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fistula clonidine

T Adnan, A A Elif, K Ayşe, A Gülnaz
BACKGROUND: Clonidine is often used as an adjuvant for local anaesthetics in regional anaesthesia; however, its effects on axillary block in chronic renal failure patients have not been investigated. These effects were the focus of this study. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult chronic renal failure patients (ASA physical status III) scheduled for arteriovenous fistula construction were studied in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design. All axillary block procedures were performed by the same anaesthesiologist using the nerve stimulator technique...
April 2005: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
C Macutkiewicz, S Anwar, C Babbs, H Burnett, G L Carlson
Patients with complicated inflammatory bowel disease commonly undergo repeated surgical procedures, often against a background of chronic opiate use. We describe a case in which a postoperative attempt to withdraw opiate analgesia on two separate occasions led to a clinical syndrome strongly suggestive of intestinal obstruction, the signs and symptoms of which settled rapidly on re-introduction of opiates. Small bowel contrast studies indicated a level of obstruction which not only fluctuated, but occurred at an unusual site for mechanical obstruction...
March 2004: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
M K Barry, J D Aloisi, C J Yeo
Intestinal transport is controlled by neural pathways, hormones, and luminal agents. Luminal adrenergic agents influence water and ion transport in the jejunum. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) luminal adrenergic agents influence ileal water, ion and glucose transport, and (ii) luminal adrenergic agents exert their effects locally and selectively. Absorption studies (n = 46) were performed on dogs with two adjacent 25-cm ileal Thiry-Vella fistulas (TVF). Perfusion with [14C]polyethylene glycol was used to calculate absorption of water, ions, and glucose from the distal TVF...
June 1993: Journal of Surgical Research
M K Barry, J D Aloisi, S P Pickering, C J Yeo
Luminal alpha-adrenergic agonists alter ileal water, ion, and glucose transport by a local mechanism. This study tested the hypothesis that luminal adrenergic agents modulate ileal transport selectively, via specific alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors. Absorption studies (n = 72) were performed on dogs with 25-cm ileal Thiry-Vella fistulas (TVF). Perfusion with (14C) polyethylene glycol was used to calculate absorption of water, ions, and glucose from the TVF. Experiments included four 1-hour periods. Agonists used were phenylephrine (alpha 1), clonidine (alpha 2), and norepinephrine (alpha 1 > alpha 2 and beta)...
January 1994: American Journal of Surgery
G Soldani, M Del Tacca, C Bernardini, E Martinotti, M Impicciatore
The effects of clonidine on gastric acid secretion were studied in conscious dogs with both gastric fistulae and Heidenhain pouches. Clonidine infused systemically at graded doses under basal conditions produced a significant increase in acid secretion from both gastric fistulae and Heidenhain pouches. Acid secretion from gastric fistulae submaximally stimulated by pentagastrin was dose-dependently reduced by clonidine while 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced secretion was completely suppressed. Under these conditions a significant enhancement of secretion from Heidenhain pouches was recorded...
September 1984: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
C Rozé, J Chariot, F Appia, X Pascaud, C Vaille
The effects of clonidine on pancreatic secretion were studied in rats fitted with chronic or acute fistulas. Subcutaneous and intracerebroventricular injections of clonidine in conscious rats induced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal pancreatic secretion involving volume, bicarbonate output and protein output with an ED50 of about 10 micrograms/kg. Clonidine inhibition of pancreatic secretion was not dependent on the associated inhibition of gastric acid output. In conscious rats, the pancreatic inhibitory effect of clonidine was completely antagonized by yohimbine and slightly by piperoxane and prazosin...
December 17, 1981: European Journal of Pharmacology
P Gjörstrup
In rabbits under urethane anaesthesia parotid secretion of fluid and amylase in response to electrical stimulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves was measured before and after injections of various agents acting on alpha-adrenoceptors. Amylase secretion in response to sympathetic nerve stimulation at 0.5 and 1 Hz was markedly reduced by clonidine, 0.5-30 micrograms/kg, in a dose related manner. The effect was not due to an altered responsiveness of the gland, since isoprenaline still caused a large release of amylase...
