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Global health neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447317/neuroimaging-findings-of-postnatally-acquired-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-essay
#1
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Guillaume Carteaux, Andrea Poretti, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Sonia Bermudez, Heron Werner, Luiz Celso Hygino da Cruz
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family, first discovered in 1947. There has been no report of severe complications caused by this virus in humans until recently. However, it is confirmed now that prenatally acquired ZIKV infection may cause severe congenital brain abnormalities in the infected fetuses. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports during recent years about the causal relationship between postnatally acquired ZIKV infection and severe neurologic complications (mostly immune-mediated ones)...
April 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442607/n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-blockade-prevents-neuronal-death-induced-by-zika-virus-infection
#2
Vivian V Costa, Juliana L Del Sarto, Rebeca F Rocha, Flavia R Silva, Juliana G Doria, Isabella G Olmo, Rafael E Marques, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Giselle Foureaux, Julia Maria S Araújo, Allysson Cramer, Ana Luíza C V Real, Lucas S Ribeiro, Silvia I Sardi, Anderson J Ferreira, Fabiana S Machado, Antônio C de Oliveira, Antônio L Teixeira, Helder I Nakaya, Danielle G Souza, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Mauro M Teixeira
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a global health emergency that causes significant neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes may be exacerbated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent neuronal excitoxicity. Here, we have exploited the hypothesis that ZIKV-induced neurodegeneration can be rescued by blocking NMDA overstimulation with memantine. Our results show that ZIKV actively replicates in primary neurons and that virus replication is directly associated with massive neuronal cell death. Interestingly, treatment with memantine or other NMDAR blockers, including dizocilpine (MK-801), agmatine sulfate, or ifenprodil, prevents neuronal death without interfering with the ability of ZIKV to replicate in these cells...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393345/-bracing-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#3
Yi-Fang Lo, Yu-Chu Huang
Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering...
April 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357375/syphilis-re-emergence-of-an-old-foe
#4
REVIEW
Lola V Stamm
Syphilis is caused by infection with Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, a not-yet-cultivable spiral-shaped bacterium that is usually transmitted by sexual contact with an infected partner or by an infected pregnant woman to her fetus. There is no vaccine to prevent syphilis. Diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals and their contacts is key to syphilis control programs that also include sex education and promotion of condom use to prevent infection. Untreated syphilis can progress through four stages: primary (chancre, regional lymphadenopathy), secondary (disseminated skin eruptions, generalized lymphadenopathy), latent (decreased re-occurrence of secondary stage manifestations, absence of symptoms), and tertiary (gummas, cardiovascular syphilis and late neurological symptoms)...
June 27, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355608/new-wavelet-neurovascular-bundle-for-bedside-evaluation-of-cerebral-autoregulation-and-neurovascular-coupling-in-newborns-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#5
Lina F Chalak, Rong Zhang
Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) resulting from birth asphyxia constitutes a major global public health burden for millions of infants every year, and despite therapeutic hypothermia, half of these neonates have poor neurological outcomes. As new neuroprotective interventions are being studied in clinical trials, there is a critical need to establish physiological surrogate markers of therapeutic efficacy, to guide patient selection and/or to modify the therapeutic intervention. The challenge in the field of neonatal brain injury has been the difficulty of clinically discerning NE severity within the short therapeutic window after birth or of analyzing the dynamic aspects of the cerebral circulation in sick NE newborns...
