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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911754/cortical-control-of-spatial-resolution-by-vip-interneurons
#1
Inbal Ayzenshtat, Mahesh Miikael Karnani, Jesse Jackson, Rafael Yuste
: Neuronal tuning, defined by the degree of selectivity to a specific stimulus, is a hallmark of cortical computation. Understanding the role of GABAergic interneurons in shaping cortical tuning is now possible with the ability to manipulate interneuron classes selectively. Here, we show that interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP(+)) regulate the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using two-photon calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulations of VIP(+) cell activity, we found that activating VIP(+) cells elicited a stronger network response to stimuli of higher SFs, whereas suppressing VIP(+) cells resulted in a network response shift toward lower SFs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911494/determining-functional-aptamer-protein-interaction-by-biolayer-interferometry
#2
Xinhui Lou, Martin Egli, Xianbin Yang
Short single-stranded nucleic acids called aptamers are widely being explored as recognition molecules of high affinity and specificity for binding a wide range of target molecules, particularly protein targets. In biolayer interferometry (BLI), a simple Dip-and-Read approach in which the aptamer-coated biosensors are dipped into microplate wells is used to study the interactions between an aptamer and its target protein. Here we describe the protocol for the analysis of the interaction between a well-characterized anti-thrombin RNA aptamer with thrombin (Basic Protocol)...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910141/photocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution-driven-by-fefe-hydrogenase-models-tethered-to-fluorene-and-silafluorene-sensitizers
#3
Roman Goy, Luca Bertini, Tobias Rudolph, Shu Lin, Martin Schulz, Giuseppe Zampella, Benjamin Dietzek, Felix H Schacher, Luca De Gioia, Ken Sakai, Wolfgang Weigand
It is successfully shown that photocatalytic proton reduction to dihydrogen in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor, such as trimethylamine (TEA) and ascorbate, can be driven by compact sensitizer-catalyst dyads, that is, dithiolate-bridged [FeFe] hydrogenase models tethered to organic sensitizers, such as fluorenes and silafluorenes (1 a-4 a). The sensitizer-catalyst dyads 1 a-4 a show remarkable and promising catalytic activities as well as enhanced stabilities during photocatalysis performed under UV-light irradiation...
December 2, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909224/sarcomeric-protein-modification-during-adrenergic-stress-enhances-cross-bridge-kinetics-and-cardiac-output
#4
Kenneth S Gresham, Ranganath Mamidi, Jiayang Li, Hyerin Kwak, Julian E Stelzer
Molecular adaptations to chronic neurohormonal stress, including sarcomeric protein cleavage and phosphorylation, provide a mechanism to increase ventricular contractility and enhance cardiac output, yet the link between sarcomeric protein modifications and changes in myocardial function remains unclear. To examine the effects of neurohormonal stress on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric proteins, mice were administered combined α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonists (isoproterenol and phenylephrine; IPE) for 14 days using implantable osmotic pumps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905611/surface-tension-driven-self-alignment
#5
REVIEW
Massimo Mastrangeli, Quan Zhou, Veikko Sariola, Pierre Lambert
Surface tension-driven self-alignment is a passive and highly-accurate positioning mechanism that can significantly simplify and enhance the construction of advanced microsystems. After years of research, demonstrations and developments, the surface engineering and manufacturing technology enabling capillary self-alignment has achieved a degree of maturity conducive to a successful transfer to industrial practice. In view of this transition, a broad and accessible review of the physics, material science and applications of capillary self-alignment is presented...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903882/cap-analogs-modified-with-1-2-dithiodiphosphate-moiety-protect-mrna-from-decapping-and-enhance-its-translational-potential
#6
Malwina Strenkowska, Renata Grzela, Maciej Majewski, Katarzyna Wnek, Joanna Kowalska, Maciej Lukaszewicz, Joanna Zuberek, Edward Darzynkiewicz, Andreas N Kuhn, Ugur Sahin, Jacek Jemielity
Along with a growing interest in mRNA-based gene therapies, efforts are increasingly focused on reaching the full translational potential of mRNA, as a major obstacle for in vivo applications is sufficient expression of exogenously delivered mRNA. One method to overcome this limitation is chemically modifying the 7-methylguanosine cap at the 5' end of mRNA (m(7)Gppp-RNA). We report a novel class of cap analogs designed as reagents for mRNA modification. The analogs carry a 1,2-dithiodiphosphate moiety at various positions along a tri- or tetraphosphate bridge, and thus are termed 2S analogs...
