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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812826/a-policy-analysis-on-the-proactive-prevention-of-chronic-disease-learnings-from-the-initial-implementation-of-integrated-measurement-for-early-detection-mido
#1
Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Rodrigo Saucedo-Martínez, Ricardo Mújica-Rosales, Héctor Gallardo-Rincón, Evan Lee, Craig Waugh, Lucía Guajardo, Braulio Torres-Beltrán, Úrsula Quijano-González, Mauricio López-Mendez, Elena Rose Atkinson
Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812537/leveraging-network-analytics-to-infer-patient-syndrome-and-identify-causal-genes-in-rare-disease-cases
#2
Andreas Krämer, Sohela Shah, Robert Anthony Rebres, Susan Tang, Daniel Rene Richards
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing is widely used to identify disease-causing variants in patients with rare genetic disorders. Identifying those variants from whole-genome or exome data can be both scientifically challenging and time consuming. A significant amount of time is spent on variant annotation, and interpretation. Fully or partly automated solutions are therefore needed to streamline and scale this process. RESULTS: We describe Phenotype Driven Ranking (PDR), an algorithm integrated into Ingenuity Variant Analysis, that uses observed patient phenotypes to prioritize diseases and genes in order to expedite causal-variant discovery...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812502/post-discharge-care-for-patients-following-stoma-formation-what-the-nurse-needs-to-know
#3
Jennie Burch
Rationale and key points This article discusses post-discharge care for patients following stoma formation. While the patient is taught the practicalities of managing the stoma appliance in hospital, this learning should be integrated into their daily life following discharge from hospital. Nurses are required to consider and address any issues that might affect the patient in the long term. These include changes in body image, adapting to having a stoma, preventing or treating complications associated with a stoma, and long-term follow-up...
August 16, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812393/innate-lymphoid-cells-the-role-in-respiratory-infections-and-lung-tissue-damage
#4
Anna Głobińska, Marek L Kowalski
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases...
August 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812361/ultrasensitive-and-accurate-assay-of-human-methyltransferase-activity-at-the-single-cell-level-based-on-a-single-integrated-magnetic-microprobe
#5
Haiyan Zhao, Lei Wang, Weiqi Li, Shumei Zhai, Wei Jiang
Human DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity expression patterns and inhibition response are linked to related cancer initiation, progression and therapeutic responses. Sensitive and accurate human MTase activity assay in cancer cells, especially at the single-cell level, is essential for biological study, clinical diagnosis and therapy. Here, we developed an ultrasensitive and accurate DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) activity assay at the single-cell level based on a single integrated magnetic microprobe of functionalized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) anchored to a single magnetic microbead surface...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812274/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders
#6
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
In the present chapter, we review the literature focusing on oxytocin (OT)-centered research in anxiety spectrum conditions, comprising separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and anxiety-related endophenotypes (e.g., trust behavior, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and state/trait anxiety). OT receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms have been implicated in gene-environment interactions with attachment style and childhood maltreatment and to influence clinical outcomes, including SAD intensity and limbic responsiveness...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812273/a-precision-medicine-approach-to-oxytocin%C3%A2-trials
#7
Elissar Andari, Rene Hurlemann, Larry J Young
In this chapter, we introduce a new area of social pharmacology that encompasses the study of the role of neuromodulators in modulating a wide range of social behaviors and brain function, with the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors. There are increasing evidences for the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in modulating a wide range of social behaviors, in reducing anxiety, and in impacting the social brain network. Oxytocin also promotes social functions in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and reduces anxiety and fear in anxiety disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812256/the-potential-for-emerging-microbiome-mediated-therapeutics-in-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Ayse Bilge Ozturk, Benjamin Arthur Turturice, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma...
August 10, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812247/towards-robot-assisted-echocardiographic-monitoring-in-catheterization-laboratories-usability-centered-manipulator-for-transesophageal-echocardiography
#9
Christina Pahl, Henning Ebelt, Mostafa Sayahkaraji, Eko Supriyanto, Amiliana Soesanto
This paper proposes a robotic Transesophageal Echocardiography (TOE) system concept for Catheterization Laboratories. Cardiovascular disease causes one third of all global mortality. TOE is utilized to assess cardiovascular structures and monitor cardiac function during diagnostic procedures and catheter-based structural interventions. However, the operation of TOE underlies various conditions that may cause a negative impact on performance, the health of the cardiac sonographer and patient safety. These factors have been conflated and evince the potential of robot-assisted TOE...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#10
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812203/assessment-of-methodologies-to-calculate-intraventricular-pressure-differences-in-computational-models-and-patients
#11
Francisco J Londono-Hoyos, Abigail Swillens, Joris Van Cauwenberge, Brett Meyers, Maheswara Reddy Koppula, Pavlos Vlachos, Julio A Chirinos, Patrick Segers
Intraventricular pressure differences (IVPDs) govern left ventricular (LV) efficient filling and are a significant determinant of LV diastolic function. Our primary aim is to assess the performance of available methods (color M-mode (CMM) and 1D/2D MRI-based methods) to determine IVPDs from intracardiac flow measurements. Performance of three methods to calculate IVPDs was first investigated via an LV computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. CFD velocity data were derived along a modifiable scan line, mimicking ultrasound/MRI acquisition of 1D (IVPDCMM/IVPD1D MRI) and 2D (IVPD2D MRI) velocity-based IVPD information...
August 16, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812121/-teaching-in-orthopaedic-and-trauma-surgery
#12
T Renkawitz, A Benditz, M Rüsseler, U Obertacke, J Grifka, M Weber
The scramble for available places to study medicine in Germany continues. One of the core points within the "Master Plan 2020", which has been recently adopted, is the reform of teaching concepts at German medical faculties. In the future, students of human medicine are to be trained primarily based upon competence-oriented, integrated curricula. The present paper is intended to present modern teaching concepts and methods, as well as current examination formats, which play a special role in student training in orthopaedics and traumatology...
