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Functional cysts of the ovary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277136/the-role-of-nesfatin-1-expression-in-letrozole-induced-polycystic-ovaries-in-the-rat
#1
Yingqiao Xu, Hua Zhang, Qingchun Li, Kaixue Lao, Yanlin Wang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disorder, generally exhibiting the characteristic features of hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. Nesfatin-1 is derived from the precursor nucleobindin2 (NUCB2), and plays an active role in energy balance, glucose metabolism and most likely gonadal function. In order to explore the role of nesfatin-1, we employed a rat model that uses letrozole to induce PCOS. The PCOS rats exhibited increased body weight, irregular cycles, polycystic ovaries characterized by cysts formed from atretic follicles, and a diminished granulosa layer...
February 21, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137453/ovarian-preservation-from-tumors-and-torsions-in-girls-prospective-diagnostic-study
#2
Z B Stanković, K Sedlecky, D Savić, B J Lukač, I Mažibrada, S Perovic
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To develop a new decision tree system (DTS) for the management of adnexal masses in prepubertal and adolescent girls, aimed to improve the distinction between benign and malignant masses, help preserve affected ovaries during surgery and reduce the rate of surgical management of uncomplicated functional ovarian cysts. DESIGN: A prospective diagnostic study using clinical and ultrasound data collected for all patients under 19 years of age with adnexal masses managed between 2006 and 2015...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131763/oogenesis-in-three-species-of-naidinae-annelida-clitellata-is-extraovarian-of-the-stylaria-type
#3
Szymon Gorgoń, Agata Wardas, Mariola Krodkiewska, Piotr Świątek
Older observations, which were based solely on light microscopy, suggested that the main stages of oogenesis such as yolk uptake, take place outside the ovary, i.e. in the body or the ovisac cavity in some groups of clitellate annelids. Such extraovarian oogenesis was observed in naidines (Naidinae). Because there are no current data about the ovary organization and the course of oogenesis in Naidinae, we analyzed female gametogenesis in three common representatives of this taxon - Stylaria lacustris, Chaetogaster diaphanus and Ripistes parasita - using light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy...
September 15, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093350/a-visual-screen-for-diet-regulated-proteins-in-the-drosophila-ovary-using-gfp-protein-trap-lines
#4
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet...
January 16, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093231/the-effects-of-6-gingerol-on-reproductive-improvement-liver-functioning-and-cyclooxygenase-2-gene-expression-in-estradiol-valerate-induced-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-wistar-rats
#5
Parisa Sadat Pournaderi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Hamidreza Khodaei, Zahra Noormohammadi, Seyed Hossein Hejazi
6-Gingerol is the major pungent ingredient of ginger with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we evaluate the effects of 6-gingerol on the biochemical parameters and ovarian histological improvements in estradiol valerate (EV) induced PCOS rats. Thirty six female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, received normal diet, PCOS control, received 4 mg/kg EV injection for 28 days and two experimental groups, received an EV injection for 28 days and followed by 6-gingerol (200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg) for 14 days...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045919/alterations-in-gut-microbiome-composition-and-barrier-function-are-associated-with-reproductive-and-metabolic-defects-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-a-pilot-study
#6
Lisa Lindheim, Mina Bashir, Julia Münzker, Christian Trummer, Verena Zachhuber, Bettina Leber, Angela Horvath, Thomas R Pieber, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. In this pilot study, we compared the stool microbiome, gut permeability, and inflammatory status of women with PCOS and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043359/aberrant-effects-of-altrenogest-and-exposure-to-exogenous-gonadotropins-on-follicular-cysts-appearance-in-gilts
#7
A J Ziecik, J Klos, E Przygrodzka, R Milewski, B Jana
Research was conducted to determine the effect of altrenogest and exposure to exogenous gonadotropins on ovarian function in prepubertal and mature gilts. Crossbred, presumably sexually mature gilts (n = 51), were fed with altrenogest for 18 consecutive days and the day after the last feeding with altrenogest, gilts were treated with eCG and 72 hours later challenged with hCG. Animals were slaughtered on Days 10 to 13 of their gonadotropins synchronized estrous cycle. Ovaries were examined for the number of CL, number of follicular cysts, and presence of corpora albicantia...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038435/organelle-transport-during-mouse-oocyte-differentiation-in-germline-cysts
#8
REVIEW
Kanako Ikami, Nafisa Nuzhat, Lei Lei
During mammalian oogenesis, germ cells undergo oocyte differentiation and oocyte development to form mature oocytes that contain essential components for supporting early embryogenesis. However, only a small fraction of germ cells become mature oocytes and the mechanism of this massive germ cell loss has been unclear. Our recent studies suggested that the formation of functional oocytes and germ cell loss are interlinked by a 'nursing' process in germline cysts during oocyte differentiation in mouse fetal ovaries...
