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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781085/human-toxocariasis
#1
REVIEW
Guangxu Ma, Celia V Holland, Tao Wang, Andreas Hofmann, Chia-Kwung Fan, Rick M Maizels, Peter J Hotez, Robin B Gasser
Parasitic nematodes of the genus Toxocara are socioeconomically important zoonotic pathogens. These parasites are usually directly transmitted to the human host via the faecal-oral route and can cause toxocariasis and associated complications, including allergic and neurological disorders. Although tens of millions of people are estimated to be exposed to or infected with Toxocara spp, global epidemiological information on the relationship between seropositivity and toxocariasis is limited. Recent findings suggest that the effect of toxocariasis on human health is increasing in some countries...
August 3, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779862/neurological-complications-of-renal-disease
#2
Jorge H Baluarte
Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seizures and coma are frequent complications of acute renal insufficiency (uremia), whereas peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy, observed in progressive uremia, are terminal events. Failure to excrete metabolic products causes their accumulation and can lead to severe intoxication. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of uremia can vary widely, depending on the biological characteristics of the patient, the specific type of renal disease, and the time of the uremic intoxication...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761970/-feeding-eating-and-swallowing-disorders-in-infants-and-children-an-overview
#3
REVIEW
C Schwemmle, C Arens
Swallowing is a dynamic process that requires more than 30 muscles in the recruitment/coordination of the lips, tongue, palate, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. The eating and swallowing procedure is learned in sensitive or critical periods: when a certain degree of maturation has been achieved, the appropriate stimulus permits a certain milestone of development to occur. The swallowing procedure occurs in three main stages oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Therefore, swallowing disorders may present in any, some, or all of these stages in addition to feeding problems...
July 31, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757309/reliability-and-clinical-correlation-of-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-in-sturge-weber-syndrome
#4
Elizabeth A Offermann, Aditya Sreenivasan, M Robert DeJong, Doris D M Lin, Charles E McCulloch, Melissa G Chung, Anne M Comi
BACKGROUND: The reproducibility of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound measurements in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and TCD's ability to predict neurological progression is unknown. METHODS: In 14 individuals with SWS, TCD measured mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, and end-diastolic velocity in the middle, posterior, and anterior cerebral arteries of the affected and unaffected hemisphere. TCD was performed either once (n = 5) or twice in one day (n = 9)...
September 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755567/microcephaly-and-zika-virus-neuroradiological-aspects-clinical-findings-and-a-proposed-framework-for-early-evaluation-of-child-development
#5
Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Ana Carolina de Campos, Fellipe Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Fernanda Pereira Dos Santos Silva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As the recent outbreak of microcephaly cases caused by Zika virus has been declared a global health emergency, providing assessment guidelines for multidisciplinary teams providing early developmental screening and stimulation to infants with microcephaly is much needed. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview on what is known about neuroradiological aspects and clinical findings in infants with microcephaly caused by Zika virus and to propose a framework for early evaluation of child development...