March 30, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345596/crystal-structure-of-zika-virus-ns5-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase
#6
Andre S Godoy, Gustavo M A Lima, Ketllyn I Z Oliveira, Naiara U Torres, Fernando V Maluf, Rafael V C Guido, Glaucius Oliva
The current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak became a global health threat of complex epidemiology and devastating neurological impacts, therefore requiring urgent efforts towards the development of novel efficacious and safe antiviral drugs. Due to its central role in RNA viral replication, the non-structural protein 5 (NS5) RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) is a prime target for drug discovery. Here we describe the crystal structure of the recombinant ZIKV NS5 RdRp domain at 1.9 Å resolution as a platform for structure-based drug design strategy...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#7
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326747/laboratory-methods-for-diagnostics-of-hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-neuroinfections
#8
Pavol Beno, Alzbeta Kaiglova, Martin Samohyl
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320635/safety-and-efficacy-of-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke-masters-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David C Hess, Lawrence R Wechsler, Wayne M Clark, Sean I Savitz, Gary A Ford, David Chiu, Dileep R Yavagal, Ken Uchino, David S Liebeskind, Alexander P Auchus, Souvik Sen, Cathy A Sila, Jeffrey D Vest, Robert W Mays
BACKGROUND: Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a bone marrow-derived, allogeneic, cell therapy product that modulates the immune system, and represents a promising therapy for acute stroke. We aimed to identify the highest, well-tolerated, and safest single dose of multipotent adult progenitor cells, and if they were efficacious as a treatment for stroke recovery. METHODS: We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells in 33 centres in the UK and the USA...
May 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318359/zika-virus-and-eye
#10
Rupesh Agrawal, Hnin Hnin Oo, Praveen Kumar Balne, Lisa Ng, Louis Tong, Yee Sin Leo
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the latest global health concern. Transmission is mainly via Aedes mosquitoes and the infection can be diagnosed on molecular or serologic testings. It typically causes a mild self-remitting illness of low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, and myalgia, but when severe, it is associated with neurological deficits and congenital structural defects. Ocular manifestations are usually mild like nonpurulent conjunctivitis in adults, though it may be linked to uveitis, maculopathy, and hypertensive iridocyclitis...
March 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277248/electrochemical-biosensors-for-early-stage-zika-diagnostics
#11
REVIEW
Ajeet Kaushik, Sneham Tiwari, Rahul D Jayant, Arti Vashist, Roozbeh Nikkhah-Moshaie, Nazira El-Hage, Madhavan Nair
Health agencies have declared the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection an epidemic and a public health emergency of global concern due to its association with microcephaly and serious neurological disorders. The unavailability of effective drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tools increases the demand for efficient analytical devices to detect ZIKV infection. However, high costs, longer diagnostic times, and stringent expertise requirements limit the utility of reverse transcriptase-PCR methods for rapid diagnostics...
April 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265046/expanding-medicines-for-neurologic-disorders-on-the-who-model-list
#12
Kathryn Rimmer, Hiral Shah, Kiran Thakur
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines is a recommended formulary for high-priority diseases based on public health trends and epidemiology patterns. The biennial publication serves as a guide for countries, particularly low- and lower-middle-income countries, to develop their own national essential medicines list (EML), and many nongovernmental organizations base their medication supplies on the WHO EML. Over the last 40 years, WHO has expanded the EML in response to treatment gaps for infectious diseases, pediatrics, palliative care, and cancer...
March 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261573/understanding-the-full-spectrum-of-organ-injury-following-intrapartum-asphyxia
#13
REVIEW
Domenic A LaRosa, Stacey J Ellery, David W Walker, Hayley Dickinson
Birth asphyxia is a significant global health problem, responsible for ~1.2 million neonatal deaths each year worldwide. Those who survive often suffer from a range of health issues including brain damage-manifesting as cerebral palsy (CP)-respiratory insufficiency, cardiovascular collapse, and renal dysfunction, to name a few. Although the majority of research is directed toward reducing the brain injury that results from intrapartum birth asphyxia, the multi-organ injury observed in surviving neonates is of equal importance...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259231/zika-virus-meningoencephalitis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#14
Pedro V Schwartzmann, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Luciano Neder, Fernando C Vilar, Sílvia M Ayub-Ferreira, Marília F Romeiro, Osvaldo M Takayanagui, Antonio C Dos Santos, André Schmidt, Luiz T M Figueiredo, Ross Arena, Marcus V Simões
The World Health Organization considers the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas a global public health emergency. The neurologic complications due to ZIKV infection comprise microcephaly, meningoencephalitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We describe a fatal case of an adult patient receiving an immunosuppressive regimen following heart transplant. The patient was admitted with acute neurologic impairment and experienced progressive hemodynamic instability and mental deterioration that finally culminated in death...
