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Global health neurology

Katharina A Schindlbeck, Janek Becker, Felix Berger, Arne Mehl, Charlotte Rewitzer, Sarah Geffe, Peter M Koch, Jan C Preiß, Britta Siegmund, Jochen Maul, Frank Marzinzik
PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with neurological symptoms including restless legs syndrome. Here, we investigated the impact of restless legs syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on sleep, fatigue, mood, cognition, and quality of life. METHODS: Two groups of inflammatory bowel disease patients, with and without restless legs syndrome, were prospectively evaluated for sleep disorders, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Richmond Darko, Jessica L Mashburn
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated complications have become a significant public health concern. Zika virus is a Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first locally acquired transmission of ZIKV in Brazil, the first case in the Western Hemisphere. There have also been reports of increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic complications associated with ZIKV infection, as well as a 20-fold increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome during ZIKV outbreaks...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Radovan Bílek, Nataša Kaňová, Veronika Mindžáková, David Neumann, Jan Jiskra, Lydie Ryšavá, Václav Zamrazil
INTRODUCTION: Iodine deficiency is a global public health problem which is particularly noticeable in pregnant or breastfeeding women and their children. Even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can lead to damage to the developing brain and thus affecting the fetus intelligence, his cognitive and neurological function, embryogenesis and growth. PATIENTS: In the period 2010-2015 was determined by spectrophotometry at the Institute of Endocrinology the basal urinary iodine in 532 pregnant women at the age of 32 ± 5 (18-44) years, which came from Prague, Hradec Kralove and Mlada Boleslav...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
J Flegr, D Q Escudero
The global seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis is estimated to be higher than 30%. The presence of slowly dividing parasites in tissue cysts located mainly in immunoprivileged organs was long considered asymptomatic. Recently, many studies have shown that latent Toxoplasma infections could have serious impacts on human health. Here we ran a cross-sectional study in a population of 1486 volunteers. The results showed that 333 infected subjects scored worse than 1153 controls in 28 of 29 health-related variables...
October 10, 2016: Parasitology
Marco Mula, Josemir W Sander
SUMMARY: Epilepsy is one of the most serious neurological conditions and has an impact not only on the affected individual but also on the family and, indirectly, on the community. A global approach to the individual must take into account cognitive problems, psychiatric comorbidities and all psychosocial complications that often accompany epilepsy. We discuss psychosocial issues in epilepsy with special focus on the relationship between stigma and psychiatric comorbidities. Social barriers to optimal care and health outcomes for people with epilepsy result in huge disparities, and the public health system needs to invest in awareness programmes to increase public knowledge and reduce stigma in order to minimise such disparities...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
A M Cardoso, J R Guedes, A L Cardoso, C Morais, P Cunha, A T Viegas, R Costa, A Jurado, M C Pedroso de Lima
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases constitute a set of challenging pathological conditions concerning diagnosis and therapeutics. For most of these disorders, there is a lack of early diagnosis, biomarkers to allow proper follow-up of disease progression and effective therapeutic strategies to allow a persistent cure. The poor prognosis of most CNS diseases is, therefore, a global concern, especially regarding chronic age-related neurodegenerative disorders, which are already considered problems of public health due to the increasing average of life expectancy...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Frederick A Zeiler, Nicholas Sader, Michael West, Lawrence M Gillman
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate for intracranial pressure (ICP) reduction in patients with neurologic illness. METHODS: Data sources: articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to April 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. DATA EXTRACTION: 2 reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics and treatment characteristics...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Abhishek Desai
With increasing life expectancy as a result of better quality of life and improved health care, the incidence of aging related diseases and disorders is heading toward epidemic proportions. Dementia, a spectrum of neurological diseases associated with aging, is an increasingly prevalent disease. No cure exists yet for dementia; however, there are many potential candidates for treatment of dementia that merit more exploration. Polyphenols, which constitute one such class of compounds, are dietary agents that are globally found in commonly consumed food...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Fikregabrail Aberra Kassa, Kristin Van Den Ham, Anthony Rainone, Sylvie Fournier, Eric Boilard, Martin Olivier
Cerebral malaria claims the life of millions of people each year, particularly those of children, and is a major global public health problem. Thus, the identification of novel malaria biomarkers that could be utilized as diagnostic or therapeutic targets is becoming increasingly important. Using a proteomic approach, we previously identified unique biomarkers in the sera of malaria-infected individuals, including apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE is the dominant apolipoprotein in the brain and has been implicated in several neurological disorders; therefore, we were interested in the potential role of ApoE in cerebral malaria...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amit Kumar Gupta, Karambir Kaur, Akanksha Rajput, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Manika Sehgal, Md Shoaib Khan, Isha Monga, Showkat Ahmad Dar, Sandeep Singh, Gandharva Nagpal, Salman Sadullah Usmani, Anamika Thakur, Gazaldeep Kaur, Shivangi Sharma, Aman Bhardwaj, Abid Qureshi, Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava, Manoj Kumar
Current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks that spread in several areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and in pacific islands is declared as a global health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO). It causes Zika fever and illness ranging from severe autoimmune to neurological complications in humans. To facilitate research on this virus, we have developed an integrative multi-omics platform; ZikaVR (, dedicated to the ZIKV genomic, proteomic and therapeutic knowledge. It comprises of whole genome sequences, their respective functional information regarding proteins, genes, and structural content...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lorena Matta, Mario M Barbosa, Cristhian D Morales-Plaza
INTRODUCTION: Dengue virus infection is amongst the most important arboviral diseases in the country and has become a major global public health concern.  OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile of patients with dengue virus infection hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in the city of Cali, Colombia. We also describe the trend analysis of the number of cases by epidemiological weeks in 2013.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of admitted patients suspected to have dengue infection in the Rafael Uribe Uribe Clinic in the year 2013...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Solange N Eloundou, Jeanne S Sheffield
The identification of Zika virus as a significant teratogen has raised international concern, causing the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This has allowed a global mobilization of experts in tropical infectious diseases, obstetrics, pediatrics, virology, public health policy, reproductive health, bioethics, and germ cell research to name just a few. This worldwide crisis has also raised awareness of health care disparities and concerns regarding the ability of families and societies to shoulder the long-term financial burden that the follow-up of affected children will require...