July 26, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745016/associations-between-self-reported-sleep-quality-and-white-matter-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Claire E Sexton, Enikő Zsoldos, Nicola Filippini, Ludovica Griffanti, Anderson Winkler, Abda Mahmood, Charlotte L Allan, Anya Topiwala, Simon D Kyle, Kai Spiegelhalder, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimaki, Clare E Mackay, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Klaus P Ebmeier
Both sleep disturbances and decline in white matter microstructure are commonly observed in ageing populations, as well as in age-related psychiatric and neurological illnesses. A relationship between sleep and white matter microstructure may underlie such relationships, but few imaging studies have directly examined this hypothesis. In a study of 448 community-dwelling members of the Whitehall II Imaging Sub-Study aged between 60 and 82 years (90 female, mean age 69.2 ± 5.1 years), we used the magnetic resonance imaging technique diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and white matter microstructure...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741437/traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-homeless-and-vulnerably-housed-individuals
#7
Toby Schmitt, Allen Thornton, Iris Rawtaer, Alasdair Barr, Kristina Gicas, Donna Lang, Talia Vertinsky, Alexander Rauscher, Ric Procyshyn, Tari Buchanan, Alex Cheng, Sarah Mackay, Olga Leonova, Verena Langheimer, Thalia Field, Manraj K S Heran, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Tiffany-Anne O'Connor, William MacEwan, William Honer, William Panenka
We characterized traumatic brain injury (TBI) and studied its associations with mental and physical health in a community cohort of homeless and vulnerably-housed individuals. METHODS: Detailed mental and physical health structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and multimodal MRI were performed on 283 participants. Two traumatic brain injury (TBI) participant groups were defined for primary analyses: those with a self-reported history of TBI and those with MRI evidence of TBI...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734784/drug-delivery-innovations-to-address-global-health-challenges-for-pediatric-and-geriatric-populations-through-improvements-in-patient-compliance
#8
Joshua Boateng
Despite significant advances in pharmaceutical and biotechnological drug discovery, the global population is plagued with many challenging diseases. These are further compounded by anticipated explosion in an ageing population, which presents several problems such as polypharmacy, dysphagia, and neurologic conditions, resulting in noncompliance and disease complications. For antibiotics, poor compliance, can result in development of drug-resistant infections which can be fatal. Furthermore, children, especially, in developing countries die unnecessarily from easily treatable diseases (e...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710740/mapping-promis-global-health-items-to-euroqol-eq-5d-utility-scores-using-linear-and-equipercentile-equating
#9
Nicolas R Thompson, Brittany R Lapin, Irene L Katzan
BACKGROUND: Mapping Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Global Health (PROMIS-GH) to EuroQol 5-dimension, three-level version (EQ-5D-3L) provides a utility score for use in quality-of-life and cost-effectiveness analyses. In 2009, Revicki et al. mapped the PROMIS-GH items to EQ-5D-3L utilities using linear regression (REVReg). More recently, regression was shown to be ill-suited for mapping to preference-based measures due to regression to the mean. Linear and equipercentile equating are alternative mapping methods that avoid the issue of regression to the mean...
July 14, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707609/the-role-of-diet-and-nutrition-on-mental-health-and-wellbeing
#10
Lauren Owen, Bernard Corfe
Mental, neurological and substance-use disorders presently represent the greatest global burden of disease. Likewise, depression and other psychopathologies are elevated risk comorbidities of other health hazards, such as obesity. Nutrition has been implicated in behaviour, mood and in the pathology and treatment of mental illness. In this brief editorial, we aim to set the scale of the problem in context and overview advances and recent evidence linking nutrition to psychological outcomes. The purpose of the 2016 Nutrition Society Winter Meeting, 'Diet, nutrition and mental health and wellbeing' was to review where the evidence is strong, where there are unmet needs for research and to draw together the communities working in this area to share their findings...
July 14, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695492/patterns-of-acute-poisoning-with-pesticides-in-the-paediatric-age-group
#11
Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri, Shaluka F Jayamanne, Chamilka Y Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: Pesticides are identified as one of the dangerous poisons globally in children and are associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity. Pesticide poisoning is the most common method of self-poisoning among adults in rural Sri Lanka, and the clinical management is associated with significant healthcare costs to the country. There is however little data published on acute pesticide poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. The current study aimed to comprehensively evaluate clinical profiles, harmful first aid measures, emergency clinical management, complications and outcomes related to acute pesticide poisoning among children in the rural community of Sri Lanka...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681575/an-update-on-zika-virus-in-asia
#12
REVIEW
Sl Ki Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, In Kyu Yoon
Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in Asia from mosquitoes from Malaysia in 1966. However, the incidence of Zika and Zika-related neurological complications in Asia is not well known. The few studies of Zika in Asia have been inconsistent in pointing to likely transmission levels, with some studies suggesting substantial transmission and others not. Interpretation of existing epidemiological and public health data from Asia is constrained by the non-specific symptomatology of Zika, the high proportion of subclinical ZIKV infections, relatively low viremia, and the lack of accurate serological assays...
