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Akt mTOR Supplement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550128/increasing-the-availability-of-threonine-isoleucine-valine-and-leucine-relative-to-lysine-while-maintaining-an-ideal-ratio-of-lysine-methionine-alters-mammary-cellular-metabolites-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-and-gene-transcription
#1
X Dong, Z Zhou, L Wang, B Saremi, A Helmbrecht, Z Wang, J J Loor
Amino acids not only serve as precursors for protein synthesis but also function as signaling molecules that can regulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Methionine and Lys are the most-limiting AA for milk production and a ratio of ∼3:1 Lys:Met in the metabolizable protein has been determined to be ideal. Besides Met and Lys, recent studies have evaluated Ile, Leu, Val, and Thr as potentially limiting for milk protein synthesis. The objective of this experiment was to determine if varying the ratio of Lys:Thr, Lys:Ile, Lys:Val, and Lys:Leu while maintaining an ideal ratio of Lys:Met and fixed ratio of other essential AA (IPAA) elicits changes in intracellular metabolites, gene transcription related to protein synthesis, and phosphorylation status of mTOR pathway proteins...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524195/maternal-selenium-supplementation-enhanced-skeletal-muscle-development-through-increasing-protein-synthesis-and-selw-mrna-levels-of-their-offspring
#2
Jing Gao, Wei Nie, Fenglai Wang, Yuming Guo
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal selenium supplementation on the skeletal muscle development of the offspring. A total of 720 Ross 308 broiler breeders at 24-week-old were allocated into 3 treatments with 6 replicates of 40 hens each and fed with 0 mg/kg-(group Se/C), 0.5 mg/kg organic-(group Se/O), and 0.5 mg/kg inorganic-(group Se/I) selenium, respectively for 8 weeks. The male offspring from each nutritional treatment were divided and housed into 8 cages of 12 birds each and fed with a commercial diet supplemented with selenium from Na2 SeO3 at 0...
March 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439710/semet-attenuates-ota-induced-pcv2-replication-promotion-by-inhibiting-autophagy-by-activating-the-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#3
Gang Qian, Dandan Liu, Junfa Hu, Fang Gan, Lili Hou, Nianhui Zhai, Xingxiang Chen, Kehe Huang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as the causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases. PCV2 replication could be promoted by low doses of ochratoxin A (OTA) as in our previous study and selenium has been shown to attenuate PCV2 replication. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of selenomethionine (SeMet), the major component of organic selenium, on OTA-induced PCV2 replication promotion and its potential mechanism. The present study demonstrates that OTA could promote PCV2 replication as measured by cap protein expression, viral titer, viral DNA copies and the number of infected cells...
February 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359224/coffee-consumption-promotes-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-and-myoblast-differentiation
#4
Young Jin Jang, Hyo Jeong Son, Ji-Sun Kim, Chang Hwa Jung, Jiyun Ahn, Jinyoung Hur, Tae Youl Ha
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage worldwide and is believed to help prevent the occurrence of various chronic diseases. However, the effect of coffee on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, differentiation and the mechanisms of action responsible have remained unclear. To investigate the effect of coffee on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, mice were fed a normal diet or a normal diet supplemented with 0.3% coffee or 1% coffee. Coffee supplementation was observed to increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while simultaneously upregulating protein expression of total MHC, MHC2A, and MHC2B in quadricep muscle...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345855/increased-estradiol-in-hepatitis-e-virus-infected-pregnant-women-promote-viral-replication
#5
Chenchen Yang, Wenhai Yu, Yanhong Bi, Feiyan Long, Yunlong Li, Daqiao Wei, Xianhui Hao, Jianwen Situ, Yongqin Zhao, Fen Huang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes subclinical diseases, leading to high mortality (> 25%) in pregnant women. HEV replication is aggressively escalated in pregnant women, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy. Estrogen plays an important role in pregnancy. However, the pathogenesis of HEV in pregnant women or immunosuppressive pregnant women (such as HIV-infected, or organ-transplanted pregnant women) remains unclear. We investigated the role of estradiol in HEV infection in a cell culture system...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208325/inhibitory-effects-of-compound-dmbt-on-hypoxia-induced-vasculogenic-mimicry-in-human-breast-cancer
#6
Shuixian Li, Qianyun Zhang, Lichun Zhou, Yanhui Guan, Shang Chen, Yu Zhang, Xiuzhen Han
Breast cancer is one of the most serious malignant tumors that harm to women's health. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is an alternative type of blood supplement independent of endothelial vessels, which refers to the formation of tumor cell-lined vessels and is associated with tumor invasion, metastasis and poor cancer patient prognosis. Prior antiangiogenic therapy just focused on vascular endothelial cells and did not significantly affect VM. DMBT, 6, 6'-bis (2, 3-dimethoxybenzoyl)-a, a-D-trehalose, has shown to have multiple anti-tumor invasion and metastasis activities; however the exact mechanism is not thoroughly elucidated...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146112/different-concentrations-of-docosahexanoic-acid-supplement-during-lactation-result-in-different-outcomes-in-preterm-sprague-dawley-rats
#7
Qian Wang, Chunhong Jia, Xiaohua Tan, Fan Wu, Xinqi Zhong, Zhiwen Su, Weiwen Sun, Qiliang Cui
PROPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplement on preterm Sprague-Dawley rat pups, and in parallel, measured the phosphorylation activity of the mTOR pathway in the hippocampal CA1 area. METHODS: Preterm Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly assigned to experimental groups which included; a sufficient DHA group (100 mg/kg/day); an enriched DHA group (300 mg/kg/day); an excess DHA group (800 mg/kg/day); and a deficient DHA group (normal saline gavage 0...