November 16, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900739/-evidence-based-knowledge-translation-from-scientific-evidence-to-clinical-nursing-practice
#7
Kee-Hsin Chen, Ching-Chiu Kao, Chiehfeng Chen
In 1992, Gordon Guyatt coined the term "evidence-based medicine", which has since attracted worldwide attention. In 2007, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine set the goal that 90% of clinical decisions would be supported by accurate, timely, and up-to-date clinical information and would reflect the best available evidence by 2020. However, the chasm between knowing and doing remains palpable. In 2000, the Canadian Institute of Health Research applied the term "knowledge translation" to describe the bridge that is necessary to cross the gap between research knowledge and clinical practice...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900698/mining-microbial-signals-for-enhanced-biodiscovery-of-secondary-metabolites
#8
F Jerry Reen, Jose A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, Fergal O'Gara
The advent of metagenomics based biodiscovery has provided researchers with previously unforeseen access to the rich tapestry of natural bioactivity that exists in the biosphere. Unhindered by the "culturable bottleneck" that has severely limited the translation of the genetic potential that undoubtedly exists in nature, metagenomics nonetheless requires ongoing technological developments to maximize its efficacy and applicability to the discovery of new chemical entities.Here we describe methodologies for the detection and isolation of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules from metagenomics libraries...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900359/homozygous-inactivation-of-chek2-is-linked-to-a-familial-case-of-multiple-primary-lung-cancer-with-accompanying-cancers-in-other-organs
#9
Yoji Kukita, Jiro Okami, Noriko Yoneda-Kato, Ikuko Nakamae, Takeshi Kawabata, Masahiko Higashiyama, Junya Kato, Ken Kodama, Kikuya Kato
In clinical practice, there are a number of cancer patients with clear family histories, but the patients lack mutations in known familial cancer syndrome genes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enhanced the possibility of identifying causative genes in such cases. Two siblings, an elder sister and a younger brother, were found to have multiple primary lung cancers at the age of 60. The former subsequently developed breast cancer and had a history of uterine myoma. The latter had initially developed prostate cancer at the age of 59 and had a history of colon cancer...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900338/the-bridge-enhanced-anterior-cruciate-ligament-repair-bear-procedure-an-early-feasibility-cohort-study
#10
Martha M Murray, Brett M Flutie, Leslie A Kalish, Kirsten Ecklund, Braden C Fleming, Benedikt L Proffen, Lyle J Micheli
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. HYPOTHESIS: The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture)...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899338/high-touch-and-high-tech-ht2-proposal-transforming-patient-engagement-throughout-the-continuum-of-care-by-engaging-patients-with-portal-technology-at-the-bedside
#11
Ann Scheck McAlearney, Cynthia J Sieck, Jennifer L Hefner, Alison M Aldrich, Daniel M Walker, Milisa K Rizer, Susan D Moffatt-Bruce, Timothy R Huerta
BACKGROUND: For patients with complex care needs, engagement in disease management activities is critical. Chronic illnesses touch almost every person in the United States. The costs are real, personal, and pervasive. In response, patients often seek tools to help them manage their health. Patient portals, personal health records tethered to an electronic health record, show promise as tools that patients value and that can improve health. Although patient portals currently focus on the outpatient experience, the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (OSUWMC) has deployed a portal designed specifically for the inpatient experience that is connected to the ambulatory patient portal available after discharge...
November 29, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899102/bridging-the-gap-to-therapeutic-strategies-based-on-connexin-pannexin-biology
#12
Christian C Naus, Christian Giaume
A unique workshop was recently held focusing on enhancing collaborations leading to identify and update the development of therapeutic strategies targeting connexin/pannexin large pore channels. Basic scientists exploring the functions of these channels in various pathologies gathered together with leading pharma companies which are targeting gap junction proteins for specific therapeutic applications. This highlights how paths of discovery research can converge with therapeutic strategies in innovative ways to enhance target identification and validation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898394/mef2-transcription-factors-are-key-regulators-of-sprouting-angiogenesis
#13
Natalia Sacilotto, Kira M Chouliaras, Leonid L Nikitenko, Yao Wei Lu, Martin Fritzsche, Marsha D Wallace, Svanhild Nornes, Fernando García-Moreno, Sophie Payne, Esther Bridges, Ke Liu, Daniel Biggs, Indrika Ratnayaka, Shane P Herbert, Zoltán Molnár, Adrian L Harris, Benjamin Davies, Gareth L Bond, George Bou-Gharios, John J Schwarz, Sarah De Val
Angiogenesis, the fundamental process by which new blood vessels form from existing ones, depends on precise spatial and temporal gene expression within specific compartments of the endothelium. However, the molecular links between proangiogenic signals and downstream gene expression remain unclear. During sprouting angiogenesis, the specification of endothelial cells into the tip cells that lead new blood vessel sprouts is coordinated by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling and requires high levels of Notch ligand DLL4...
