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Benign diseases of the female genital tract

Michael J Nathenson, Vinod Ravi, Nicole Fleming, Wei-Lien Wang, Anthony Conley
Adenosarcomas are rare malignancies of the female genital tract, accounting for approximately 5 % of uterine sarcomas. Occasionally, adenosarcoma occurs in the ovaries or in extra-uterine tissue, which may be related to endometriosis. These tumors are characterized by benign epithelial elements and a malignant mesenchymal component. Pathologic diagnosis is dependent on the identification of the characteristic morphologic features. The most common immunohistochemical markers for adenosarcoma are CD10 and WT1, but these are not specific...
November 2016: Current Oncology Reports
Jefree J Schulte, Ricardo R Lastra
Abdominopelvic washings (APW) performed during gynecologic surgeries have become a common specimen evaluated by cytopathologists. Their role in staging of female genital tract tumors has changed significantly since they were first described, and continue to evolve. The ability of these washings to detect microscopic disease, even in the absence of gross disease, warrants the critical role that these washings play in the staging of certain female gynecologic tract tumors, allowing for optimal staging and subsequent treatment of the patient...
August 30, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Adeline Tan, Paul Cohen, Mooska Raoofi, Jason Tan, Nima Mesbah Ardakani, Greg Sterrett
BACKGROUND: Psammoma bodies in cervical smears are rare but may be associated with benign and malignant diseases of the female genital tract. CASE: A 52-year-old nulliparous woman presented with a 2-month history of intermittent vaginal spotting and post-coital bleeding. A cervical smear showed an inconclusive high-grade glandular lesion with psammomatous calcification. Previous cervical smears had been normal. This smear contained papillary tissue fragments, occasional spheres of gland-like cells and frequent psammoma bodies...
2015: Acta Cytologica
Paola Dal Cin
A great diversity of chromosome alterations have been reported in mesenchymal tumors of the female genital tract, particularly in the uterus. Some of these alterations specifically identify a certain tumor type. Cytogenetic studies on benign proliferations have not only demonstrated clonal chromosome changes, but have also pointed out clustering of aberrations to specific chromosome regions. For example, distinct cytogenetic subgroups have been described in uterine leiomyomas with overlapping histologic features...
December 2009: Surgical Pathology Clinics
Wen-Hao Zhang, Xin-Hua Zhang
Phosphodiesterase isoenzymes 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) are the first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). The constant discoveries of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) cell-signaling pathway for smooth muscle (SM) control in other urogenital tracts (UGTs) make PDE5-Is promising pharmacologic agents against other benign urological diseases. This article reviews the literature and contains some previously unpublished data about characterizations and activities of PDE5 and its inhibitors in treating urological disorders...
September 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Simona Stolnicu, Claudiu Molnar, Iulia Barsan, Monica Boros, Francisco F Nogales, Robert A Soslow
Mullerian adenosarcomas are uncommon tumors of the female genital tract characterized by a synchronous proliferation of benign glands and sarcomatous stroma. In general, uterine Mullerian adenosarcomas are associated with a low risk of recurrence. The presence of "stromal overgrowth" (SO), historically defined by an estimate of the volume of sarcoma growing independently of epithelium, is associated with deep myometrial invasion, presence of heterologous elements, and poor outcomes. Very rarely, the stromal component can harbor foci resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (FROSCT)...
March 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Flavio Grauso, Giancarlo Balbi, Maria Luisa D'Aponte, Andrea Ronchi, Roberto Russo, Francesca Falcone, Enrico Michelino Messalli
Vaginal angiomatosis is regarded as part of a very rare entity of benign vascular tumors of the female genital tract. The incidence of these tumors is extremely low. The rarity of this disease and lack of distinctive features poses a problem of differential diagnosis. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with grade III uterine prolapse and a bleeding vaginal wall mass. Violaceous irregular soft tissue with hemorrhagic spots was observed in the lower third of the posterior vaginal wall. The patient underwent surgery for colpohysterectomy with vaginal wall mass excision...
2015: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Twenty five years have passed since the first research efforts in Greece on human papillomavirus (HPV) performed by the Department of Clinical Virology at the University of Crete School of Medicine. HPV infection in the human cervix was initially evaluated in relation to the host mutational and transcriptional activation of the ras/raf genes pathway, p53 gene polymorphisms, neo-angiogenesis- related gene expression and G1/S phase transition. A series of epidemiological studies ensued, evaluating HPV infection in the ophthalmic pterygium, benign laryngeal tumors, parotid lesions, nasal polyposis, actinic keratosis, aborted material and non-genital cancers...
January 2015: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Gianluca Grechi, Nicolò Clemente, Alessandra Tozzi, Andrea Ciavattini
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare hereditary multisystemic disease. Multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal abnormalities are the main clinical manifestations of the syndrome, but several organs can be involved. Moreover, this condition is associated with the development of various benign and malignant tumors, even in the genital tract. This report describes a rare association between Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and the sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary. Because the ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging patterns of this tumor can be similar to those of a malignant neoplasm, prompt surgical intervention and histological confirmation of diagnosis is mandatory; however, this is a benign lesion and thus can be approached with a laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery...