December 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956181/latent-tgf-%C3%AE-binding-protein-1-deficiency-decreases-female-fertility
#9
Eileen Dietzel, Sabine Weiskirchen, Julia Floehr, Masahito Horiguchi, Vesna Todorovic, Daniel B Rifkin, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Ralf Weiskirchen
The four latent transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) binding proteins LTBP1-4 are extracellular matrix-associated proteins playing a critical role in the activation of TGF-β. The LTBP1 gene forms two major transcript variants (i.e. Ltbp1S and Ltbp1L) that are derived from different promoters. We have previously shown the importance of LTBP1 in vivo by using three different Ltbp1 null mice that were either deleted for exons 1 and 2 (Ltbp1L knockout), exon 5 (Ltbp1ΔEx5), or exon 8 (Ltbp1ΔEx8). While the Ltbp1L knockout and the Ltbp1ΔEx8 are perinatal lethal and die of cardiovascular abnormalities, the Ltbp1ΔEx5 is viable because it expresses a short form of Ltbp1L that lacks 55 amino acids (Δ55 variant of Ltbp1) formed by splicing out exon 5, while lacking the Ltbp1S variant...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932268/ten-principles-for-a-safe-surgical-treatment-of-ovarian-endometriosis
#10
M A López-de la Torre, H M Abrao, L F Fernandes, R M Kho, M S Abrao
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a step-by-step laparoscopic approach for excision of ovarian endometrioma following surgical principles for safety and maximal preservation of ovarian function. DESIGN: Video SETTING: Medical management of ovarian endometriomas is not recommended. Operative laparoscopic is the treatment of choice. Although considered a simple procedure, ovarian cystectomy requires precise and correct technique in order to preserve ovarian function. PATIENT: Asymptomatic, 27yo woman with ultrasound imaging suggesting a 6,2 x 5,4 cm left endometrioma...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777323/a-single-dose-of-allopregnanolone-affects-the-ovarian-morphology-and-steroidogenesis
#11
Laura T Pelegrina, Antonella Rr Cáceres, Fernando A Giuliani, Joana A Asensio, Fernanda Parborell, Myriam Raquel Laconi
Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, is one of the best characterized neurosteroids. In a dose that mimics serum levels during stress, allopregnanolone inhibits sexual receptivity and ovulation and induces a decrease in luteinizing hormone levels. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of an intracerebroventricular administration of allopregnanolone on ovarian morphophysiology, serum and tissue levels of progesterone and estrogen, and enzymatic activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3α-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase in the ovary and in the medial basal hypothalamus on the morning of estrus...
October 24, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766947/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegfa-gene-variation-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-a-tunisian-women-population
#12
Assila Ben Salem, Fatma Megdich, Olfa Kacem, Malek Souayeh, Faten Hachani Ben Ali, Sondes Hizem, Faouzi Janhai, Mounir Ajina, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Mourad Assidi, Mohammed H Al Qahtani, Touhami Mahjoub
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the growth of a number of small cysts on the ovaries which leads to sex hormonal imbalance. Women who are affected by this syndrome suffer from irregular menstrual cycles, decline in their fertility, excessive hair growth, obesity, acne and most importantly cardiac function problems. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in tissue vascularization in general and in the pathogenesis of many diseases...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734842/growth-arrest-specific-2-gas2-is-a-critical-mediator-of-germ-cell-cyst-breakdown-and-folliculogenesis-in-mice
#13
J Philippe York, Yi Athena Ren, Jie Zeng, Bin Zhang, Fang Wang, Rui Chen, Jianqiao Liu, Xuefeng Xia, Pumin Zhang
In the mouse ovary, the primordial follicle pool is established through a diverse array of signaling pathways and tissue remodeling events. Growth arrest specific gene two (GAS2) is a highly conserved cytoskeleton-associated protein whose in vivo function remains unclear. In Drosophila, loss of the GAS2 homolog, Pigs, results in infertility. We demonstrate herein that, in the mouse ovary, GAS2 is expressed in the stromal cells surrounding the oocyte cysts on 16.5 dpc, and in stromal cells surrounding growing follicles during juvenile and adult life...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729213/amp-activated-protein-kinase-has-diet-dependent-and-independent-roles-in-drosophila-oogenesis
#14
Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Multiple aspects of organismal physiology influence the number and activity of stem cells and their progeny, including nutritional status. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), follicle stem cells (FSCs), and their progeny sense and respond to diet via complex mechanisms involving many systemic and local signals. AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is a highly conserved regulator of energy homeostasis known to be activated under low cellular energy conditions; however, its role in the ovarian response to diet has not been investigated...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301841/inhibition-of-mtor-signaling-pathway-delays-follicle-formation-in-mice