March 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259063/to-what-extent-does-depression-influence-quality-of-life-of-people-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-argentina
#15
Laura Scévola, Mercedes Sarudiansky, Alejandra Lanzillotti, Silvia Oddo, Silvia Kochen, Luciana D'Alessio
INTRODUCTION: Depression is the most frequent psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with epilepsy. Lifetime prevalence of depression is reported more frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy and is estimated at 35%. This co-morbidity appears to be related with various mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of life (QoL) of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy with and without co-morbid depression in an Argentinean population. METHODS: Patients admitted to the video-EEG monitoring unit during the period 2010-2013 went through a standardized psychiatric assessment using SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I diagnoses of DSM-IV), BDI II (Beck Depression Inventory) GAF (Global assessment of functioning), and Q LES Q-SF (for quality of life)...
February 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250997/oral-health-characteristics-and-dental-rehabilitation-of-children-with-global-developmental-delay
#16
Saurabh Kumar, Deepika Pai, Runki Saran
Global developmental delay (GDD) is a chronic neurological disturbance which includes defects in one or more developmental domains. The developmental domain can be motor, cognitive, daily activities, speech or language, and social or personal development. The etiology for GDD can be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. It can be diagnosed early in childhood as the delay or absence of one or more developmental milestones. Hence the role of pedodontist and pediatricians becomes more crucial in identifying this condition...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250906/zika-virus-diseases-the-new-face-of-an-ancient-enemy-as-global-public-health-emergency-2016-brief-review-and-recent-updates
#17
REVIEW
Deepak Passi, Sarang Sharma, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Musharib Ahmed
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito. It presents as flu-like symptoms lasting for 5-7 days and shows potential association with neurological and autoimmune complications such as congenital microcephaly and adult paralysis disorder, Guillain-Barré syndrome. Treatment measures are conservative as the disease is self-limiting. ZIKV earlier affected several tropical regions of Africa and Asia from 1951 to 2006. Subsequently, it moved out from these regions to land as outbreaks in Yap Island, French Polynesia, South America, and most recently in Brazil...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239781/validation-of-the-promis-%C3%A2-measures-of-self-efficacy-for-managing-chronic-conditions
#18
Ann L Gruber-Baldini, Craig Velozo, Sergio Romero, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®)) was designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure key domains of physical, mental, and social health in chronic conditions. This paper reports the calibration and validation testing of the PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions measures. METHODS: PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions item banks comprise five domains, Self-Efficacy for Managing: Daily Activities, Symptoms, Medications and Treatments, Emotions, and Social Interactions...
February 26, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238395/profound-hypotension-and-bradycardia-in-the-setting-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-intoxication-a-case-series
#19
David O Andonian, Shauna R Seaman, Elaine B Josephson
Cannabinoids are the most commonly used illegal substances in the world [1]. Synthetic Cannabinoids (SCB) are also known as "Spice", "K2", "Spike", "herbal incense", "Cloud 9", "Mojo" and many others are becoming a large public health concern due to their increasing use, unpredictable toxicity, and abuse potential [2]. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison control record are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo, chest pain, acute kidney injury, seizures, heart attacks and both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes [3]...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224254/iodine-deficiency-status-in-the-who-eastern-mediterranean-region-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Masoumeh Mohammadi, Fereidoun Azizi, Mehdi Hedayati
Iodine deficiency is a global public health issue because iodine plays a major role in the thyroid hormone synthesis and is essential for normal neurological development. This review summarizes the publications on iodine status in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries. All related studies available in main national and international databases were systematically searched using some specific keywords to find article published between 1909 and 2015. The prevention of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) in the WHO EMR countries is currently under control without significant side effects...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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