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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771608/paced-breathing-and-phrenic-nerve-responses-evoked-by-epidural-stimulation-following-complete-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#1
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane, Vitaliy Marchenko
Spinal cord injury (SCI) at the level of cervical segments often results in life-threatening respiratory complications and requires long-term mechanical ventilator assistance. Thus, restoring diaphragm activity and regaining voluntary control of breathing are the primary clinical goals for patients with respiratory dysfunction following cervical SCI. Epidural stimulation (EDS) is a promising strategy that has been explored extensively for non-respiratory functions, and to a limited extent within the respiratory system...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769438/cytometry-tof-identifies-alveolar-macrophage-subtypes-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Eric D Morrell, Alice Wiedeman, S Alice Long, Sina A Gharib, T Eoin West, Shawn J Skerrett, Mark M Wurfel, Carmen Mikacenic
Studies in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro have shown clear evidence that multiple macrophage polarization states exist. The extent to which different alveolar macrophage (AM) polarization states exist in homeostasis or in the setting of severe injury such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is largely unknown. We applied single-cell cytometry TOF (CyTOF) to simultaneously measure 36 cell-surface markers on CD45+ cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy volunteers, as well as mechanically ventilated subjects with and without ARDS...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765932/fluid-overload-and-renal-angina-index-at-admission-are-associated-with-worse-outcomes-in-critically-ill-children
#3
Sidharth K Sethi, Veena Raghunathan, Shilpi Shah, Maninder Dhaliwal, Pranaw Jha, Maneesh Kumar, Sravanthi Paluri, Shyam Bansal, Maroun J Mhanna, Rupesh Raina
Objectives: We investigated the association of fluid overload and oxygenation in critically sick children, and their correlation with various outcomes (duration of ventilation, ICU stay, and mortality). We also assessed whether renal angina index (RAI) at admission can predict mortality or acute kidney injury (AKI) on day 3 after admission. Design and setting: Prospective study, pediatric intensive care in a tertiary hospital. Duration: June 2013-June 2014. Patients: Patients were included if they needed invasive mechanical ventilation for >24 h and had an indwelling arterial catheter...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765429/the-potentials-and-caveats-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-in-the-preterm-infant
#4
REVIEW
Judith Gronbach, Tayyab Shahzad, Sarah Radajewski, Cho-Ming Chao, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Tobias Reicherzer, Harald Ehrhardt
Preponderance of proinflammatory signals is a characteristic feature of all acute and resulting long-term morbidities of the preterm infant. The proinflammatory actions are best characterized for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is the chronic lung disease of the preterm infant with lifelong restrictions of pulmonary function and severe consequences for psychomotor development and quality of life. Besides BPD, the immature brain, eye, and gut are also exposed to inflammatory injuries provoked by infection, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen toxicity...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764547/-comparison-of-lung-protection-for-hydrochloric-acid-or-oleic-acid-induced-rat-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-models-pretreated-with-penehyclidine
#5
Yumei Cheng, Zhou Yang, Feng Shen, Bo Liu, Yahui Wang, Yanqi Wu, Ling Yao, Yuqing Liu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the lung protection roles of intraperitoneal pre-injection with penehyclidine for two kinds of rat models with pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDSp and ARDSexp). METHODS: Forty healthy adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups (each n = 8): the rats in sham group received only tracheotomy; the ARDS rat models were reproduced by intratracheal inhalation of 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid (HCl) 2 mL/kg to simulate ARDSexp (HCl group) and 0...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764242/morbidity-and-mortality-resulting-from-acute-inhalation-exposures-to-hydrogen-fluoride-and-carbonyl-fluoride-in-rats
#6
Adolph J Januszkiewicz, Matthew A Bazar, Lee C B Crouse, Michael A Chapman, Steven E Hodges, Steven J McCormick, Arthur J O'Neill
OBJECTIVE: Experiments were undertaken to compare morbidity and mortality from brief inhalation exposures to high levels of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and carbonyl fluoride (COF2 ). METHODS: Rats from both sexes were exposed for durations of 5 and 10 min to nominal concentrations of 10,000 to 57,000 ppm HF or 500 to 10,000 ppm COF2 . Respiration was monitored before, during, and after exposure. Animals were observed up to 6 days post-exposure. Terminal blood samples were collected for routine clinical chemistry and hematology...