January 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#8
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
December 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029490/7-ketocholesterol-and-27-hydroxycholesterol-decreased-doxorubicin-sensitivity-in-breast-cancer-cells-estrogenic-activity-and-mtor-pathway
#9
Chun-Wei Wang, Chiung-Chiao Huang, Pei-Hsin Chou, Yu-Ping Chang, Shouzuo Wei, Frederick Peter Guengerich, Yueh-Ching Chou, Sheng-Fan Wang, Ping-Shan Lai, Pavel Souček, Yune-Fang Ueng
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors for poor outcome in breast cancer therapy. To elucidate the influence of the main circulating oxysterols, cholesterol oxidation products, on the cell-killing effect of doxorubicin, cells were exposed to oxysterols at a subtoxic concentration. When cells were exposed to oxysterols in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium, 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), but not 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HC), decreased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in MCF-7 (high estrogen receptor (ER)α/ERβ ratio) cells and the decreased cytotoxicity was restored by the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783736/glutamate-alleviates-muscle-protein-loss-by-modulating-tlr4-nods-akt-foxo-and-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-lps-challenged-piglets
#10
Ping Kang, Xiuying Wang, Huanting Wu, Huiling Zhu, Yongqing Hou, Longmei Wang, Yulan Liu
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the glutamate (Glu) on muscle protein loss through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs), Akt/Forkhead Box O (Akt/FOXO) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned into four treatments: (1) Control; (2) LPS+0% Glu; (3) LPS + 1.0% Glu; (4) LPS + 2.0% Glu. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. On d 28, the piglets in the LPS challenged groups were injected with LPS on 100 μg/kg body weight (BW), and the piglets in the control group were injected with the same volume of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768834/placentome-nutrient-transporters-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-proteins-are-altered-by-the-methionine-supply-during-late-gestation-in-dairy-cows-and-are-associated-with-newborn-birth-weight
#11
Fernanda Batistel, Abdulrahman Sm Alharthi, Ling Wang, Claudia Parys, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Felipe C Cardoso, Juan J Loor
Background: To our knowledge, most research demonstrating a link between maternal nutrition and both fetal growth and offspring development after birth has been performed with nonruminants. Whether such relationships exist in large ruminants is largely unknown. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether increasing the methionine supply during late pregnancy would alter uteroplacental tissue nutrient transporters and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and their relation with newborn body weight. Methods: Multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment...
September 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566814/endocrine-responses-and-acute-mtor-pathway-phosphorylation-to-resistance-exercise-with-leucine-and-whey
#12
M T Lane, T J Herda, A C Fry, M A Cooper, M J Andre, P M Gallagher
Leucine ingestion reportedly activates the mTOR pathway in skeletal muscle, contributing to a hypertrophy response. The purpose of the study was to compare the post-resistance exercise effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation on endocrine responses and muscle mTOR pathway phosphorylation. On visit 1, subjects (X±SD; n=20; age=27.8±2.8yrs) provided baseline blood samples for analysis of cortisol, glucose and insulin; a muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle to assess mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation; and were tested for maximum strength on the leg press and leg extension exercises...
June 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554316/beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate-hmb-from-experimental-data-to-clinical-evidence-in-sarcopenia
#13
Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite derived from leucine and its ketoacid alpha-ketoisocaproate. Leucine has a role in regulating protein synthesis in muscle cells, and HMB seems to be a key active metabolite in such regulation. HMB has been shown to modulate muscle protein degradation by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, to up-regulate protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, and to stabilize cell membranes via the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG- coenzyme A reductase...
