therapies for people with encephalitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as add-on treatment for children with encephalitis...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956479/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-children-and-adolescents-part-ii-explanations-to-families-treatment-and-group-outcomes
#15
Kasia Kozlowska, Catherine Chudleigh, Catherine Cruz, Melissa Lim, Georgia McClure, Blanche Savage, Ubaid Shah, Averil Cook, Stephen Scher, Pascal Carrive, Deepak Gill
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) - time-limited disturbances of consciousness and motor-sensory control, not accompanied by ictal activity on electroencephalogram (EEG) - are best conceptualized as atypical neurophysiological responses to emotional distress, physiological stressors and danger. Patients and families find the diagnosis of PNES difficult to understand; the transition from neurology (where the diagnosis is made) to mental health services (to which patients are referred for treatment) can be a bumpy one...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951891/thiamine-acquisition-strategies-impact-metabolism-and-competition-in-the-gut-microbe-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#16
Zachary A Costliow, Patrick H Degnan
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor for all organisms. Humans primarily acquire thiamine through their diet, and thiamine deficiencies have adverse neurological effects. However, the role gut microbes play in modulating thiamine availability is poorly understood, and little is known about how thiamine impacts the stability of microbial gut communities. To investigate thiamine's role in the gut, we utilized the model gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed a global downregulation of thiamine and amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and purine metabolism when thiamine was present...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934431/genetic-profiling-and-comorbidities-of-zika-infection
#17
Mohammad Ali Moni, Pietro Lio'
Background: The difficulty in distinguishing infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) from other flaviviruses is a global health concern, particularly given the high risk of neurologic complications (including Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS]) with ZIKV infection. Methods: We developed quantitative frameworks to compare and explore infectome, diseasome, and comorbidity of ZIKV infections. We analyzed gene expression microarray and RNA-Seq data from ZIKV, West Nile fever (WNF), chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, GBS, and control datasets...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931491/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-neurological-disorders-during-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level...
November 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928416/zika-virus-infection-confers-protection-against-west-nile-virus-challenge-in-mice
#19
Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Estela Escribano-Romero, Teresa Merino-Ramos, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Nereida Jiménez de Oya
Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Zika virus (ZIKV), which was initially reported to cause a mild disease, recently spread in the Americas, infecting millions of people. During this recent epidemic, ZIKV infection has been linked to serious neurological diseases and birth defects, specifically Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Because information about ZIKV immunity remains scarce, we assessed the humoral response of immunocompetent mice to infection with three viral strains of diverse geographical origin (Africa, Asia and America)...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922960/cognitive-performance-in-transient-global-hypoxic-brain-injury-due-to-moderate-drowning
#20
Mariana Penteado Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, Gilson Vieira, João Ricardo Sato, Edson Amaro Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a serious and frequently neglected public health threat. Primary respiratory impairment after submersion often leads to brain dysfunction. Depending on the period of global hypoxia (respiratory failure), clinical aspects of neurological dysfunction are evident on the first evaluation after the water rescue. Nowadays, many neuropsychological assessments after drowning are inconclusive, with some studies reporting only minor neurological or cognitive impairments...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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