August 15, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812044/monte-carlo-simulations-of-randomized-clinical-trials-in-epilepsy
#13
Daniel M Goldenholz, Joseph Tharayil, Robert Moss, Evan Myers, William H Theodore
BACKGROUND: The placebo response in epilepsy randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has recently been shown to largely reflect underlying natural variability in seizure frequency. Based on this observation, we sought to explore the parameter space of RCT design to optimize trial efficiency and cost. METHODS: We used one of the world's largest patient reported seizure diary databases, SeizureTracker.com to derive virtual patients for simulated RCTs. We ran 1000 randomly generated simulated trials using bootstrapping (sampling with replacement) for each unique combination of trial parameters, sweeping a large set of parameters in durations of the baseline and test periods, number of patients, eligibility criteria, drug effect size, and patient dropout...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811864/identification-of-four-oxidative-stress-responsive-micrornas-mir-34a-5p-mir-1915-3p-mir-638-and-mir-150-3p-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Yong Wan, Ruixia Cui, Jingxian Gu, Xing Zhang, Xiaohong Xiang, Chang Liu, Kai Qu, Ting Lin
Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays an essential role during carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism between oxidative stress and carcinogenesis remains unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are revealed to be involved in oxidative stress response and carcinogenesis. This study aims to identify miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells which might involve in oxidative stress response. An integrated analysis of miRNA expression signature was performed by employing robust rank aggregation (RRA) method, and four miRNAs (miR-34a-5p, miR-1915-3p, miR-638, and miR-150-3p) were identified as the oxidative stress-responsive miRNAs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811702/precision-medicine-in-need-of-guidance-and-surveillance
#15
EDITORIAL
Jian-Zhen Lin, Jun-Yu Long, An-Qiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Hai-Tao Zhao
Precision medicine, currently a hotspot in mainstream medicine, has been strongly promoted in recent years. With rapid technological development, such as next-generation sequencing, and fierce competition in molecular targeted drug exploitation, precision medicine represents an advance in science and technology; it also fulfills needs in public health care. The clinical translation and application of precision medicine - especially in the prevention and treatment of tumors - is far from satisfactory; however, the aims of precision medicine deserve approval...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811520/chronic-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-is-determined-by-fragmentation-of-residual-white-matter-networks
#16
Barbara K Marebwa, Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Lynda Feenaughty, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Many stroke survivors with aphasia in the acute period experience spontaneous recovery within the first six months after the stroke. However, approximately 30-40% sustain permanent aphasia and the factors determining incomplete recovery are unclear. Suboptimal recovery may be influenced by disruption of areas seemingly spared by the stroke due to loss of white matter connectivity and network integrity. We reconstructed individual anatomical whole-brain connectomes from 90 left hemisphere stroke survivors using diffusion MR images...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811270/developing-and-evaluating-jiapp-acceptability-and-usability-of-a-smartphone-app-system-to-improve-self-management-in-young-people-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#17
Ran A Cai, Dominik Beste, Hema Chaplin, Socrates Varakliotis, Linda Suffield, Francesca Josephs, Debajit Sen, Lucy R Wedderburn, Yiannakis Ioannou, Stephen Hailes, Despina Eleftheriou
BACKGROUND: Flare-ups in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are characterized by joint pain and swelling and often accompanied with fatigue, negative emotions, and reduced participation in activities. To minimize the impact of JIA on the physical and psychosocial development and well-being of young people (YP), it is essential to regularly monitor disease activity and side effects, as well as to support self-management such as adherence to treatment plans and engagement in general health-promoting behaviors...
August 15, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811246/microbial-metagenomics-mock-scenario-based-sample-simulation-m3s3
#18
Yair Motro, Jacob Moran-Gilad
OBJECTIVES: Shotgun sequencing in increasingly applied in clinical microbiology for unbiased culture-independent diagnosis. While software solutions for metagenomics proliferate, integration of metagenomics in clinical care, requires method standardisation and validation. Virtual metagenomics samples could underpin validation by substituting real samples and thus we sought to develop a novel solution for simulation of metagenomics samples based on user-defined clinical scenarios. METHODS: We designed the Microbial Metagenomics Mock Scenario-based Sample Simulation (M3S3) workflow, which allows users to generate virtual samples from raw reads or assemblies...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811131/assessment-of-translational-risk-in-drug-research-role-of-biomarker-classification-and-mechanism-based-pkpd-concepts
#19
Sandra A G Visser, Tjerk J H Bueters
In 2005, Danhof and coauthors proposed a new biomarker classification in the context of the application of mechanism-based PKPD modeling. They defined the term 'biomarker' as a measure that characterizes a drug-induced response, which is on the causal path between drug administration and clinical outcome. The biomarker classification identified seven categories that provide different insights into the kinetics of drug action, such as target site distribution, target engagement, or into the impact of the drug on physiology or disease...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811089/physician-experiences-with-clinical-pharmacists-in-primary-care-teams
#20
Gerardo Moreno, Sarah Lonowski, Jeffrey Fu, Janet S Chon, Natalie Whitmire, Carolina Vasquez, Samuel A Skootsky, Douglas S Bell, Richard Maranon, Carol M Mangione
BACKGROUND: Improving medication management is an important component of comprehensive care coordination for health systems. The Managing Your Medication for Education and Daily Support (MyMeds) medication management program at the University of California Los Angeles addresses medication management issues by embedding trained clinical pharmacists in primary care practice teams. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to examine and explore physician opinions about the clinical pharmacist program and identify common themes among physician experiences as well as barriers to integration of clinical pharmacists into primary care practice teams...
August 12, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
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