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Global health neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664874/traumatic-brain-injury-and-infectious-encephalopathy-in-children-from-four-resource-limited-settings-in-africa
#1
Ericka L Fink, Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Rashmi Kumar, Patrick T Wilson, Tigist Bacha, Abenezer Tirsit Aklilu, Tsegazeab Laeke Teklemariam, Shubhada Hooli, Lisine Tuyisenge, Easmon Otupiri, Anthony Fabio, John Gianakas, Patrick M Kochanek, Derek C Angus, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS: Children age 1 day to 17 years old evaluated at the hospital with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of children presenting consecutively over 4 weeks to any hospital department with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658318/what-makes-children-with-cerebral-palsy-vulnerable-to-malnutrition-findings-from-the-bangladesh-cerebral-palsy-register-bcpr
#2
Israt Jahan, Mohammad Muhit, Tasneem Karim, Hayley Smithers-Sheedy, Iona Novak, Cheryl Jones, Nadia Badawi, Gulam Khandaker
PURPOSE: To assess the nutritional status and underlying risk factors for malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy in rural Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register; a prospective population based surveillance of children with cerebral palsy aged 0-18 years in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh (i.e., Shahjadpur). Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric measurements were collected using Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register record form...
April 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652625/the-opportunity-for-telehealth-to-support-neurological-healthcare
#3
Amanda M Cardinale
Neurological conditions affect one-third of Americans and are some of the most prevalent health issues in the country. Many sufferers have difficulty accessing treatment, however, advances in technology may be able to support availability, affordability, and convenience of care through telehealth services. This review outlines the current state of telemedicine in neurological healthcare, highlighting evidence-based research and use cases for digital services. Details on expenses associated with managing certain well-known conditions are included to shed light on the financial burden of disease and how telehealth can contribute to cost savings for patients and providers...
March 20, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619252/lepvax-a-defined-subunit-vaccine-that-provides-effective-pre-exposure-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-m-leprae-infection
#4
Malcolm S Duthie, Maria T Pena, Gigi J Ebenezer, Thomas P Gillis, Rahul Sharma, Kelly Cunningham, Michael Polydefkis, Yumi Maeda, Masahiko Makino, Richard W Truman, Steven G Reed
Sustained elimination of leprosy as a global health concern likely requires a vaccine. The current standard, BCG, confers only partial protection and precipitates paucibacillary (PB) disease in some instances. When injected into mice with the T helper 1 (Th1)-biasing adjuvant formulation Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant in stable emulsion (GLA-SE), a cocktail of three prioritized antigens (ML2055, ML2380 and ML2028) reduced M. leprae infection levels. Recognition and protective efficacy of a single chimeric fusion protein incorporating these antigens, LEP-F1, was confirmed in similar experiments...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610229/international-issues-a-guide-to-us-academic-global-health-programs-in-neurology
#5
Rohini D Samudralwar, Adeline Goss, Kathryn Rimmer, Kara Shetler, Allison Navis, Omar K Siddiqi, Jerome H Chin, Kiran T Thakur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607495/acupuncture-for-acute-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Mangmang Xu, Dan Li, Shihong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sensory stimulation via acupuncture has been reported to alter activities of numerous neural systems by activating multiple efferent pathways. Acupuncture, one of the main physical therapies in Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been widely used to treat patients with stroke for over hundreds of years. This is the first update of the Cochrane Review originally published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether acupuncture could reduce the proportion of people with death or dependency, while improving quality of life, after acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke...
March 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604981/global-developments-in-hiv-neurology
#7
Edwina J Wright, Kiran T Thakur, David Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
Neurologic conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality, and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir for viral replication with major implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of HIV-associated neurologic conditions, significant scientific gaps remain...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601846/burden-of-caregiving-after-a-child-s-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#8
Kathleen Meert, Beth S Slomine, James R Christensen, Russell Telford, Richard Holubkov, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler
OBJECTIVE: To describe caregiver burden among those whose children survive in-hospital cardiac arrest and have high risk of neurologic disability, and explore factors associated with burden during the first year post-arrest. METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Paediatric Cardiac Arrest In-Hospital (THAPCA-IH) trial. 329 children who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest, chest compressions for >2 minutes, and mechanical ventilation after return of circulation were recruited to THAPCA-IH...