September 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Arturo Arias, Lilian Torres-Tobar, Gualberto Hernández, Deyanira Paipilla, Eduardo Palacios, Yahaira Torres, Julian Duran, Sebastian Ugarte U, Adriana Ardila-Sierra, Gabriel Castellanos
PURPOSE: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emerging global threat and a public health problem in the Americas. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been recently associated to ZIKV. This report presents a case series of GBS possibly associated to ZIKV. METHODS: Clinical and demographic data from patients with GBS treated in 5 intensive care units and with recent history of ZIKV in Cúcuta, Colombia were collected from December 1 2015 to April 30 2016. Electrophysiological examination, lumbar puncture, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV were performed in 14, 10, and 1 patients, respectively...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Mohammad S Khuroo, Mehnaaz S Khuroo, Naira S Khuroo
Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Matthew S Davitz, William E Wu, Brian J Soher, James S Babb, Ivan I Kirov, Jeffrey Huang, Girish Fatterpekar, Oded Gonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of non-localized, whole-head (1)H-MRS to an individual's serial changes in total-brain NAA, Glx, Cr and Cho concentrations - metabolite metrics often used as surrogate markers in neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, four back-to-back (single imaging session) and three serial (successive sessions) non-localizing, ~3min (1)H-MRS (TE/TR/TI=5/10(4)/940ms) scans were performed on 18 healthy young volunteers: 9 women, 9 men: 29...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Laura Singer, Kelly G Vest, Charles W Beadling
Zika virus continues to pose a significant global health threat. While the outbreak pattern may seemingly mirror those of other arboviruses, unique transmission characteristics and clinical outcomes warrant a different approach to traditional public health practices. Sexual transmission and virus-associated fetal and nonfetal neurologic disorders specifically challenge conventional methods of disease protection and prevention with regard to vector control, disease surveillance, and health risk communication...
August 30, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Miao Xu, Emily M Lee, Zhexing Wen, Yichen Cheng, Wei-Kai Huang, Xuyu Qian, Julia Tcw, Jennifer Kouznetsova, Sarah C Ogden, Christy Hammack, Fadi Jacob, Ha Nam Nguyen, Misha Itkin, Catherine Hanna, Paul Shinn, Chase Allen, Samuel G Michael, Anton Simeonov, Wenwei Huang, Kimberly M Christian, Alison Goate, Kristen J Brennand, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia, Guo-Li Ming, Wei Zheng, Hongjun Song, Hengli Tang
In response to the current global health emergency posed by the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and its link to microcephaly and other neurological conditions, we performed a drug repurposing screen of ∼6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, clinical trial drug candidates and pharmacologically active compounds; we identified compounds that either inhibit ZIKV infection or suppress infection-induced caspase-3 activity in different neural cells. A pan-caspase inhibitor, emricasan, inhibited ZIKV-induced increases in caspase-3 activity and protected human cortical neural progenitors in both monolayer and three-dimensional organoid cultures...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Guang-Sheng Wang, Dao-Ming Tong, Xiao-Dong Chen, Tong-Hui Yang, Ye-Ting Zhou, Xiao-Bo Ma
BACKGROUND: Minor ischemic stroke (MIS) represents a major global public health problem worldwide due to high incidence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a strong risk for MIS and subsequent vascular events (SVE). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed examining symptomatic MIS in a Chinese neurologic outpatient population aged over 25 years without history of stroke. MetS was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria...
2016: PloS One
Hui G Cheng, Rahul Shidhaye, Fiona Charlson, Fei Deng, Tanica Lyngdoh, Shengnan Chen, Sharmishtha Nanda, Kimberly Lacroix, Amanda Baxter, Harvey Whiteford
Understanding the epidemiological profiles of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders provides opportunities for the identification of high-risk population subgroups and for the development of effective country-specific prevention and intervention strategies. Guided by the Conceptual Framework for Action on the Social Determinants of Health by WHO we reviewed the literature to examine the association between a range of social correlates (eg, sex, age, education, income, urbanicity, marital status, and regional differences) and mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India, the most populous countries in the world...
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Amanda J Baxter, Fiona J Charlson, Hui G Cheng, Rahul Shidhaye, Alize J Ferrari, Harvey A Whiteford
BACKGROUND: Population-representative prevalence data for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders are essential for evidence-based decision making. As a background to the China-India Mental Health Alliance Series, we aim to examine the availability of data and report prevalence for the most common mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 (GBD 2013). METHODS: In this systematic analysis, data sources were identified from GBD 2013 for the prevalence of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India published up to Dec 31, 2013...
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
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