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Global health neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022129/the-utility-of-local-anesthesia-for-neurosurgical-interventions-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-case-series
#1
Jessica Eaton, Asma Bilal Hanif, Suzgisam Mzumara, Anthony Charles
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, and injury to the central nervous system is the most common cause of death in these patients. While the provision of surgical services is being recognized as essential to global public health efforts, specialty areas such as neurosurgery remain overlooked. METHOD: This is a retrospective case review of patients with operable lesions, such as extra-axial hematomas and unstable depressed skull fractures that underwent neurosurgical interventions under local anesthesia...
October 11, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981484/human-adenovirus-surveillance-united-states-2003-2016
#2
Alison M Binder, Holly M Biggs, Amber K Haynes, Christina Chommanard, Xiaoyan Lu, Dean D Erdman, John T Watson, Susan I Gerber
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Adenoviridae; seven species (A-G) and >60 genotypes are known to cause human infection (1). Clinical manifestations associated with HAdV infection include fever, acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. HAdV infection can be severe, particularly among immunocompromised patients, and can cause respiratory failure, disseminated infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, neurologic disease, and death (1,2). Illness tends to occur sporadically and without demonstrated seasonality...
October 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976987/assessing-the-neuroprotective-benefits-for-babies-of-antenatal-magnesium-sulphate-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#3
Caroline A Crowther, Philippa F Middleton, Merryn Voysey, Lisa Askie, Lelia Duley, Peter G Pryde, Stéphane Marret, Lex W Doyle
BACKGROUND: Babies born preterm are at an increased risk of dying in the first weeks of life, and those who survive have a higher rate of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with babies born at term. The aim of this individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis (MA) was to assess the effects of antenatal magnesium sulphate, compared with no magnesium treatment, given to women at risk of preterm birth on important maternal and fetal outcomes, including survival free of CP, and whether effects differed by participant or treatment characteristics such as the reason the woman was at risk of preterm birth, why treatment was given, the gestational age at which magnesium sulphate treatment was received, or the dose and timing of the administration of magnesium sulphate...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967695/intravenous-immunoglobulin-for-the-treatment-of-childhood-encephalitis
#4
REVIEW
Mildred A Iro, Natalie G Martin, Michael Absoud, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a syndrome of neurological dysfunction due to inflammation of the brain parenchyma, caused by an infection or an exaggerated host immune response, or both. Attenuation of brain inflammation through modulation of the immune response could improve patient outcomes. Biological agents such as immunoglobulin that have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties may therefore be useful as adjunctive therapies for people with encephalitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as add-on treatment for children with encephalitis...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956479/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-children-and-adolescents-part-ii-explanations-to-families-treatment-and-group-outcomes
#5
Kasia Kozlowska, Catherine Chudleigh, Catherine Cruz, Melissa Lim, Georgia McClure, Blanche Savage, Ubaid Shah, Averil Cook, Stephen Scher, Pascal Carrive, Deepak Gill
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) - time-limited disturbances of consciousness and motor-sensory control, not accompanied by ictal activity on electroencephalogram (EEG) - are best conceptualized as atypical neurophysiological responses to emotional distress, physiological stressors and danger. Patients and families find the diagnosis of PNES difficult to understand; the transition from neurology (where the diagnosis is made) to mental health services (to which patients are referred for treatment) can be a bumpy one...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951891/thiamine-acquisition-strategies-impact-metabolism-and-competition-in-the-gut-microbe-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#6
Zachary A Costliow, Patrick H Degnan
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor for all organisms. Humans primarily acquire thiamine through their diet, and thiamine deficiencies have adverse neurological effects. However, the role gut microbes play in modulating thiamine availability is poorly understood, and little is known about how thiamine impacts the stability of microbial gut communities. To investigate thiamine's role in the gut, we utilized the model gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed a global downregulation of thiamine and amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and purine metabolism when thiamine was present...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934431/genetic-profiling-and-comorbidities-of-zika-infection
#7
Mohammad Ali Moni, Pietro Lio'
Background: The difficulty in distinguishing infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) from other flaviviruses is a global health concern, particularly given the high risk of neurologic complications (including Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS]) with ZIKV infection. Methods: We developed quantitative frameworks to compare and explore infectome, diseasome, and comorbidity of ZIKV infections. We analyzed gene expression microarray and RNA-Seq data from ZIKV, West Nile fever (WNF), chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, GBS, and control datasets...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931491/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-neurological-disorders-during-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level...
November 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928416/zika-virus-infection-confers-protection-against-west-nile-virus-challenge-in-mice
#9
Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Estela Escribano-Romero, Teresa Merino-Ramos, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Nereida Jiménez de Oya
Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Zika virus (ZIKV), which was initially reported to cause a mild disease, recently spread in the Americas, infecting millions of people. During this recent epidemic, ZIKV infection has been linked to serious neurological diseases and birth defects, specifically Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Because information about ZIKV immunity remains scarce, we assessed the humoral response of immunocompetent mice to infection with three viral strains of diverse geographical origin (Africa, Asia and America)...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922960/cognitive-performance-in-transient-global-hypoxic-brain-injury-due-to-moderate-drowning
#10
Mariana Penteado Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, Gilson Vieira, João Ricardo Sato, Edson Amaro Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a serious and frequently neglected public health threat. Primary respiratory impairment after submersion often leads to brain dysfunction. Depending on the period of global hypoxia (respiratory failure), clinical aspects of neurological dysfunction are evident on the first evaluation after the water rescue. Nowadays, many neuropsychological assessments after drowning are inconclusive, with some studies reporting only minor neurological or cognitive impairments...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871498/tangeretin-ameliorates-renal-failure-via-regulating-oxidative-stress-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-tnf-%C3%AE-inos-signalling-and-improves-memory-and-cognitive-deficits-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#12
Jing Wu, Yu-Mei Zhao, Zhi-Kuan Deng
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant global health concern with limited treatment options. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses have been implicated in the pathology of CKD. Patients with CKD are frequently affected with neurological complications that affect both the central and peripheral nervous system. Identification of effective treatment strategies are of much clinical value in the therapy of CKD. Tangeretin, a plant-derived flavonoid has been described to retain extensive pharmacological properties...