October 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890528/pathological-concentration-of-zinc-dramatically-accelerates-abnormal-aggregation-of-full-length-human-tau-and-thereby-significantly-increases-tau-toxicity-in-neuronal-cells
#14
Ji-Ying Hu, De-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Xue-Shou Li, Xiao-Qing Cheng, Jie Chen, Hai-Ning Du, Yi Liang
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles mainly composed of bundles of fibrils formed by microtubule-associated protein Tau. Here we study the effects of Zn(2+) on abnormal aggregation and cytotoxicity of a pathological mutant ΔK280 of full-length human Tau. As revealed by Congo red binding assays, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and immunogold electron microscopy, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) dramatically accelerates the fibrillization of ΔK280 both in vitro and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881786/neuronal-dysfunction-in-ipsc-derived-medium-spiny-neurons-from-chorea-acanthocytosis-patients-is-reversed-by-src-kinase-inhibition-and-f-actin-stabilization
#15
Nancy Stanslowsky, Peter Reinhardt, Hannes Glass, Norman Kalmbach, Maximilian Naujock, Niko Hensel, Verena Lübben, Arun Pal, Anna Venneri, Francesca Lupo, Lucia De Franceschi, Peter Claus, Jared Sterneckert, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann, Florian Wegner
: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by red blood cell acanthocytes and striatal neurodegeneration. Recently, severe cell membrane disturbances based on depolymerized cortical actin and an elevated Lyn kinase activity in erythrocytes from ChAc patients were identified. How this contributes to the mechanism of neurodegeneration is still unknown. To gain insight into the pathophysiology, we established a ChAc patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model and an efficient differentiation protocol providing a large population of human striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main target of neurodegeneration in ChAc...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871667/transport-of-soil-aged-silver-nanoparticles-in-unsaturated-sand
#16
Samuel K Kumahor, Pavel Hron, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Sondra Klitzke, Friederike Lang, Hans-Jörg Vogel
Engineered nanoparticles released into soils may be coated with humic substances, potentially modifying their surface properties. Due to their amphiphilic nature, humic coating is expected to affect interaction of nanoparticle at the air-water interface. In this study, we explored the roles of the air-water interface and solid-water interface as potential sites for nanoparticle attachment and the importance of hydrophobic interactions for nanoparticle attachment at the air-water interface. By exposing Ag nanoparticles to soil solution extracted from the upper soil horizon of a floodplain soil, the mobility of the resulting "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles was investigated and compared with the mobility of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles as investigated in an earlier study...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868239/co-exposure-to-sunlight-enhances-the-toxicity-of-naturally-weathered-deepwater-horizon-oil-to-early-lifestage-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus-and-speckled-seatrout-cynoscion-nebulosus
#17
Matthew Alloy, Thomas Ross Garner, Kristin Bridges, Charles Mansfield, Michael Carney, Heather Forth, Michelle Krasnec, Claire Lay, Ryan Takeshita, Jeffrey Morris, Shane Bonnot, James Oris, Aaron Roberts
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Red drum and speckled seatrout are both important fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn near-shore and produce positively buoyant embryos that hatch into larvae in approximately 24 h. The goal of the present study was to determine whether exposure to UV as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to early lifestage red drum and speckled seatrout...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867090/visual-cortex-responses-reflect-temporal-structure-of-continuous-quasi-rhythmic-sensory-stimulation
#18
Christian Keitel, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Neural processing of dynamic continuous visual input, and cognitive influences thereon, are frequently studied in paradigms employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. However, the temporal structure of natural stimuli is hardly ever fully rhythmic but possesses certain spectral bandwidths (e.g. lip movements in speech, gestures). Examining periodic brain responses elicited by strictly rhythmic stimulation might thus represent ideal, yet isolated cases. Here, we tested how the visual system reflects quasi-rhythmic stimulation with frequencies continuously varying within ranges of classical theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-13Hz) and beta bands (14-20Hz) using EEG...
November 17, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863256/molecular-basis-of-thermostability-enhancement-of-renilla-luciferase-at-higher-temperatures-by-insertion-of-a-disulfide-bridge-into-the-structure
#19
Zahra Fanaei Kahrani, Rahman Emamzadeh, Mahboobeh Nazari, S Mohammad Mahdi Rasa
Renilla luciferase (RLuc), also known as Renilla-luciferin 2-monooxygenase, is a light producing enzyme used in many biotechnological applications such as bioreporters. However, its kinetics stability -especially at higher temperatures- is a limiting factor for developing thermostable bioreporters. The aim of this study was to improve the stability (at higher temperatures) of super Renilla luciferase 8 (SRLuc 8) which is a red-emitter variety of RLuc, by introduction of a disulfide bridge into its structure...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862629/secreted-ectodomain-of-sialic-acid-binding-ig-like-lectin-9-and-mcp-1-synergistically-regenerate-transected-rat-peripheral-nerves-by-altering-macrophage-polarity
#20
Fumiya Kano, Kohki Matsubara, Minoru Ueda, Hideharu Hibi, Akihito Yamamoto
Peripheral nerves exhibit remarkable self-repairing reparative activity after a simple crush or cut injury. However, the neuronal transection involving a nerve gap overwhelms their repairing activity and causes persistent paralysis. Here, we show that an implantation of the serum-free conditioned medium from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) immersed in a collagen sponge into the nerve gap formed by rat facial nerves transection restored the neurological function. In contrast, SHED-CM specifically depleted of a set of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage inducers, Monocyte monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (sSiglec-9) lost the ability to restore neurological function in this model...
November 10, 2016: Stem Cells
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