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Akt mTOR Supplement

Ruijun Su, Xiaoting Jin, Weifang Zhang, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Liu, Jie Ren
Many epidemiological investigations have consistently demonstrated the immunotoxicity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear and needs to be elucidated. In this work, the immune cells, including pulmonary macrophages of SD rats and Raw264.7 cells, were applied to further investigate the effect of PM2.5 on cell autophagy of macrophages, thus clarified the possible molecular mechanism of immunotoxicity caused by PM2.5. SD rats were exposed to summer (0.2, 0...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Richard A Perry, Lemuel A Brown, David E Lee, Jacob L Brown, Jamie I Baum, Nicholas P Greene, Tyrone A Washington
The data described herein is related to the article "Differential Effects of Leucine Supplementation in Young and Aged Mice at the Onset of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration" [1]. Aging is associated with a decreased ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate following injury. Leucine supplementation has been extensively shown, in young subjects, to promote protein synthesis during regeneration; however, the effects of leucine supplementation on the Akt/mTOR pathway in aged mice at the onset of muscle regeneration are not fully elucidated...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Yang Yang, Xi Li, Qinwei Sun, Bin He, Yimin Jia, Demin Cai, Ruqian Zhao
Folate deficiency contributes to impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we use HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells as model to investigate the effect of folate deprivation (FD) on cell proliferation and apoptosis, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. FD caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increased the rate of apoptosis, which was associated with disrupted expression of folate transport and methyl transfer genes. FOLR1 and SLC46A1 were (P<0.01) down-regulated, while SLC19A1 was up-regulated (P<0...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Huili Sun, Wenjing Wang, Pengxun Han, Mumin Shao, Gaofeng Song, Heng Du, Tiegang Yi, Shunmin Li
Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model...
2016: Scientific Reports
Q Song, C C Han, X P Xiong, F He, W Gan, S H Wei, H H Liu, L Li, H Y Xu
PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, it is not clear how this signaling pathway affects the ER stress. The present study aimed to determine whether the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway regulates tunicamycin (TM)-induced increases in mRNA levels of genes involved in the ER stress, to help elucidate the mechanism by which this pathway affects the ER stress in primary goose hepatocytes. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from geese and cultured in vitro. After 12 h in a serum-free medium, the hepatocytes were incubated for 24 h in a medium with either no addition (control) or with supplementation of TM or TM together with PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235)...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Vinod K Srivastava, Jill K Hiney, William L Dees
Low-dose administration of manganese chloride (MnCl2) causes release of hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and advances puberty in rat. Recently, this element was shown to up-regulate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), kisspeptin gene (KiSS-1), and LHRH gene expressions in the brain preoptic area (POA)/anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Because these genes are critical for puberty, this study was conducted to identify the upstream mechanism by which Mn activates the mTOR/KiSS-1 pathway. On day 12, immature female rats began receiving a daily supplemental dose of 10 mg/kg of MnCl2 or saline by gavage, and POA/AVPV tissues were collected on day 29 for specific protein assessments...
August 2016: Endocrinology
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Huanting Wu, Shaokui Chen, Huiling Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yongqing Hou, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guolong Zhang
Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in the pathophysiology of muscle atrophy. We hypothesized that glycine exerted an anti-inflammatory effect and alleviated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced muscle atrophy in piglets. Pigs were assigned to four treatments including the following: 1) nonchallenged control, 2) LPS-challenged control, 3) LPS+1.0% glycine, and 4) LPS+2.0% glycine. After receiving the control, 1.0 or 2.0% glycine-supplemented diets, piglets were treated with either saline or LPS. At 4 h after treatment with saline or LPS, blood and muscle samples were harvested...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Cezary Treda, Marta Popeda, Magdalena Ksiazkiewicz, Dawid P Grzela, Maciej P Walczak, Mateusz Banaszczyk, Joanna Peciak, Ewelina Stoczynska-Fidelus, Piotr Rieske
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and its mutations contribute in various ways to tumorigenesis and biology of human cancers. They are associated with tumor proliferation, progression, drug resistance and the process of apoptosis. There are also reports that overexpression and activation of wild-type EGFR may lead to cell apoptosis. To study this phenomenon, we overexpressed in an AD293 cell line two most frequently observed forms of the EGFR receptor: wild-type and the constitutively active mutant-EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII)...