#15
Jing Zhang, Wenwen Liu, Xinhui Sun, Feifei Kong, Ye Zhu, Yue Lei, Youqiang Su, Yiping Su, Jing Li
In mammalian ovaries, follicle assembly requires proper germ cell cyst breakdown and the invasion of somatic cells to encapsulate individual oocytes. Abnormalities in this process lead to a number of pathologies such as premature ovarian failure and infertility. As a conserved pathway regulating cell growth and metabolism in response to growth factors and nutrients, the roles of mTOR signaling in follicular development have been extensively studied in recent years. However, its functions during follicle formation remain unknown...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270435/amplification-of-r-spondin1-signaling-induces-granulosa-cell-fate-defects-and-cancers-in-mouse-adult-ovary
#16
M-C De Cian, E Pauper, R Bandiera, V P I Vidal, S Sacco, E P Gregoire, A-A Chassot, C Panzolini, D Wilhelm, E Pailhoux, S A Youssef, A de Bruin, K Teerds, A Schedl, I Gillot, M-C Chaboissier
R-spondin1 is a secreted regulator of WNT signaling, involved in both embryonic development and homeostasis of adult organs. It can have a dual role, acting either as a mitogen or as a tumor suppressor. During ovarian development, Rspo1 is a key factor required for sex determination and differentiation of the follicular cell progenitors, but is downregulated after birth. In human, increased RSPO1 expression is associated with ovarian carcinomas, but it is not clear whether it is a cause or a consequence of the tumorigenic process...
January 12, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256152/local-administration-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-b-pdgfb-improves-follicular-development-and-ovarian-angiogenesis-in-a-rat-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#17
Mariana Di Pietro, Leopoldina Scotti, Griselda Irusta, Marta Tesone, Fernanda Parborell, Dalhia Abramovich
Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model...
September 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218112/the-association-of-the-dietary-fat-and-functional-ovarian-cysts-in-women-of-reproductive-age-referring-to-three-hospitals-in-mashhad-iran-2014
#18
Mahin Tafazoli, Elham Fazeli, Salameh Dadgar, Mohsen Nematy
BACKGROUND: Functional ovarian cysts (FOC) are one of the most common gynecological problems among women of reproductive age. Some studies have shown that diet may affect the function of the ovaries, so this study was performed to determine the association between the amount of dietary fat and functional ovarian cysts. METHODS: This case-control study was performed on 264 female patients (132 with cyst in the case group and 132 in the control group) aged 13 to 49...
April 2016: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084580/adam10-notch-signaling-governs-the-recruitment-of-ovarian-pregranulosa-cells-and-controls-folliculogenesis-in-mice
#19
Lizhao Feng, Yijing Wang, Han Cai, Guanghong Sun, Wanbao Niu, Qiliang Xin, Xiaofang Tang, Jiawei Zhang, Chao Wang, Hua Zhang, Guoliang Xia
Ovarian follicles are the basic functional units of female reproduction in the mammalian ovary. We show here that the protein a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (ADAM10), a cell surface sheddase, plays an indispensable role in controlling primordial follicle formation by regulating the recruitment of follicle supporting cells in mice. We demonstrate that suppressing ADAM10 in vitro or deletion of Adam10 in vivo disrupts germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation. Using a cell lineage tracing approach, we show that ADAM10 governs the recruitment of ovarian follicle cells by regulating the differentiation and proliferation of LGR5-positive follicle supporting progenitor cells...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954550/repression-of-pumilio-protein-expression-by-rbfox1-promotes-germ-cell-differentiation
#20
Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Varsha Bhargava, Jens Hillebrand, Rahul K Kollipara, Mani Ramaswami, Michael Buszczak
RNA-binding Fox (Rbfox) proteins have well-established roles in regulating alternative splicing, but specific Rbfox isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and accumulate in the cytoplasm. The potential splicing-independent functions of these proteins remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic Drosophila Rbfox1 regulates germ cell development and represses the translation of mRNAs containing (U)GCAUG elements within their 3'UTRs. During germline cyst differentiation, Rbfox1 targets pumilio mRNA for destabilization and translational silencing, thereby promoting germ cell development...
March 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
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