Read by QxMD icon Read

Waterfall effect

Siyao Wang, Yuewu Pu, Cheng Wei
The aim of this study was to characterize the pollutant removal efficiency and the microbial communities that arose in a newly designed waterfall biofilm reactor (WFBR) at different chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) ratios. The reactor was operated continuously for 28 days at different COD/TN ratios, and its efficiency was evaluated. Results showed that as the thickness of the biofilm increased, the structure of the biofilm encouraged anaerobic-aerobic, anoxic-anaerobic, and fully anaerobic conditions in one reactor...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Liangcai Zhang, Ying Yuan
Drug combination therapy has become the mainstream approach to cancer treatment. One fundamental feature that makes combination trials different from single-agent trials is the existence of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) contour, that is, multiple MTDs. As a result, unlike single-agent phase I trials, which aim to find a single MTD, it is often of interest to find the MTD contour for combination trials. We propose a new dose-finding design, the waterfall design, to find the MTD contour for drug combination trials...
August 31, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Jingwen Wang, Yuhong Huang, Jun Zhang, Yuanyi Wei, Salma Mahoud, Ahmed Musa Hago Bakheet, Li Wang, Shuting Zhou, Jianwu Tang
Precondition for tumor lymphatic metastasis is that tumor cells induce formation of original and newborn lymphatic vessels and invade surrounding lymphatic vessels in tumor stroma, while some pathway-related molecules play an important role in mechanisms associated with proliferation and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and tumor cells. In lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, the pathway-related molecules of VEGFC/D-VEGFR3/NRP2 axis, such as Furin-like enzyme, CNTN1, Prox1, LYVE-1, Podoplanin, SOX18, SDF1 and CXCR4, are direct constitutors as a portion of VEGFC/D-VEGFR3/NRP2 axis, and their biological activities rely on this ligand-receptor system...
October 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
David Berger, Per W Moller, Alberto Weber, Andreas Bloch, Stefan Bloechlinger, Matthias Haenggi, Soren Sondergaard, Stephan M Jakob, Sheldon Magder, Jukka Takala
According to Guyton's model of circulation, mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP), right atrial pressure (RAP), and resistance to venous return (RVR) determine venous return. MSFP has been estimated from inspiratory hold-induced changes in RAP and blood flow. We studied the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and blood volume on venous return and MSFP in pigs. MSFP was measured by balloon occlusion of the right atrium (MSFPRAO), and the MSFP obtained via extrapolation of pressure-flow relationships with airway occlusion (MSFPinsp_hold) was extrapolated from RAP/pulmonary artery flow (QPA) relationships during inspiratory holds at PEEP 5 and 10 cmH2O, after bleeding, and in hypervolemia...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Paul A Wilkinson, Mark O Winfield, Gary L A Barker, Simon Tyrrell, Xingdong Bian, Alexandra M Allen, Amanda Burridge, Jane A Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Mario Caccamo, Robert P Davey, Keith J Edwards
BACKGROUND: The increase in human populations around the world has put pressure on resources, and as a consequence food security has become an important challenge for the 21st century. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crops in human and livestock diets, and the development of wheat varieties that produce higher yields, combined with increased resistance to pests and resilience to changes in climate, has meant that wheat breeding has become an important focus of scientific research...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
J C Silva, É A Gubiani, P A Piana, R L Delariva
Geographical barriers influence species distribution and play an important role in the segregation of fish assemblages. The present study aims to test the influence of a small natural barrier on the spatial distribution of fish species in the Verde River, Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil, considering two biotopes: upstream and downstream of the Branca Waterfall. We observed the highest species richness downstream of the Branca Waterfall, which also had the highest number of exclusive species. Richness, evenness, and abundance varied significantly among biotopes...
May 17, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Elise Payzan-LeNestour, Bernard W Balleine, Tony Berrada, Joel Pearson
In many contexts, decision-making requires an accurate representation of outcome variance-otherwise known as "risk" in economics. Conventional economic theory assumes this representation to be perfect, thereby focusing on risk preferences rather than risk perception per se [1-3] (but see [4]). However, humans often misrepresent their physical environment. Perhaps the most striking of such misrepresentations are the many well-known sensory after-effects, which most commonly involve visual properties, such as color, contrast, size, and motion...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Rebecca Sorber, Yaroslav Teper, Abisola Abisoye-Ogunniyan, Joshua J Waterfall, Sean Davis, J Keith Killian, Marbin Pineda, Satyajit Ray, Matt R McCord, Holger Pflicke, Sandra Sczerba Burkett, Paul S Meltzer, Udo Rudloff
The genetic profile of human pancreatic cancers harbors considerable heterogeneity, which suggests a possible explanation for the pronounced inefficacy of single therapies in this disease. This observation has led to a belief that custom therapies based on individual tumor profiles are necessary to more effectively treat pancreatic cancer. It has recently been discovered that axon guidance genes are affected by somatic structural variants in up to 25% of human pancreatic cancers. Thus far, however, some of these mutations have only been correlated to survival probability and no function has been assigned to these observed axon guidance gene mutations in pancreatic cancer...
2016: PloS One
Alistair R Overy, Andrew B Cairns, Matthew J Cliffe, Arkadiy Simonov, Matthew G Tucker, Andrew L Goodwin
Functional materials design normally focuses on structurally ordered systems because disorder is considered detrimental to many functional properties. Here we challenge this paradigm by showing that particular types of strongly correlated disorder can give rise to useful characteristics that are inaccessible to ordered states. A judicious combination of low-symmetry building unit and high-symmetry topological template leads to aperiodic 'procrystalline' solids that harbour this type of disorder. We identify key classes of procrystalline states together with their characteristic diffraction behaviour, and establish mappings onto known and target materials...
