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John M S Pearce
Edgar Douglas Adrian was an outstandingly brilliant, Nobel prize-winning neurophysiologist. He is remembered for developing the all-or-none principle of muscle contraction, and for explaining the minutiae of motor and sensory nerve transmission. He showed that the afferent effect in a neuron depends on the pattern in time of the impulses travelling in it, thereby providing a quantitative basis of nervous behaviour. With Sir Charles Sherrington, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1932 for discoveries on the functions of the neurons...
December 14, 2017: European Neurology
Yvonne Fontein-Kuipers, Enja Romeijn
AIM: to evaluate the ISeeYou project that aims to equip first year Bachelor midwifery students to support them in their learning of providing woman-centred care. METHODS: the project has an ethnographic design. First year midwifery students buddied up to one woman throughout her continuum of the childbirth process and accompanied her during her antenatal and postnatal care encounters. Participant-observation was utilised by the students to support their learning...
November 28, 2017: Midwifery
Qingzhong Huang, Qiang Liu, Jinsong Xia
We have proposed and studied a novel channel add-drop filter (ADF) based on a single Fabry-Perot resonator. The resonator consists of two mode-conversion Bragg grating reflectors separated by a wide waveguide that laterally coupled to two narrow waveguides. It behaves like a traveling-wave resonator where fields are coupled to the buses in one direction. Compact and narrowband ADFs are achieved with dropping efficiencies higher than 95%, as shown by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Addisu Mesfin, FeiFei Zhou, Caroline Scemama, Takashi Kaito, Eduardo Tornero, Ahmad Nassr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Spine
Vamık D Volkan
There are many aspects-political, economic, legal, medical, cultural, religious-of the present refugee crisis in Europe. Difficulties at border crossings, settlement programs, life-saving issues, and security measures come to mind immediately, but the refugee crisis also needs to be examined from a psychological angle. This paper outlines psychoanalytic findings on voluntary and forced immigration and human responses to the Other. Change in the twenty-first century is occurring at an unprecedented pace and scale...
December 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
Behzad Kiani, Nasser Bagheri, Ahmad Tara, Benyamin Hoseini, Hamed Tabesh, Mahmood Tara
Poor access to haemodialysis facilities is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. This study investigated factors affecting revealed access to the haemodialysis facilities considering patients living in rural and urban areas without any haemodialysis facility (Group A) and those living urban areas with haemodialysis facilities (Group B). This study is based on selfreported Actual Access Time (AAT) to referred haemodialysis facilities and other information regarding travel to haemodialysis facilities from patients...
November 7, 2017: Geospatial Health
Rachel D Savage, Laura C Rosella, Natasha S Crowcroft, Jasleen Arneja, Eileen de Villa, Maureen Horn, Kamran Khan, Monali Varia
Immigrant travelers who visit friends and relatives (VFR travelers) experience substantially higher rates of travel-related infections than other travelers, in part due to low uptake of pretravel health advice. While barriers to accessing advice have been identified, better characterization is needed to inform targeted interventions. We sought to understand how South Asian VFR travelers perceived and responded to travel-related health risks by conducting group interviews with 32 adult travelers from an ethnoculturally diverse Canadian region...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
Bushra Jamil, Darius Gawlik, Muhammad Ali Syed, Asim Ali Shah, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Elke Müller, Annett Reißig, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke
The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Pakistan is known to be high, but very few studies have described the molecular epidemiology of the different MRSA clones circulating in the country. Forty-four MRSA isolates were collected from two tertiary care hospitals of the Rawalpindi district of Pakistan. All strains were identified by a conventional phenotypic method and then subjected to genotyping by microarray hybridisation. Six clonal complexes (CCs) and 19 strains were identified...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Sreelakshmi Panginikkod, Aishwarya Ramachandran, Pratyusha Bollimunta, Roshanak Habibi, Roshan Kumar Arjal, Venu Gopalakrishnan
Melioidosis is a frequently fatal infection caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei endemic to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. It is a rare imported pathogen in the United States and is a potential bioterror agent. We report the case of an 82-year-old previously healthy man who presented with 2 weeks of fever and epigastric pain after he returned from the Philippines. A diagnosis of nondissecting mycotic aneurysm in the descending thoracic aorta was made with the help of CT angiogram and positive blood cultures...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Will Vickery, Alice Harkness
The purpose of this study was to provide a position specific (middle, link [male], link [female], wing) analysis of mixed gender touch on the physical physiological and perceptual demands of amateur players during match-play across a season. Distance and speed measures were obtained through the use of 10-Hz global positioning system devices, whilst telemetric heart rate devices were used determine a range of physiological measures. Players also provided a rating of perceived exertion following each match. The greatest physical demand was associated with the middle playing position by comparison to all others (Distance travelled ≥5...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Javad Sajedifar, Amir Hossein Kokabi, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Ahmad Mehri, Kamal Azam, Farideh Golbabaei
Electric arc welding is a routine operation in the construction of metallic structures, but the fumes generated during the welding process can threaten the health of welders. Fumes are undesirable products of the majority of welding operations and may have various detrimental effects on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of operational parameters of the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process on the emission of fumes. A dust monitor was used to measure the number and mass concentration of fumes generated by SMAW...