May 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412728/increased-reactive-oxygen-species-levels-cause-er-stress-and-cytotoxicity-in-andrographolide-treated-colon-cancer-cells
#14
Aditi Banerjee, Vivekjyoti Banerjee, Steven Czinn, Thomas Blanchard
Chemotherapy continues to play an essential role in the management of many cancers including colon cancer, the third leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Many naturally occurring plant compounds have been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer cell activity and have the potential to supplement existing chemotherapy strategies. The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell death in cancer cells and apoptosis is dependent upon the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) leading to the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399115/neonatal-mouse-hippocampus-phlebotomy-induced-anemia-diminishes-and-treatment-with-erythropoietin-partially-rescues-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling
#15
Diana J Wallin, Tara G Zamora, Michelle Alexander, Kathleen M Ennis, Phu V Tran, Michael K Georgieff
BackgroundPhlebotomy-induced anemia (PIA) is common in premature infants and affects neurodevelopment. PIA alters hippocampal metabolism in neonatal mice through tissue hypoxia and iron deficiency. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway senses the status of critical metabolites (e.g., oxygen, iron), thereby regulating hippocampal growth and function. We determined the effect of PIA and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on mTOR signaling and expression of genes related to mTOR pathway functions...
September 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296942/co-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-and-whey-protein-increases-fasted-rates-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-immediately-after-resistance-exercise-in-rats
#16
Wanyi Wang, Zhenping Ding, Geoffrey J Solares, Soon-Mi Choi, Bo Wang, Aram Yoon, Roger P Farrar, John L Ivy
The objective of the study was to investigate whether co-ingestion of carbohydrate and protein as compared with protein alone augments muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during early exercise recovery. Two months old rats performed 10 repetitions of ladder climbing with 75% of body weight attached to their tails. Placebo (PLA), whey protein (WP), or whey protein plus carbohydrate (CP) was then given to rats by gavage. An additional group of sedentary rats (SED) was used as controls. Blood samples were collected immediately and at either 1 or 2 h after exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271166/n-acetylcysteine-improves-intestinal-function-in-lipopolysaccharides-challenged-piglets-through-multiple-signaling-pathways
#17
Dan Yi, Yongqing Hou, Hang Xiao, Lei Wang, Yue Zhang, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Binying Ding, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guoyao Wu
This study determined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could improve intestinal function through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in a piglet model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two piglets (24-day-old) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment and one piglet per replicate...
March 7, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237591/methionine-leucine-isoleucine-or-threonine-effects-on-mammary-cell-signaling-and-pup-growth-in-lactating-mice
#18
G M Liu, M D Hanigan, X Y Lin, K Zhao, F G Jiang, R R White, Y Wang, Z Y Hu, Z H Wang
Two studies were undertaken to assess the effects of individual essential AA supplementation of a protein-deficient diet on lactational performance in mice using litter growth rates as a response variable. The first study was designed to establish a dietary protein response curve, and the second to determine the effects of Leu, Ile, Met, and Thr supplementation of a protein-deficient diet on lactational performance. In both studies, dams were fed test diets from parturition through d 17 of lactation, when the studies ended...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223230/myotoxicity-of-statins-mechanism-of-action
#19
REVIEW
Patrick du Souich, Ghislaine Roederer, Robert Dufour
Statins are effective drugs to reduce cardiovascular events secondary to dyslipidemia; however, they cause frequent undesirable side effects. The incidence of statin-induced myotoxicity (SIM) is presented by 7 to 29% of patients, depending upon the report. SIM may develop in presence of abnormally high concentrations of statins in the myocyte and/or in presence of muscular conditions that may predispose to SIM. High concentrations of statins in the myocyte may occur whenever the activity of liver influx membrane transporters, namely OATP1B1, of drug metabolizing enzymes, and of liver and muscular efflux transporters, MDR1 and BCRP, is reduced...
July 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196884/functional-genomics-analysis-of-vitamin-d-effects-on-cd4-t-cells-in-vivo-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-%C3%A2
#20
Manuel Zeitelhofer, Milena Z Adzemovic, David Gomez-Cabrero, Petra Bergman, Sonja Hochmeister, Marie N'diaye, Atul Paulson, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Malin Almgren, Jesper N Tegnér, Tomas J Ekström, André Ortlieb Guerreiro-Cacais, Maja Jagodic
Vitamin D exerts multiple immunomodulatory functions and has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). We have previously reported that in juvenile/adolescent rats, vitamin D supplementation protects from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS. Here we demonstrate that this protective effect associates with decreased proliferation of CD4+ T cells and lower frequency of pathogenic T helper (Th) 17 cells. Using transcriptome, methylome, and pathway analyses in CD4+ T cells, we show that vitamin D affects multiple signaling and metabolic pathways critical for T-cell activation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 subsets in vivo...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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