2016: PloS One
Mehmet Bilgehan Pektas, Halit Bugra Koca, Gokhan Sadi, Fatma Akar
The effects of high-fructose diet on adipose tissue insulin signaling and inflammatory process have been poorly documented. In this study, we examined the influences of long-term fructose intake and resveratrol supplementation on the expression of genes involved in insulin signaling and the levels of inflammatory cytokines and sex hormones in the white adipose tissues of male and female rats. Consumption of high-fructose diet for 24 weeks increased the expression of genes involved in insulin signaling including IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, PI3K, eNOS, mTOR, and PPARγ, despite induction of proinflammatory markers, iNOS, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-18, MDA, and ALT, as well as anti-inflammatory factors, IL-10 and Nrf2 in adipose tissues from males and females...
2016: BioMed Research International
Lai-Jiang Chen, Ying-Le Xu, Bei Song, Hui-Min Yu, Gavin Y Oudit, Ran Xu, Zhen-Zhou Zhang, Hai-Yan Jin, Qing Chang, Ding-Liang Zhu, Jiu-Chang Zhong
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been shown to prevent atherosclerotic lesions and renal inflammation. However, little was elucidated upon the effects and mechanisms of ACE2 in atherosclerotic kidney fibrosis progression. Here, we examined regulatory roles of ACE2 in renal fibrosis in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (KO) mice. The ApoEKO mice were randomized to daily deliver either angiotensin (Ang) II (1.5mg/kg) and/or human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2; 2mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Downregulation of ACE2 and upregulation of phosphorylated Akt, mTOR and ERK1/2 levels were observed in ApoEKO kidneys...
May 2016: Peptides
Atsushi Uenoyama, Ikuko Kakizaki, Aki Shiomi, Naoaki Saito, Yuko Hara, Taro Saito, Hisashi Ohnuki, Hiroko Kato, Ritsuo Takagi, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Izumi
Identifying substandard tissue-engineered oral mucosa grafts with a poor epithelium before clinical use is critical to ensure quality assurance/control in regenerative medicine, leading to success of grafting. This study investigated the effects of one of the C-xylopyranoside derivatives, β-D-xylopyranoside-n-propane-2-one (XPP), on oral epithelial regeneration. Using a three-dimensional oral mucosa model, we analyzed changes of the epithelial structure, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, the expression levels of basement membrane zone markers, and substrates of Akt/mTOR signaling...
July 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Joo Hyoun Kim, Smee Kang, Yu Na Jung, Hyeon-Son Choi
Cholecalciferol (CCF) is a common dietary supplement as a precursor of active vitamin D. In the present study, the effect of CCF on lipid accumulation was investigated in adipocyte cells and zebrafish models. CCF effectively inhibited lipid accumulation in both experimental models; this effect was attributed to the CCF-mediated regulation of early adipogenic factors. CCF down-regulated the expressions of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ), C/EBPδ, Krueppel-like factor (KLF) 4, and KLF5, while KLF2, a negative adipogenic regulator, was increased by CCF treatment...
January 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira, Carlos Vinícius Barbosa, Nayara Moreira Massa, Reabias de Andrade Pereira, Gustavo da Silva Félix, Jailane de Souza Aquino, Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira, Alexandre Sérgio Silva
Carbohydrate ingestion at the end of a single exercise is recognized as delaying fatigue and accelerating recovery, but whether chronic ingestion can prevent overtraining during periods of intense training has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate supplementation minimizes overtraining in Wistar rats. The animals underwent 11 weeks of training (running) on a treadmill, and the last 3 weeks were designed to induce overtraining. One group was supplemented with carbohydrates (EX-CHO) (n = 13), 1 group had no supplementation (EX) (n = 10), and a third group remained inactive (C) (n = 9)...