June 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678119/risk-factors-for-and-clinical-outcomes-of-dysphagia-after-anterior-cervical-surgery-for-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy-results-from-the-aospine-international-and-north-america-studies
#13
Narihito Nagoshi, Lindsay Tetreault, Hiroaki Nakashima, Paul M Arnold, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Branko Kopjar, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Although dysphagia is a common complication after anterior cervical decompression and fusion, important risk factors have not been rigorously evaluated. Furthermore, the impact of dysphagia on neurological and quality-of-life outcomes is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for dysphagia, and the impact of this complication on short and long-term clinical outcomes, in patients treated with anterior cervical decompression and fusion...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675262/intravenous-immunoglobulins-for-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
JinSong Geng, JianCheng Dong, Youping Li, Hengjian Ni, Kui Jiang, Li Li Shi, GuoHua Wang
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, with an estimated incidence of 50 per 100,000 persons. People with epilepsy may present with various types of immunological abnormalities, such as low serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels, lack of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and identification of certain types of antibodies. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment may represent a valuable approach and its efficacy has important implications for epilepsy management. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2011...
July 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671140/a-consensus-set-of-outcomes-for-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-international-consortium-for-health-outcomes-measurement
#15
Paul de Roos, Bastiaan R Bloem, Thomas A Kelley, Angelo Antonini, Richard Dodel, Peter Hagell, Connie Marras, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Shyamal H Mehta, Per Odin, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Bil Wilson, Ryan J Uitti
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that is expected to double in prevalence due to demographic shifts. Value-based healthcare is a proposed strategy to improve outcomes and decrease costs. To move towards an actual value-based health care system, condition-specific outcomes that are meaningful to patients are essential. OBJECTIVE: Propose a global consensus standard set of outcome measures for PD. METHODS: Established methods for outcome measure development were applied, as outlined and used previously by the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM)...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647173/an-update-on-zika-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
David Baud, Duane J Gubler, Bruno Schaub, Marion C Lanteri, Didier Musso
The epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first severe complications and non-vector-borne transmission of the virus were reported. Zika virus emerged in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a national public health emergency after local researchers and physicians reported an increase in microcephaly cases. In 2016, WHO declared the recent cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil a global public health emergency...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642836/cultural-neuroscience-and-global-mental-health-addressing-grand-challenges
#17
Joan Y Chiao, Shu-Chen Li, Robert Turner, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Beverly A Pringle
Mental, neurological and substance-use (MNS) disorders comprise approximately 13% of the global burden of disease. The Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health Initiative has recently identified research priorities for the next decade to address prevention and treatment of MNS disorders. One main research priority is to identify the root causes, risks and protective factors associated with global mental health. Recent advances in cultural neuroscience have identified theoretical, methodological, and empirical methods of identifying biomarkers associated with mental health disorders across nations...
April 2017: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#18
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585115/cyanobacterial-neurotoxins-their-occurrence-and-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#19
Kenneth J Rodgers, Brendan J Main, Kate Samardzic
Cyanobacteria are some of the oldest organisms on earth, and have evolved to produce a battery of toxic metabolites, including hepatotoxins, dermatoxins, and neurotoxins. In this review, we focus on the occurrence and mechanisms of toxicity of a number of neurotoxins synthesised by these ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes. We discuss the evidence linking β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid, to an unusual neurological disease complex reported on the island of Guam in the 1950s, and how 60 years later, the role that BMAA plays in human disease is still unclear...
June 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576567/developing-a-data-sharing-community-for-spinal-cord-injury-research
#20
REVIEW
Alison Callahan, Kim D Anderson, Michael S Beattie, John L Bixby, Adam R Ferguson, Karim Fouad, Lyn B Jakeman, Jessica L Nielson, Phillip G Popovich, Jan M Schwab, Vance P Lemmon
The rapid growth in data sharing presents new opportunities across the spectrum of biomedical research. Global efforts are underway to develop practical guidance for implementation of data sharing and open data resources. These include the recent recommendation of 'FAIR Data Principles', which assert that if data is to have broad scientific value, then digital representations of that data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR). The spinal cord injury (SCI) research field has a long history of collaborative initiatives that include sharing of preclinical research models and outcome measures...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
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