May 15, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762314/effectiveness-of-dexmedetomidine-versus-propofol-on-extubation-times-length-of-stay-and-mortality-rates-in-adult-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
John Nguyen, Noel Nacpil
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of dexmedetomidine versus propofol on extubation time, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, total hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates in cardiac surgery patients. INTRODUCTION: Recovery from cardiovascular surgery involves weaning from mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation decreases the work of breathing for patients by inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide via a ventilator or breathing machine...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760965/age-and-other-risk-factors-influencing-long-term-mortality-in-patients-with-traumatic-cervical-spine-fracture
#8
Matthew Bank, Katie Gibbs, Cristina Sison, Nawshin Kutub, Angelos Paptheodorou, Samuel Lee, Adam Stein, Ona Bloom
Objective: To identify clinical or demographic variables that influence long-term mortality, as well as in-hospital mortality, with a particular focus on the effects of age. Summary and Background Data: Cervical spine fractures with or without spinal cord injury (SCI) disproportionately impact the elderly who constitute an increasing percentage of the US population. Methods: We analyzed data collected for 10 years at a state-designated level I trauma center to identify variables that influenced in-hospital and long-term mortality among elderly patients with traumatic cervical spine fracture with or without SCI...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756534/neurostimulant-prescribing-patterns-in-children-admitted-to-the-icu-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Amanda Marie Morrison, Amy Houtrow, James Zullo, Patrick M Kochanek, Carol Vetterly, Ericka L Fink
Neurostimulant medications are commonly prescribed following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults; little is known about their use in children with TBI. Our objective was to analyze neurostimulant prescribing practices from 2005 to 2015 in children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with TBI. We hypothesized that neurostimulant prescriptions have increased over time and are associated with older age and injury severity. A retrospective cohort study of patients aged 1 month to 18 years with an ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis code for TBI admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2015 in 37 pediatric hospitals included in the Pediatric Health Information System was conducted...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753817/arch-augmentation-via-median-sternotomy-for-coarctation-of-aorta-with-proximal-arch-hypoplasia
#10
W Hampton Gray, Winfield J Wells, Vaughn A Starnes, S Ram Kumar
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta can be associated with hypoplasia of the proximal transverse aortic arch. One approach to manage this condition is via left thoracotomy and extended end-to-end anastomosis with the expectation that the proximal arch will grow over time. Our preferred approach is to augment the aorta via midline sternotomy. We hypothesized that this approach is safe, durable and allows reliable growth of the aorta. METHODS: We identified the records of patients with biventricular anatomy who had coarctation of the aorta, hypoplasia of the proximal transverse arch, and no other cardiac lesion that would mandate cardiopulmonary bypass use and midline sternotomy...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753599/carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-a-young-healthy-patient-a-case-study-of-heart-failure-recovery-after-hyperbaric-oxygenation-treatment
#11
Michael Kuniavsky, Yair Bechor, Marina Leitman, Shai Efrati
The effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for acute cardiac diseases is unknown. Similarly, the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for carbon monoxide intoxication is also unknown, particularly for cases in which carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels return to normal. Our case study revolved around a healthy twenty-year-old male patient, who suffered from carbon monoxide intoxication. The patient presented to the Emergency Department unconscious. Blood workup revealed significant carbon monoxide intoxication and cardiac injury (COHb = 41%, troponin T = 0...
May 9, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752619/a-feasibility-study-into-adenosine-triphosphate-measurement-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-a-potential-bedside-method-to-monitor-alveolar-deformation
#12
Philip van der Zee, Peter Somhorst, Jeroen Molinger, Djo Hasan, Diederik Gommers
Recent research suggested an important role for pulmonary extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the development of ventilation-induced lung injury. This injury is induced by mechanical deformation of alveolar epithelial cells, which in turn release ATP to the extracellular space. Measuring extracellular ATP in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may be a non-invasive biomarker for alveolar deformation. Here, we study the feasibility of bedside ATP measurement in EBC. We measured ATP levels in EBC in ten subjects before and after an exercise test, which increases respiratory parameters and alveolar deformation...