January 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Lezi E, Russell H Swerdlow
Lactate, once considered a metabolic dead-end, has been recently proposed to support neuron bioenergetics. To better understand how lactate specifically influences cell energy metabolism, we studied the effects of lactate supplementation on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell bioenergetic fluxes. Lactate supplementation increased cell respiration, there was no change in respiratory coupling efficiency, and lactate itself appeared to directly support the respiratory flux increase. Conversely, lactate supplementation reduced the glycolysis flux...
January 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Li Xu, Qiuling Fan, Xu Wang, Lin Li, Xinxing Lu, Yuan Yue, Xu Cao, Jia Liu, Xue Zhao, Lining Wang
BACKGROUND: Autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of podocyte homeostasis. Reduced autophagy may result in limited renal cell function during exposure to high glucose conditions. In this study we investigated the effects of ursolic acid (UA) on autophagy and podocyte injury, which were induced by high glucose. METHODS: Conditionally immortalized murine podocytes were cultured in media supplemented with high glucose and the effects of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and UA on protein expression were determined...
November 12, 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Fredrick J Rosario, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson
Fetal overgrowth is common in obese women and is associated with perinatal complications and increased risk for the child to develop metabolic syndrome later in life. Placental nutrient transport capacity has been reported to be increased in obese women giving birth to large infants; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Obesity in pregnancy is characterized by elevated maternal serum insulin and leptin, hormones that stimulate placental amino acid transporters in vitro. We hypothesized that maternal obesity activates placental insulin/IGF-I/mTOR and leptin signaling pathways...
January 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Mingo M H Yung, Fiona A Ross, D Grahame Hardie, Thomas H Y Leung, Jinbiao Zhan, Hextan Y S Ngan, David W Chan
UNLABELLED: Objective Acquired chemoresistance is a major obstacle in the clinical management of ovarian cancer. Therefore, searching for alternative therapeutic modalities is urgently needed. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a traditional dietary fruit, but its extract also shows potential medicinal values in human diabetes and cancers. Here, we sought to investigate the extract of bitter melon (BME) in antitumorigenic and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: Three varieties of bitter melon were used to prepare the BME...
September 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Marcelo G Pereira, Meiricris T Silva, Fernanda M da Cunha, Anselmo S Moriscot, Marcelo S Aoki, Elen H Miyabara
The decreased regenerative capacity of old skeletal muscles involves disrupted turnover of proteins. This study investigated whether leucine supplementation in old rats could improve muscle regenerative capacity. Young and old male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine; then, the muscles were cryolesioned and examined after 3 and 10 days. Leucine supplementation attenuated the decrease in the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in young and old muscles on day 3 post-injury and promoted an increase in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers from both young and old soleus muscles on day 10 post-injury...
December 2015: Experimental Gerontology
Uday P Pratap, Himanshu R Sharma, Aparna Mohanty, Prathamesh Kale, Srinivasan Gopinath, Lalgi Hima, Hannah P Priyanka, Srinivasan ThyagaRajan
The alterations in the secretion of sex steroids, especially estrogen, in females throughout reproductive life and its decline with age alters the functions of the neuroendocrine-immune network and renders them susceptible to age-related diseases and cancers. This study investigates the mechanisms of estrogen-induced alterations in cell-mediated immune and inflammatory responses in the lymphocytes from lymph nodes (axillary and inguinal) of ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged female rats. Ovariectomized middle-aged (MA) Sprague-Dawley female rats (n=8) were implanted with 17β-estradiol (E2) 30-day release pellets (0...
December 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Adam M Gonzalez, Jay R Hoffman, Adam R Jajtner, Jeremy R Townsend, Carleigh H Boone, Kyle S Beyer, Kayla M Baker, Adam J Wells, David D Church, Gerald T Mangine, Leonardo P Oliveira, Jordan R Moon, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway appears to be the primary regulator of muscle protein synthesis. A variety of stimuli including resistance exercise, amino acids, and hormonal signals activate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a protein supplement on mTORC1 signaling following a resistance exercise protocol designed to promote elevations in circulating hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that the protein supplement would augment the intramuscular anabolic signaling response...
November 2015: Nutrition Research
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