July 2015: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
João Lopes Dias, Teresa Margarida Cunha, Filipe Veloso Gomes, Catarina Callé, Ana Félix
BACKGROUND: Both primary and secondary gynaecological neuroendocrine (NE) tumours are uncommon, and the literature is scarce concerning their imaging features. METHODS: This article reviews the epidemiological, clinical and imaging features with pathological correlation of gynaecological NE tumours. RESULTS: The clinical features of gynaecological NE tumours are non-specific and depend on the organ of origin and on the extension and aggressiveness of the disease...
February 2015: Insights Into Imaging
Jaroslaw Szydłowski, Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna, Beata Pucher, Beata Buraczyńska-Andrzejewska, Magdalena Prauzińska, Jagoda Kolasińska-Lipińska, Hanna Krauss, Jacek Piątek, Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak
INTRODUCTION: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal...
2014: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
André J Scheen
Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug...
January 2015: Drugs
Brooke E Howitt, Lynette M Sholl, P Dal Cin, Yonghui Jia, Liping Yuan, Laura MacConaill, Neal Lindeman, Frank Kuo, Elizabeth Garcia, Marisa R Nucci, Bradley J Quade
Müllerian adenosarcoma (MA) is a rare mixed mesenchymal tumour of the female genital tract, composed of malignant stroma and benign-appearing epithelium. Sarcomatous overgrowth (SO) is the only established histological variable associated with higher stage and shorter survival. Specific molecular or immunohistochemistry (IHC) tools for the diagnosis of MA are lacking. Our goal was to study genomic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs) in MA to understand better its pathobiology, and develop specific diagnostic and prognostic tools...
January 2015: Journal of Pathology
Veronica Andrea Maldonado
In the last few decades, gynecological visits for vulvar conditions have increased, often for symptoms of vulvar itching and burning. Although benign vulvar tumors are an uncommon condition of the lower genital tract, it is important to consider these tumors in the differential diagnosis of vulvar complaints. To date, there is no accepted classification for benign tumors. However, these tumors can be differentiated by clinical criteria, such as benign cystic and solid tumors. Common benign tumors of the vulva include the Bartholin gland cyst or abscess, epidermoid inclusion cysts, and angiomas...
October 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Andres Kohan, Norbert E Avril
With the widespread use of whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography as a diagnostic tool in patients with cancer, incidental findings are of increasing importance. This is particularly true within the pelvis, where several benign findings might present with increased FDG uptake. In addition, physiologic excretion of radiotracer by way of the urinary tract can complicate image analysis. This article reviews potential incidental benign findings in the pelvis that one should be aware of when interpreting FDG-PET/computed tomography scans...
April 2014: PET Clinics
Rajiv Kumar, Saral Desai, Trupti Pai, C S Pramesh, Nirmala Ajit Jambhekar
Pulmonary adenofibroma is a rare benign biphasic tumor of the lung composed of epithelial and stromal components. We report 3 cases of this unusual lesion of lung in a male (25 years old) and 2 female (40 and 55 years old) patients. Breathlessness on exertion and mild left-sided chest pain of 1 month's duration were the main concerns in 2 patients, whereas the third had cough and hemoptysis for 3 months. Chest radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed a well-circumscribed, subpleural homogenous mass in left lower chest fields in 2 cases and solid-cystic lesion in left upper lobe in the third patient...
August 2014: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Zeynep Ozkan, Ayse Nur Gonen, Seyfi Emir, Fatih Mehmet Yazar, Evrim Gul, Zeynep Dogan Artas, Ozgen Aslan, Hakan Artas
Leiomyomas are benign tumours that usually originate from the genital tract organs, particularly from the uterus. Spontaneous rupture of leiomyomas is a relatively rare condition. Herein, we report a 70 years old lady who was admitted through the emergency room with sudden abdominal pain. A ruptured mass originating from the fallopian tube, causing haemoperitoneum was revealed at laparotomy. Pathological examination revealed cellular leiomyoma.
May 2014: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Masaki Goto, Mika Uchiyama, Kyoko Kuwabara
Adenomatoid tumors are relatively uncommon benign tumors of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male or female genital tracts. Extragenital adenomatoid tumors are quite rare. Here, we report a very rare case of adenomatoid tumor of the mediastinum. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with an abnormal shadow that appeared on a routine chest radiograph. After further radiological evaluation suggested a diagnosis of thymoma, surgical resection was performed, and histologic and immunohistochemical examination yielded a definitive diagnosis of adenomatoid tumor...
January 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
V Romeo, M Framarino Dei Malatesta, F Nudo, L Simonelli, M Derme, P B Berloco
While studying a candidate for kidney transplant it is essential to exclude active malignant diseases. Serum biomarkers help to exclude specific cancers. Tumor markers are proteins secreted by neoplastic cells that can mark their activities. HE4 is a new tumor marker used in ovarian cancer. It is an epithelium protein that appears overexpressed in ovarian cancer, but it is also present in other normal human tissues. Often in patients with kidney failure serum biomarkers are increased compared to healthy people...
2014: La Clinica Terapeutica
Paul P Smith, Siobhan O'Connor, Janesh Gupta, T Justin Clark
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of genital tract diseases in women with initial and recurrent postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) to help inform diagnostic pathways. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification: II-2). SETTING: Large urban teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Of 1938 consecutive women with postmenopausal bleeding, 106 (5%) were investigated for a recurrent episode after having normal findings of previous investigations...
September 2014: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
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