March 27, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594116/prevalence-of-igg-autoantibodies-against-gd3-ganglioside-in-acute-zika-virus-infection
#9
Dirlei Nico, Luciana Conde, Juan L Rivera-Correa, Andréia Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, Louise Mesentier-Louro, Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Mônica Barcellos Arruda, Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima, Orlando da Costa Ferreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Andrea Araújo Zin, Zilton Farias Meira Vasconcelos, Rosalia Mendez Otero, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik-de-Sousa, Amilcar Tanuri, Adriane Regina Todeschini, Wilson Savino, Ana Rodriguez, Alexandre Morrot
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a global health emergency with devastating effects on public health. Recent evidences implicate the virus as an emergent neuropathological agent promoting serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that include destructive and malformation consequences such as development of ocular and fetal brain lesions, microcephaly in neonates, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. These neurological disorders of both central and peripheral nervous systems are thought to be associated to the neurotropic properties of the virus that has ability to infect neural stem cells as well as peripheral neurons, a hallmark of its pathogenicity...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569345/fish-oil-treatment-reduces-chronic-alcohol-exposure-induced-synaptic-changes
#10
Zhe Shi, Youna Xie, Huixia Ren, Baixuan He, Meng Wang, Jian-Bo Wan, Ti-Fei Yuan, Xiaoli Yao, Huanxing Su
Alcohol addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that represents one of the most serious global public health problems. Yet, currently there still lacks an effective pharmacotherapy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs) have exhibited beneficial effects in a variety of neurological disorders, particularly in reversing behavioral deficits and neurotoxicity induced by prenatal alcohol exposure and binge drinking. In the present study, we investigated if fish oil, which is rich in N-3 PUFAs, had beneficial effects on preventing relapse and alleviating withdrawal symptoms after chronic alcohol exposure...
March 22, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558564/systems-approaches-to-optimizing-deep-brain-stimulation-therapies-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555345/rapid-response-to-an-emerging-infectious-disease-lessons-learned-from-development-of-a-synthetic-dna-vaccine-targeting-zika-virus
#12
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550593/spine-trauma-as-a-component-of-essential-neurosurgery-an-outcomes-analysis-from-cambodia
#13
Michelle H Chua, Raksmey Hong, Tytim Rydeth, Iv Vycheth, Sam Nang, Din Vuthy, Kee B Park
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, delivery of cost-effective "essential neurosurgery" in resource-limited communities has been recognized as an indispensable part of health care and a global health priority. The purpose of this study was to review outcomes from operative management of spine trauma at a resource limited government hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to provide an epidemiologic report to guide prevention programs. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective neurosurgical database was performed to identify risk factors for spine trauma and severe spinal cord injury (ASIA A or ASIA B) and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surgery for patients treated at Preah Kossamak Hospital for subaxial and thoracolumbar spine trauma from 2013 to 2016...
March 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542813/a-common-data-language-for-clinical-research-studies-the-national-institute-of-neurological-disorders-and-stroke-and-american-academy-for-cerebral-palsy-and-developmental-medicine-cerebral-palsy-common-data-elements-version-1-0-recommendations
#14
REVIEW
Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538456/a-trauma-network-with-centralized-and-local-health-care-structures-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-the-first-certified-trauma-network-of-the-german-society-of-trauma-surgery
#15
Antonio Ernstberger, Michael Koller, Florian Zeman, Maximilian Kerschbaum, Franz Hilber, Eva Diepold, Julika Loss, Tanja Herbst, Michael Nerlich
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a global burden of disease and one of the main causes of death worldwide. Therefore, many countries around the world have implemented a wide range of different initiatives to minimize mortality rates after trauma. One of these initiatives is the bundling of treatment expertise in trauma centers and the establishment of trauma networks. Germany has a decentralized system of trauma care medical centers. Severely injured patients ought to receive adequate treatment in both level I and level II centers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536861/out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-current-concepts
#16
REVIEW
Aung Myat, Kyoung-Jun Song, Thomas Rea
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of global mortality. Regional variations in reporting frameworks and survival mean the exact burden of OHCA to public health is unknown. Nevertheless, overall prognosis and neurological outcome are relatively poor following OHCA and have remained almost static for the past three decades. In this Series paper, we explore the aetiology of OHCA. Coronary artery disease remains the predominant cause, but there is a diverse range of other potential cardiac and non-cardiac causes to be aware of...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536828/zika-virus-epidemiology-from-uganda-to-world-pandemic-an-update
#17
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533091/inclusion-and-exclusion-in-the-globalisation-of-genomics-the-case-of-rare-genetic-disease-in-brazil
#18
Sahra Gibbon, Waleska Aureliano
Within the context of a globalising agenda for genetic research where 'global health' is increasingly seen as necessarily informed by and having to account for genomics, the focus on rare genetic diseases is becoming prominent. Drawing from ethnographic research carried out separately by both authors in Brazil, this paper examines how an emerging focus on two different arenas of rare genetic disease, cancer genetics and a class of degenerative neurological diseases known as Ataxias, is subject to and a product of the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion as this concerns participation in research and access to health care...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528855/dementia-prevalence-in-greece-the-hellenic-longitudinal-investigation-of-aging-and-diet-heliad
#19
Mary H Kosmidis, George S Vlachos, Costas A Anastasiou, Mary Yannakoulia, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou, Paraskevi Sakka, Eva Ntanasi, Nikolaos Scarmeas
INTRODUCTION: Study of the epidemiology of dementia to gain insight into putative predisposing and prophylactic factors is the first step toward establishing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for this ever-growing public health problem. Relevant data in Greece are scattered and outdated. METHODS: We investigated dementia prevalence as part of a population-representative epidemiological study [Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD)] in 2 Greek regions...
March 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525339/the-role-of-national-and-international-neurology-societies-in-global-health
#20
Jorge Vidaurre, Dave Clarke, Edward Kija, Harry Chugani, Solomon L Moshé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
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