December 12, 2017: Industrial Health
M E Patrick, O L Henao, T Robinson, A L Geissler, A Cronquist, S Hanna, S Hurd, F Medalla, J Pruckler, B E Mahon
The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts population-based surveillance for Campylobacter infection. For 2010 through 2015, we compared patients with Campylobacter jejuni with patients with infections caused by other Campylobacter species. Campylobacter coli patients were more often >40 years of age (OR = 1·4), Asian (OR = 2·3), or Black (OR = 1·7), and more likely to live in an urban area (OR = 1·2), report international travel (OR = 1·5), and have infection in autumn or winter (OR = 1·2)...
December 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Henry M Staines, Rebekah Burrow, Beatrix Huei-Yi Teo, Irina Chis Ster, Peter G Kremsner, Sanjeev Krishna
Background: Atovaquone/proguanil, registered as Malarone®, is a fixed-dose combination recommended for first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-endemic countries and its prevention in travellers. Mutations in the cytochrome bc1 complex are causally associated with atovaquone resistance. Methods: This systematic review assesses the clinical efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil treatment of uncomplicated malaria and examines the extent to which codon 268 mutation in cytochrome b influences treatment failure and recrudescence based on published information...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Rolando Armas, Hernán Aguirre, Fabio Daolio, Kiyoshi Tanaka
This work applies evolutionary computation and machine learning methods to study the transportation system of Quito from a design optimization perspective. It couples an evolutionary algorithm with a microscopic transport simulator and uses the outcome of the optimization process to deepen our understanding of the problem and gain knowledge about the system. The work focuses on the optimization of a large number of traffic lights deployed on a wide area of the city and studies their impact on travel time, emissions and fuel consumption...
2017: PloS One
Svenja F B Mennens, Matteo Bolomini-Vittori, Jorieke Weiden, Ben Joosten, Alessandra Cambi, Koen van den Dries
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune cells that scan peripheral tissues for foreign material or aberrant cells and, upon recognition of such danger signals, travel to lymph nodes to activate T cells and evoke an immune response. For this, DCs travel large distances through the body, encountering a variety of microenvironments with different mechanical properties such as tissue stiffness. While immune-related pathological conditions such as fibrosis or cancer are associated with tissue stiffening, the role of tissue stiffness in regulating key functions of DCs has not been studied yet...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Abel Chikanda, Jonathan Crush
This paper explores intra-regional South-South cross-border patient travel within the context of Southern Africa. South Africa, in particular, has been widely touted as one of the emerging destinations of high-end patients from the Global North alongside other destinations such as Brazil, India, Costa Rica and Thailand. Using South Africa as a case study, the paper demonstrates that South-South cross-border patient travel is far more significant than North-South patient travel both in numerical and financial terms...
December 13, 2017: Global Public Health
Aneesh Prabhakaran, Ahmed M Hamid, Sandilya V B Garimella, Blandina R Valenzuela, Robert G Ewing, Yehia M Ibrahim, Richard D Smith
Here we explore the combination of constant and oscillatory fields applied in a single device to affect the continuous separation and filtering of ions based on their mobilities. The device explored allows confining and manipulating ions utilizing a combination of radio frequency (rf), direct current (DC) fields, and traveling waves (TW) in a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) module. We have investigated theoretically and experimentally a concept for continuous filtering of ions based on their mobilities where ions are mobility separated and selected by passage through two regions, both of which incorporated combined TW and constant fields providing opposing forces on the ions...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ewa Chrostek, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Gregory D D Hurst, Grant L Hughes
Experimental evidence is accumulating that endosymbionts of phytophagous insects may transmit horizontally via plants. Intracellular symbionts known for manipulating insect reproduction and altering fitness (Rickettsia, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and bacterial parasite of the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus) have been found to travel from infected insects into plants. Other insects, either of the same or different species can acquire the symbiont from the plant through feeding, and in some cases transfer it to their progeny...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amy Wesolowski, Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Andrew J Tatem, Christopher Lourenço, Cecile Viboud, Vivek Charu, Nathan Eagle, Kenth Engø-Monsen, Taimur Qureshi, Caroline O Buckee, C J E Metcalf
Seasonal variation in human mobility is globally ubiquitous and affects the spatial spread of infectious diseases, but the ability to measure seasonality in human movement has been limited by data availability. Here, we use mobile phone data to quantify seasonal travel and directional asymmetries in Kenya, Namibia, and Pakistan, across a spectrum from rural nomadic populations to highly urbanized communities. We then model how the geographic spread of several acute pathogens with varying life histories could depend on country-wide connectivity fluctuations through the year...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Clay M Armstrong, Stephen Hollingworth
We are wired with conducting cables called axons that rapidly transmit electrical signals (e.g., "Ouch!") from, for example, the toe to the spinal cord. Because of the high internal resistance of axons (salt water rather than copper), a signal must be reinforced after traveling a short distance. Reinforcement is accomplished by ion channels, Na channels for detecting the signal and reinforcing it by driving it further positive (to near 50 mV) and K channels for then restoring it to the resting level (near -70 mV)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
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