September 4, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844634/infectious-causes-of-microcephaly-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Delan Devakumar, Alasdair Bamford, Marcelo U Ferreira, Jonathan Broad, Richard E Rosch, Nora Groce, Judith Breuer, Marly A Cardoso, Andrew J Copp, Paula Alexandre, Laura C Rodrigues, Ibrahim Abubakar
Microcephaly is an important sign of neurological malformation and a predictor of future disability. The 2015-16 outbreak of Zika virus and congenital Zika infection brought the world's attention to links between Zika infection and microcephaly. However, Zika virus is only one of the infectious causes of microcephaly and, although the contexts in which they occur vary greatly, all are of concern. In this Review, we summarise important aspects of major congenital infections that can cause microcephaly, and describe the epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, pathogenesis, management, and long-term consequences of these infections...
August 22, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841362/use-of-the-live-attenuated-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-sa-14-14-2-in-children-a-review-of-safety-and-tolerability-studies
#14
Amy Sarah Ginsburg, Ankita Meghani, Scott B Halstead, Mansour Yaich
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral neurological disease and disability in Asia. Some 50-80% of children with clinical JE die or have long-term neurologic sequelae. Since there is no cure, human vaccination is the only effective long-term control measure, and the World Health Organization recommends that at-risk populations receive a safe and effective vaccine. Four different types of JE vaccines are currently available: inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines, inactivated Vero cell vaccines, live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccines and a live recombinant (chimeric) vaccine...
August 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781085/human-toxocariasis
#15
REVIEW
Guangxu Ma, Celia V Holland, Tao Wang, Andreas Hofmann, Chia-Kwung Fan, Rick M Maizels, Peter J Hotez, Robin B Gasser
Parasitic nematodes of the genus Toxocara are socioeconomically important zoonotic pathogens. These parasites are usually directly transmitted to the human host via the faecal-oral route and can cause toxocariasis and associated complications, including allergic and neurological disorders. Although tens of millions of people are estimated to be exposed to or infected with Toxocara spp, global epidemiological information on the relationship between seropositivity and toxocariasis is limited. Recent findings suggest that the effect of toxocariasis on human health is increasing in some countries...
August 3, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779862/neurological-complications-of-renal-disease
#16
Jorge H Baluarte
Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seizures and coma are frequent complications of acute renal insufficiency (uremia), whereas peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy, observed in progressive uremia, are terminal events. Failure to excrete metabolic products causes their accumulation and can lead to severe intoxication. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of uremia can vary widely, depending on the biological characteristics of the patient, the specific type of renal disease, and the time of the uremic intoxication...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761970/-feeding-eating-and-swallowing-disorders-in-infants-and-children-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
C Schwemmle, C Arens
Swallowing is a dynamic process that requires more than 30 muscles in the recruitment/coordination of the lips, tongue, palate, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. The eating and swallowing procedure is learned in sensitive or critical periods: when a certain degree of maturation has been achieved, the appropriate stimulus permits a certain milestone of development to occur. The swallowing procedure occurs in three main stages oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Therefore, swallowing disorders may present in any, some, or all of these stages in addition to feeding problems...
July 31, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757309/reliability-and-clinical-correlation-of-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-in-sturge-weber-syndrome
#18
Elizabeth A Offermann, Aditya Sreenivasan, M Robert DeJong, Doris D M Lin, Charles E McCulloch, Melissa G Chung, Anne M Comi
BACKGROUND: The reproducibility of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound measurements in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and TCD's ability to predict neurological progression is unknown. METHODS: In 14 individuals with SWS, TCD measured mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, and end-diastolic velocity in the middle, posterior, and anterior cerebral arteries of the affected and unaffected hemisphere. TCD was performed either once (n = 5) or twice in one day (n = 9)...
September 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755567/microcephaly-and-zika-virus-neuroradiological-aspects-clinical-findings-and-a-proposed-framework-for-early-evaluation-of-child-development
#19
Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Ana Carolina de Campos, Fellipe Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Fernanda Pereira Dos Santos Silva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As the recent outbreak of microcephaly cases caused by Zika virus has been declared a global health emergency, providing assessment guidelines for multidisciplinary teams providing early developmental screening and stimulation to infants with microcephaly is much needed. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview on what is known about neuroradiological aspects and clinical findings in infants with microcephaly caused by Zika virus and to propose a framework for early evaluation of child development...
July 26, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745016/associations-between-self-reported-sleep-quality-and-white-matter-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Claire E Sexton, Enikő Zsoldos, Nicola Filippini, Ludovica Griffanti, Anderson Winkler, Abda Mahmood, Charlotte L Allan, Anya Topiwala, Simon D Kyle, Kai Spiegelhalder, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimaki, Clare E Mackay, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Klaus P Ebmeier
Both sleep disturbances and decline in white matter microstructure are commonly observed in ageing populations, as well as in age-related psychiatric and neurological illnesses. A relationship between sleep and white matter microstructure may underlie such relationships, but few imaging studies have directly examined this hypothesis. In a study of 448 community-dwelling members of the Whitehall II Imaging Sub-Study aged between 60 and 82 years (90 female, mean age 69.2 ± 5.1 years), we used the magnetic resonance imaging technique diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and white matter microstructure...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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