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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735026/regulated-viral-bdnf-delivery-in-combination-with-schwann-cells-promotes-axonal-regeneration-through-capillary-alginate-hydrogels-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Shengwen Liu, Beatrice Sandner, Thomas Schackel, LaShae Nicholson, Abdelwahed Chtarto, Liliane Tenenbaum, Radhika Puttagunta, Rainer Müller, Norbert Weidner, Armin Blesch
Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735000/application-of-pharmacometrics-and-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-to-cancer-therapy-the-example-of-luminal-a-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Brett Fleisher, Kayla Andrews, Ashley A Brown, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disease composed of multiple subtypes with distinct morphologies and clinical implications. Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) is an emerging discipline bridging systems biology with pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) leveraging the systematic understanding of drugs' efficacy and toxicity. Despite numerous challenges in applying computational methodologies for QSP and mechanism-based PK/PD models to biological, physiological, and pharmacological data, bridging these disciplines has the potential to enhance our understanding of complex disease systems such as BC...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733640/interleukin-37-promotes-angiogenesis-through-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#3
Mengmeng Zhao, Yongguang Hu, Jiayi Jin, Ying Yu, Shanshan Zhang, Jingjing Cao, Yuanfen Zhai, Rongbin Wei, Juanjuan Shou, Wenping Cai, Shangfeng Liu, Xiaoping Yang, Guo-Tong Xu, Jianhua Yang, David B Corry, Shao Bo Su, Xialin Liu, Tianshu Yang
IL-37 is a novel pro-angiogenic cytokine that potently promotes endothelial cell activation and pathological angiogenesis in our previous study, but the mechanisms behind the pro-angiogenic effect of IL-37 are less well understood. Extending our observations, we found that TGF-β interacts with IL-37, and potently enhances the binding affinity of IL-37 to the ALK1 receptor complex, thus allowing IL-37 to signal through ALK1 to activate pro-angiogenic responses. We further show that TGF-β and ALK1 are required in IL-37 induced pro-angiogenic response in ECs and in the mouse model of Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729892/reversible-charge-trapping-in-bis-carbazole-diimide-redox-polymers-with-complete-luminescence-quenching-enabling-nondestructive-read-out-by-resonance-raman-spectroscopy
#4
Luuk Kortekaas, Federico Lancia, Jorn D Steen, Wesley R Browne
The coupling of substituted carbazole compounds through carbon-carbon bond formation upon one-electron oxidation is shown to be a highly versatile approach to the formation of redox polymer films. Although the polymerization of single carbazole units has been proposed earlier, we show that by tethering pairs of carbazoles double sequential dimerization allows for facile formation of redox polymer films with fine control over film thickness. We show that the design of the monomers and in particular the bridging units is key to polymer formation, with the diaminobenzene motif proving advantageous, in terms of the matching to the redox potentials of the monomer and polymer film and thereby avoiding limitations in film thickness (autoinsulation), but introduces unacceptable instability due to the intrinsic redox activity of this moiety...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729544/remarkable-hexafunctional-anion-receptor-with-operational-urea-based-inner-cleft-and-thiourea-based-outer-cleft-novel-design-with-high-efficiency-for-sulfate-binding
#5
Maryam Emami Khansari, Ali Mirchi, Avijit Pramanik, Corey R Johnson, Jerzy Leszczynski, Md Alamgir Hossain
The recognition of anions by designed receptors has attracted much attention in recent days. In particular, the selective binding of sulfate with artificial receptors is important because of its relevance to many biological and environmental applications. However, the development of organized molecular receptors with high-efficiency for sulfate binding still remains a significant challenge. We report a novel para-phenylene-bridged hexafunctional tripodal receptor that contains a urea-based inner cleft and a thiourea-based outer cleft, providing perfect sites for step-wise binding of two anions within a single cavity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729220/cognitive-enhancement-and-antipsychotic-like-activity-following-repeated-dosing-with-the-selective-m4-pam-vu0467154
#6
Robert W Gould, Michael D Grannan, Barak W Gunter, Jacob Ball, Michael Bubser, Thomas M Bridges, Jurgen Wess, Michael W Wood, Nicholas J Brandon, Mark E Duggan, Colleen M Niswender, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Carrie K Jones
Although selective activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms...