May 12, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750636/outcomes-of-very-elderly-treated-with-dialysis-for-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Ezra Gabbay, Yehudit Zangi, Alon Bnayah, Jawad Atrash, Itzchak Slotki, Linda Shavit
BACKGROUND: The factors that determine prognosis in elderly patients with dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of in-hospital mortality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study of hospitalized patients ≥ 70 years old with AKI-D. Clinical and demographic variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors, independent predictors of hospital mortality were identified by logistic regression...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750051/angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-agonist-compound-21-attenuates-pulmonary-inflammation-in-a-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#14
Mario Menk, Jan Adriaan Graw, Clarissa von Haefen, Hendrik Steinkraus, Burkhard Lachmann, Claudia D Spies, David Schwaiberger
Purpose: Although the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor in acute lung injury is not yet completely understood, a protective role of this receptor subtype has been suggested. We hypothesized that, in a rodent model of acute lung injury, stimulation of the AT2 receptor with the direct agonist Compound 21 (C21) might have a beneficial effect on pulmonary inflammation and might improve pulmonary gas exchange. Materials and methods: Male adult rats were divided into a treatment group that received pulmonary lavage followed by mechanical ventilation (LAV, n=9), a group receiving pulmonary lavage, mechanical ventilation, and direct stimulation of the AT2 receptor with C21 (LAV+C21, n=9), and a control group that received mechanical ventilation only (control, n=9)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744774/performance-and-applications-of-bedside-visual-inspection-of-airway-pressure-time-curve-profiles-for-estimating-stress-index-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#15
Phunsup Wongsurakiat, Nadwipa Yuangtrakul
To determine the performance of bedside visual inspection of airway pressure-time (Paw-t) curve profiles (VI) for estimating stress index (SI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A prospective study in 30 subjects with ARDS receiving mechanical ventilation at two peak inspiratory flow (PIF) settings: 60 or 40 L/min. For each study session, two physicians inspected real-time Paw-t waveforms from mechanical ventilator's monitoring screens at bedside for 30 s and interpreted which of the three patterns (tidal recruitment, noninjurious ventilation or tidal overdistension) the Paw-t curve profile was compatible with...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744618/association-between-central-venous-pressure-as-assessed-by-echocardiography-left-ventricular-function-and-acute-cardio-renal-syndrome-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#16
Shafik Khoury, Arie Steinvil, Amir Gal-Oz, Gilad Margolis, Aviram Hochstatd, Yan Topilsky, Gad Keren, Yacov Shacham
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated the adverse effects of venous congestion on renal function in patients with heart failure. None of these trials, however, has evaluated the effect of acute myocardial ischemia on the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 1336 ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between June 2012 and June 2016...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744242/non-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Annia Schreiber, Fatma Yıldırım, Giovanni Ferrari, Andrea Antonelli, Pablo Bayoumy Delis, Murat Gündüz, Marcin Karcz, Peter Papadakos, Roberto Cosentini, Yalım Dikmen, Antonio M Esquinas
There is limited literature on non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in patients with polytrauma-related acute respiratory failure (ARF). Despite an increasing worldwide application, there is still scarce evidence of significant NIMV benefits in this specific setting, and no clear recommendations are provided. We performed a systematic review, and a search of clinical databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted from the beginning of 1990 until today. Although the benefits in reducing the intubation rate, morbidity and mortality are unclear, NIMV may be useful and does not appear to be associated with harm when applied in properly selected patients with moderate ARF at an earlier stage of injury by experienced teams and in appropriate settings under strict monitoring...
April 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744222/chest-wall-stabilization-in-trauma-patients-why-when-and-how
#18
REVIEW
Jose Ribas Milanez de Campos, Thomas W White
Blunt trauma to the chest wall and rib fractures are remarkably frequent and are the basis of considerable morbidity and possible mortality. Surgical remedies for highly displaced rib fractures, especially in cases of flail chest, have been undertaken intermittently for more than 50 years. Rib-specific plating systems have started to be used in the last 10 years. These have ushered in the modern era of rib repair with chest wall stabilization (CWS) techniques that are safer, easier to perform, and more efficient...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743771/cervical-myelopathy-in-a-child-a-rare-cause-of-hypoventilation-syndrome-presenting-with-type-2-respiratory-failure
#19
Alolika Mondal, Prabhas Prasun Giri
Hypoventilation syndrome leading to Type 2 respiratory failure is not a rare cause of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Common causes in pediatric population are Guillain-Barre syndrome and various central nervous system disorders such as encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, and drugs. Any injury or disease in the cervical cord can also produce respiratory paralysis causing respiratory failure. Here, we present two cases of mixed cerebral palsy with cervical myelopathy due to compression effect of fractured segments of first and second cervical vertebrae...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743761/predictors-of-mortality-in-acute-kidney-injury-patients-admitted-to-medicine-intensive-care-unit-in-a-rural-tertiary-care-hospital
#20
Amrish Saxena, Shrikant V Meshram
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a challenging problem faced by intensive care clinicians worldwide, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based prospective, observational study was conducted in patients of AKI admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Department of Medicine in a rural tertiary care hospital located in central India. Data of all consecutive AKI inpatients related to demographic variables, clinical profile, and laboratory investigations were collected from patient's medical records...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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