2016: Nature Communications
Heather Waterfall, Rosalie M Grivell, Jodie M Dodd
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section involves making an incision in the woman's abdomen and cutting through the uterine muscle. The baby is then delivered through that incision. Difficult caesarean birth may result in injury for the infant or complications for the mother. Methods to assist with delivery include vacuum or forceps extraction or manual delivery utilising fundal pressure. Medication that relaxes the uterus (tocolytic medication) may facilitate the birth of the baby at caesarean section...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Melissa Ann Reisland, Joanna E Lambert
In this research, we use a combination of ethnographic observation and GIS analysis to explore the use of space by humans and gibbons (Hylobates moloch) to determine areas of potential space competition in the sacred forest and nature reserve Cagar Alam Leuweung Sancang in West Java, Indonesia. More specifically, we test whether gibbons respond to the presence of humans in a manner consistent with predator-avoidance and predicted that the gibbon study subjects would avoid areas visited by humans (Risk-Disturbance Hypothesis)...
2016: PloS One
T A P Barbosa, N L Benone, T O R Begot, A Gonçalves, L Sousa, T Giarrizzo, L Juen, L F A Montag
The structure of fish assemblages in Neotropical rivers is influenced by a series of environmental, spatial and/or temporal factors, given that different species will occupy the habitats that present the most favourable conditions to their survival. The present study aims to identify the principal factors responsible for the structuring of the fish assemblages found in the middle Xingu River, examining the influence of environmental, spatial, and temporal factors, in addition to the presence of natural barriers (waterfalls)...
August 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Hitoshi Soda, Hiromichi Maeda, Junichi Hasegawa, Takao Takahashi, Shoichi Hazama, Mutsumi Fukunaga, Emiko Kono, Masahito Kotaka, Junichi Sakamoto, Naoki Nagata, Koji Oba, Hideyuki Mishima
BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of cetuximab combined with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy remains under debate. The aim of the present multicenter open-label Phase II study was to explore the efficacy and safety of biweekly administration of cetuximab and mFOLFOX-6 or XELOX as first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with previously untreated KRAS/BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer were recruited to the study between April 2010 and May 2011...
2015: BMC Cancer
Yan Liu, Li Yu, Xiaowen Jia, Jianzhou Zhao, Hongming Weng, Yingying Peng, Chaoyu Chen, Zhuojin Xie, Daixiang Mou, Junfeng He, Xu Liu, Ya Feng, Hemian Yi, Lin Zhao, Guodong Liu, Shaolong He, Xiaoli Dong, Jun Zhang, Zuyan Xu, Chuangtian Chen, Gang Cao, Xi Dai, Zhong Fang, X J Zhou
The low energy electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 has been well studied and understood in terms of an effective Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator model. However, little work has been done in studying its high energy electronic behaviors. Here we report a new observation of the anomalous high energy electronic structure in Sr2IrO4. By taking high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on Sr2IrO4 over a wide energy range, we have revealed for the first time that the high energy electronic structures show unusual nearly-vertical bands that extend over a large energy range...
2015: Scientific Reports
K V Reis, P C Venere, I Sampaio, P S Rêgo, M Vallinoto, I L Souza
The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and structure of the only known population of minnow Astyanax xavante, which inhabits a stretch of river including several waterfalls. The FST values among the samples were not significant, except between two populations separated by a 30 m waterfall. Nevertheless, haplotype and nucleotide diversity increased in the downstream direction, indicating that gene flow is unidirectional, which indicates this genetic pattern as downstairs gene flow, as it has the effect of increasing genetic diversity in the downstream direction...
September 2015: Journal of Fish Biology
Yannick Joye, Jan Willem Bolderdijk
Environmental psychology research has demonstrated that exposure to mundane natural environments can be psychologically beneficial, and can, for instance, improve individuals' mood and concentration. However, little research has yet examined the psychological benefits of extraordinary, awe-evoking kinds of nature, such as spectacular mountain scenes or impressive waterfalls. In this study, we aimed to address the underrepresentation of such extraordinary nature in research on human-nature interactions. Specifically, we examined whether watching a picture slideshow of awesome as opposed to mundane nature differentially affected individuals' emotions, mood, social value orientation (SVO), and their willingness to donate something to others...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Anabela Maia, Alex P Sheltzer, Eric D Tytell
In their natural environment, fish must swim stably through unsteady flows and vortices, including vertical vortices, typically shed by posts in a flow, horizontal cross-flow vortices, often produced by a step or a waterfall in a stream, and streamwise vortices, where the axis of rotation is aligned with the direction of the flow. Streamwise vortices are commonly shed by bluff bodies in streams and by ships' propellers and axial turbines, but we know little about their effects on fish. Here, we describe how bluegill sunfish use more energy and are destabilized more often in flow with strong streamwise vorticity...
March 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Poonam Malik, Nikolaj Zuleger, Jose I de las Heras, Natalia Saiz-Ros, Alexandr A Makarov, Vassiliki Lazou, Peter Meinke, Martin Waterfall, David A Kelly, Eric C Schirmer
Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction...
2014: PloS One
E D L Rienks, M Ärrälä, M Lindroos, F Roth, W Tabis, G Yu, M Greven, J Fink
We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization...
September 26, 2014: Physical Review Letters
Gulab D Khedkar, Rahul Jamdade, Amol Kalyankar, Anita Tiknaik, Tetsuzan Benny Ron, David Haymer
India's third longest river, the Narmada, is studied here for the potential effects on native fish populations of river fragmentation due to various barriers including dams and a waterfall. The species we studied include a cyprinid fish, Catla catla, and a mastacembelid, Mastacembelus armatus, both of which are found in the Narmada. Our goal was to use DNA sequence information from the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA to explore how this fragmentation could impact the genetic structure of these fish populations...
2014: SpringerPlus
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"