July 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728009/bridged-rebar-graphene-functionalized-aptasensor-for-pathogenic-e-coli-o78-k80-h11-detection
#7
Harmanjit Kaur, Munish Shorie, Manju Sharma, Ashok K Ganguli, Priyanka Sabherwal
We report a novel fabrication method of functionalised Bridged Rebar Graphene (BRG) onto newly designed nanostructured aptasensor for label free impedimetric sensing of pathogenic bacteria E. coli O78:K80:H11. The chemical facilitated unscrolling of MWCNT and subsequent bridging with terephthalaldehyde (TPA) to form 3D-hierarchical BRG nanoconstruct exhibited synergistic effect by combining enhanced electrical properties and facile chemical functionality for stable bio-interface. The bacteria-DNA interactions were captured on BRG nanostructured electrode by using specific anti-E...
July 5, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725865/the-science-of-empathy
#8
Helen Riess
Empathy plays a critical interpersonal and societal role, enabling sharing of experiences, needs, and desires between individuals and providing an emotional bridge that promotes pro-social behavior. This capacity requires an exquisite interplay of neural networks and enables us to perceive the emotions of others, resonate with them emotionally and cognitively, to take in the perspective of others, and to distinguish between our own and others' emotions. Studies show empathy declines during medical training...
June 2017: Journal of patient experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720507/formation-and-degradation-of-nitrogen-mustard-induced-mgmt-dna-crosslinking-in-16hbe-cells
#9
Jin Cheng, Feng Ye, Guorong Dan, Yuanpeng Zhao, Jiqing Zhao, Zhongmin Zou
N-methyl-2,2-di(chloroethyl)amine (HN2) is a kind of bifunctional alkyltating agent, which can react with nucleophilic groups in DNA and/or protein to form HN2-bridged crosslinking of target molecules, such as DNA-protein crosslinkings (DPC). O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA damage repair enzyme which solely repairs alkyl adduct on DNA directly. However, MGMT was detected to act as a protein cross-linked with DNA via alkylation in presence of HN2, and unexpectedly turned into a DNA damage enhancer in the form of MGMT-DNA cross-link (mDPC)...
July 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720456/mechanistic-mathematical-models-an-underused-platform-for-hpv-research
#10
REVIEW
Marc D Ryser, Patti E Gravitt, Evan R Myers
Health economic modeling has become an invaluable methodology for the design and evaluation of clinical and public health interventions against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases. At the same time, relatively little attention has been paid to a different yet complementary class of models, namely that of mechanistic mathematical models. The primary focus of mechanistic mathematical models is to better understand the intricate biologic mechanisms and dynamics of disease. Inspired by a long and successful history of mechanistic modeling in other biomedical fields, we highlight several areas of HPV research where mechanistic models have the potential to advance the field...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719988/experiences-of-integrated-care-for-dementia-from-family-and-carer-perspectives-a-framework-analysis-of-massive-open-online-course-discussion-board-posts
#11
David Robertshaw, Ainslea Cross
Background Integrated Care for dementia is an increasingly popular approach to supporting people with dementia, bringing services together to form a single cohesive provision for service users. This approach is still in its infancy but has the potential to improve the management of dementia, social care and to enhance the patient experience. Aims To understand views and experiences of integrated health and social care for dementia from the perspective of carers, families, healthcare professionals and researchers...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715972/defensins-in-viral-infection-and-pathogenesis
#12
Mayumi K Holly, Karina Diaz, Jason G Smith
α, β, and ω defensins are effectors of the innate immune system with potent antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. Defensins have direct antiviral activity in cell culture, with varied mechanisms for individual viruses, although some common themes have emerged. In addition, defensins have potent immunomodulatory activity that can alter innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. In some cases, there is evidence for paradoxical escape from defensin neutralization or enhancement of viral infection...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714116/commentary-an-exciting-evolutionary-framework-for-new-bridges-between-social-emotional-and-cognitive-development-a-reflection-on-suor-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#13
Grazyna Kochanska, Kathryn C Goffin
Suor et al. () present a compelling new evolutionary framework that offers an alternative interpretation of the well-established findings of cognitive deficits in children raised in harsh early environments. They argue that such findings do not convey a complete picture of those children's cognitive development, because children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways, and traditional abstract problem-solving tasks do not fully capture their abilities. The authors demonstrate that children exposed to early harshness, particularly children with Hawk temperaments, preferentially shift cognition to salient fitness-enhancing stimuli, and thus develop better skills for solving reward-oriented tasks...
