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Functional cysts of the ovary

Laura T Pelegrina, Antonella Rr Cáceres, Fernando A Giuliani, Joana A Asensio, Fernanda Parborell, Myriam Raquel Laconi
Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, is one of the best characterized neurosteroids. In a dose that mimics serum levels during stress, allopregnanolone inhibits sexual receptivity and ovulation and induces a decrease in luteinizing hormone levels. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of an intracerebroventricular administration of allopregnanolone on ovarian morphophysiology, serum and tissue levels of progesterone and estrogen, and enzymatic activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3α-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase in the ovary and in the medial basal hypothalamus on the morning of estrus...
October 24, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Assila Ben Salem, Fatma Megdich, Olfa Kacem, Malek Souayeh, Faten Hachani Ben Ali, Sondes Hizem, Faouzi Janhai, Mounir Ajina, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Mourad Assidi, Mohammed H Al Qahtani, Touhami Mahjoub
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the growth of a number of small cysts on the ovaries which leads to sex hormonal imbalance. Women who are affected by this syndrome suffer from irregular menstrual cycles, decline in their fertility, excessive hair growth, obesity, acne and most importantly cardiac function problems. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in tissue vascularization in general and in the pathogenesis of many diseases...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
J Philippe York, Yi Athena Ren, Jie Zeng, Bin Zhang, Fang Wang, Rui Chen, Jianqiao Liu, Xuefeng Xia, Pumin Zhang
In the mouse ovary, the primordial follicle pool is established through a diverse array of signaling pathways and tissue remodeling events. Growth arrest specific gene two (GAS2) is a highly conserved cytoskeleton-associated protein whose in vivo function remains unclear. In Drosophila, loss of the GAS2 homolog, Pigs, results in infertility. We demonstrate herein that, in the mouse ovary, GAS2 is expressed in the stromal cells surrounding the oocyte cysts on 16.5 dpc, and in stromal cells surrounding growing follicles during juvenile and adult life...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Multiple aspects of organismal physiology influence the number and activity of stem cells and their progeny, including nutritional status. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), follicle stem cells (FSCs), and their progeny sense and respond to diet via complex mechanisms involving many systemic and local signals. AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is a highly conserved regulator of energy homeostasis known to be activated under low cellular energy conditions; however, its role in the ovarian response to diet has not been investigated...
October 8, 2016: Developmental Biology
Jing Zhang, Wenwen Liu, Xinhui Sun, Feifei Kong, Ye Zhu, Yue Lei, Youqiang Su, Yiping Su, Jing Li
In mammalian ovaries, follicle assembly requires proper germ cell cyst breakdown and the invasion of somatic cells to encapsulate individual oocytes. Abnormalities in this process lead to a number of pathologies such as premature ovarian failure and infertility. As a conserved pathway regulating cell growth and metabolism in response to growth factors and nutrients, the roles of mTOR signaling in follicular development have been extensively studied in recent years. However, its functions during follicle formation remain unknown...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
M-C De Cian, E Pauper, R Bandiera, V P I Vidal, S Sacco, E P Gregoire, A-A Chassot, C Panzolini, D Wilhelm, E Pailhoux, S A Youssef, A de Bruin, K de Teerds, A Schedl, I Gillot, M-C Chaboissier
R-spondin1 is a secreted regulator of WNT signaling, involved in both embryonic development and homeostasis of adult organs. It can have a dual role, acting either as a mitogen or as a tumor suppressor. During ovarian development, Rspo1 is a key factor required for sex determination and differentiation of the follicular cell progenitors, but is downregulated after birth. In human, increased RSPO1 expression is associated with ovarian carcinomas, but it is not clear whether it is a cause or a consequence of the tumorigenic process...
June 6, 2016: Oncogene
Mariana Di Pietro, Leopoldina Scotti, Griselda Irusta, Marta Tesone, Fernanda Parborell, Dalhia Abramovich
Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model...
September 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Mahin Tafazoli, Elham Fazeli, Salameh Dadgar, Mohsen Nematy
BACKGROUND: Functional ovarian cysts (FOC) are one of the most common gynecological problems among women of reproductive age. Some studies have shown that diet may affect the function of the ovaries, so this study was performed to determine the association between the amount of dietary fat and functional ovarian cysts. METHODS: This case-control study was performed on 264 female patients (132 with cyst in the case group and 132 in the control group) aged 13 to 49...
April 2016: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
Lizhao Feng, Yijing Wang, Han Cai, Guanghong Sun, Wanbao Niu, Qiliang Xin, Xiaofang Tang, Jiawei Zhang, Chao Wang, Hua Zhang, Guoliang Xia
Ovarian follicles are the basic functional units of female reproduction in the mammalian ovary. We show here that the protein a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (ADAM10), a cell surface sheddase, plays an indispensable role in controlling primordial follicle formation by regulating the recruitment of follicle supporting cells in mice. We demonstrate that suppressing ADAM10 in vitro or deletion of Adam10 in vivo disrupts germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation. Using a cell lineage tracing approach, we show that ADAM10 governs the recruitment of ovarian follicle cells by regulating the differentiation and proliferation of LGR5-positive follicle supporting progenitor cells...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Varsha Bhargava, Jens Hillebrand, Rahul K Kollipara, Mani Ramaswami, Michael Buszczak
RNA-binding Fox (Rbfox) proteins have well-established roles in regulating alternative splicing, but specific Rbfox isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and accumulate in the cytoplasm. The potential splicing-independent functions of these proteins remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic Drosophila Rbfox1 regulates germ cell development and represses the translation of mRNAs containing (U)GCAUG elements within their 3'UTRs. During germline cyst differentiation, Rbfox1 targets pumilio mRNA for destabilization and translational silencing, thereby promoting germ cell development...