August 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712081/survey-on-awareness-and-attitudes-of-secondary-school-students-regarding-plastic-pollution-implications-for-environmental-education-and-public-health-in-sharjah-city-uae
#14
Mohammad Bakri Alaa Hammami, Eman Qasem Mohammed, Anas Mohammad Hashem, Mina Amer Al-Khafaji, Fatima Alqahtani, Shaikha Alzaabi, Nihar Dash
Since the industrial revolution in the 1800s, plastic pollution is becoming a global reality. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude about plastic pollution among secondary school students in Sharjah city, United Arab Emirates. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 students in 6 different secondary schools in Sharjah city. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through probability stratified random sampling method between February and April 2016. Majority of the population understands how harmful plastic wastes are to the environment (85...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710984/aggregation-behavior-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-municipal-effluent-influence-of-ionic-strengthen-and-organic-compounds
#15
Meijie Ren, Harald Horn, Fritz H Frimmel
The influence of ionic strengthen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in municipal effluent was investigated. The results demonstrated that DOM promoted the mobility of NPs in aquatic system by synergism between static repulsion and steric effect, while electrolytes were opposite by charge-neutralization. The physical-chemical characteristics of DOM played the major role on the mobility of NPs. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed the strongest enhancement on the mobility of TiO2 NPs...
July 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707677/-omics-and-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-new-paths-forward
#16
REVIEW
Carmen Messerlian, Rosie M Martinez, Russ Hauser, Andrea A Baccarelli
The emerging field of omics - large-scale data-rich biological measurements of the genome - provides new opportunities to advance and strengthen research into endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Although some EDCs have been associated with adverse health effects in humans, our understanding of their impact remains incomplete. Progress in the field has been primarily limited by our inability to adequately estimate and characterize exposure and identify sensitive and measurable outcomes during windows of vulnerability...
July 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698982/targeting-the-reactive-intermediate-in-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#17
Erik D Hedegård, Ulf Ryde
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper metalloenzymes that can enhance polysaccharide depolymerization through an oxidative mechanism, making them interesting for the production of biofuel from cellulose. However, the details of this activation are unknown; in particular, the nature of the intermediate that attacks the glycoside C-H bond in the polysaccharide is not known, and a number of different species have been suggested. The homolytic bond-dissociation energy (BDE) has often been used as a descriptor for the bond-activation power, especially for inorganic model complexes...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698049/tensins-bridging-amp-activated-protein-kinase-with-integrin-activation
#18
REVIEW
Maria Georgiadou, Johanna Ivaska
Integrin activation is essential for cell adhesion and for connecting the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, inappropriate integrin activation has been linked to several diseases, including cancer. Recent insights demonstrate that the main fibrillar adhesion component tensin maintains β1-integrin active in these mature adhesions. Depletion or silencing of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor involved in maintaining the energy balance of the cell, enhances integrin activity by increasing the expression of tensin and thereby promoting cell adhesion, matrix formation, and mechanotransduction...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692990/discriminative-block-diagonal-representation-learning-for-image-recognition
#19
Zheng Zhang, Yong Xu, Ling Shao, Jian Yang
Existing block-diagonal representation studies mainly focuses on casting block-diagonal regularization on training data, while only little attention is dedicated to concurrently learning both block-diagonal representations of training and test data. In this paper, we propose a discriminative block-diagonal low-rank representation (BDLRR) method for recognition. In particular, the elaborate BDLRR is formulated as a joint optimization problem of shrinking the unfavorable representation from off-block-diagonal elements and strengthening the compact block-diagonal representation under the semisupervised framework of LRR...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690444/the-benefits-of-a-real-time-web-based-response-system-for-enhancing-engaged-learning-in-classrooms-and-public-science-events
#20
Mark A Sarvary, Kathleen M Gifford
Large introduction to neuroscience classes and small science cafés have the same goal: bridging the gap between the presenter and the audience to convey the information while being engaging. Early classroom response systems became the cornerstone of flipped and engaged learning. These "clickers" helped turn lectures into dialogues, allowing the presenter to become a facilitator rather than a "sage on the stage." Rapid technological developments, especially the increase of computing power opened up new opportunities, moving these systems from a clicker device onto cellphones and laptops...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
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