March 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
Lydia Ferguson, Elena M Kaftanovskaya, Carmen Manresa, Agustin M Barbara, Robert J Poppiti, Yingchun Tan, Alexander I Agoulnik
The Notch signaling pathway is critical for the differentiation of many tissues and organs in the embryo. To study the consequences of Notch1 gain-of-function signaling on female reproductive tract development, we used a cre-loxP strategy and Amhr2-cre transgene to generate mice with conditionally activated Notch1 (Rosa(Notch1)). The Amhr2-cre transgene is expressed in the mesenchyme of developing female reproductive tract and in granulosa cells in the ovary. Double transgenic Amhr2-cre, Rosa(Notch1) females were infertile, whereas control Rosa(Notch1) mice had normal fertility...
March 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Qing Ma, Margaret de Cuevas, Erika L Matunis
Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism...
March 1, 2016: Development
John R Pearson, Federico Zurita, Laura Tomás-Gallardo, Alfonsa Díaz-Torres, María Del Carmen Díaz de la Loza, Kristian Franze, María D Martín-Bermudo, Acaimo González-Reyes
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a pivotal component adult tissues and of many tissue-specific stem cell niches. It provides structural support and regulates niche signaling during tissue maintenance and regeneration. In many tissues, ECM remodeling depends on the regulation of MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) activity by inhibitory TIMP (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases) proteins. Here, we report that the only Drosophila timp gene is required for maintaining the normal organization and function of the germline stem cell niche in adult females...
January 2016: PLoS Genetics
Hiroshi Kaku, Hirokazu Usui, Jia Qu, Makio Shozu
Mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) in the ovaries have been thought to originate from germ cells from all developmental stages, i.e., from pre-meiotic oogonia through meiotic oocytes to mature post-meiotic ova. This view was based on research on MCTs by classical methods, including those involving centromeric heteromorphisms in karyotypes, enzyme polymorphisms, and DNA polymorphisms. However, insufficient genomic information was obtained in those studies. The current study aimed to confirm the cytogenetic origin of ovarian MCTs by using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism analysis to obtain sufficient genomic information, especially in connection with centromeric loci...
April 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Elena Ţarcă, Irina-Mihaela Ciomaga, Bogdan Savu, Doina Mihăilă, Petru Plămădeală, Sandu Gabriel Aprodu
Borderline ovarian serous tumors are a rare distinct category of epithelial ovarian tumors, distinguished from both benign and invasive ovarian tumors. As borderline ovarian cysts are only a small part of the gynecological conditions of children, the therapeutic approach to this special type of tumor has not been standardized yet. Despite the technological breakthroughs that we have witnessed lately, the positive diagnosis of ovarian tumors is possible only by surgery and histopathological examination, and laparoscopic surgery has become the golden standard in the management of this condition...
2015: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Yaakov Melcer, Tal Sarig-Meth, Ron Maymon, Moty Pansky, Zvi Vaknin, Noam Smorgick
BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate and compare the clinical presentation, ultrasound findings, surgical characteristics, and causes of adnexal torsion among three groups: pediatric and adolescent population, reproductive-age women, and pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty-seven surgically confirmed episodes of adnexal torsion in 199 patients treated in our department from January 2008 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Abdominal pain duration of >24 hours before emergency room presentation was more common in pediatric and adolescent patients compared with reproductive-age and pregnant women (42...
April 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Mohammed Arif, Sonu Chand Thakur, Kasturi Datta
CONTEXT: Thymoquinone (TQ), an active component of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Polycystic ovary syndrome exhibits chronic inflammatory behavior, thus might involve nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and related molecular factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to investigate and validate the effect of TQ in polycystic ovary (PCO) rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To validate the effect of TQ (1 µM/ml), NF-κB activation, COX2 (cyclooxygenase-2) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction were studied in the KK1 cell line...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yusuf Demir, Rıfkı Üçler, İsmet Alkiş, Gülay Bulut
A 30-year-old woman with hyperthyroidism was admitted to hospital. Although increased thyroid function was found, the gland was normal in ultrasonography (USG). Additionally, thyroid iodine uptake and Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy was normal. Abdomen USG detected a cystic pelvic mass in left ovary. A whole-body scan was performed 48 hours after oral ingestion of 29.6 MBq (0.8 mCi) I-131 (iodine-131) revealed a round structure located to the left lower abdomen. Iodine uptake was detected in this cyst which was compatible with functional thyroid tissue demonstrated by SPECT/CT...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Nicolas Chevalier, Françoise Paris, Sylvie Fontana, Jérôme Delotte, Laura Gaspari, Patricia Ferrari, Charles Sultan, Patrick Fénichel
BACKGROUND: McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), due to a somatic mutation of the GNAS1 gene, begins usually in girls with peripheral precocious puberty. Ovarian autonomy may persist in adulthood with acyclic hyperestrogenemia, infertility, and a potential risk of estrogen-dependent cancer. CASE: A 22-year-old woman, with MAS, was referred for infertility with left macropolycystic ovary, hyperestrogenemia, and chronic anovulation unsuccessfully treated by controlled hyperstimulation...
December 2015: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Ciro Dantas Soares, Alberto Costa Gurgel, Francisco de Assis de Souza Júnior, Samila Neres de Oliveira, Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho, Hanieri Gustavo Oliveira
Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures...
2015: Case Reports in Dentistry
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