April 1984: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica
X Pascaud, A Roger, M Genton, C Rozé
The effects of clonidine (CL) on interdigestive gastric acid secretion were studied in chronic gastric fistula rats and compared with those of St 91, a CL-like drug which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. CL induced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric acid output when administered s.c. (ED50 13.5 micrograms X kg-1), in the lateral ventricle of the brain (ED50 5.80 micrograms X kg-1) or in the cisterna magna (ED50 0.49 micrograms X kg-1). St 91 and several alpha-adrenergic antagonists administered subcutaneously also inhibited gastric acid secretion dose dependently...
December 24, 1982: European Journal of Pharmacology
J Bugajski, J Hano, J Lech
In unanesthetized rats with chronic gastric fistulas the mechanism of the inhibitory action of clonidine (CLO) on basal gastric secretion was investigated. CLO (0.001-1 mg/kg ip) reduced significantly in a dose-dependent fashion, the basal gastric acid output, and after higher doses no secretion occurred. Noradrenaline (0.1-2.5 mg/kg ip) even in much higher doses was less effective in inhibiting basal gastric secretion in rats. A postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker phenoxybenzamine antagonized only moderately the inhibitory effect of CLO...
July 1980: Polish Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy
S M Cooper, B McRitchie
The object of the study was to investigate the effects of dopamine receptor and alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists and antagonists on the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal in conscious rats and the possible involvement of these receptors in the mechanism of action of metoclopramide. The gastric emptying of a liquid test meal in conscious chronic gastric fistula rats was delayed following subcutaneous administration of either 6,7-ADTN (1-50 mg/kg) or clonidine (0.05-1 mg/kg). Phenylephrine (0.2-10 mg/kg s.c...
December 1985: Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology
K Yokotani, Y Okuma, Y Osumi
Effects of DQ-2511, a new peripherally acting anti-ulcer agent, on vagally induced gastric acid output and mucosal blood flow (MBF) were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats with gastric fistula. Intravenous infusion of DQ-2511 (2 or 20 mg/kg/hr, for 30 min) reduced the vagally induced gastric acid output and MBF, and these inhibitory effects were abolished by pretreatment with phentolamine. The DQ-2511-induced inhibition of acid output was abolished with yohimbine, but not with prazosin. These observations suggest that DQ-2511 possesses the properties of an adrenergic alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonist...
October 1988: Japanese Journal of Pharmacology
J Chariot, C Nagain, C Vaille, C Rozé
Buflomedil is a vasoactive drug used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, and seems to be an antagonist of both alpha 1- and alpha 2-vascular adrenoceptors. CRL40634 and CRL40598 are metabolites of buflomedil and also possess vasoactive properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether buflomedil, CRL40634 and CRL40598 have antagonist activity on the alpha 2-adrenoceptors involved in the inhibition of exocrine pancreatic secretion. In acute pancreatic fistula rats, buflomedil, CRL40634 and CRL40598 did not suppress the inhibitory effect of clonidine against 2-deoxy-glucose-induced pancreatic secretion...
January 17, 1990: European Journal of Pharmacology
J M Rhoads, R C Vogler, S R Lacey, R L Reddick, E O Keku, R G Azizkhan, H M Berschneider
Microvillus inclusion disease is an inherited intestinal brush border membrane defect that causes severe fluid and electrolyte malabsorption. In an infant with microvillus inclusion disease (confirmed by electron microscopic evaluation of rectal, jejunal, and gallbladder mucosae), basal stool output was massive (greater than 125 mL . kg-1 . day-1) and was not altered by treatment with clonidine or octreotide. A proximal jejunostomy with mucous fistula was placed, allowing separation of proximal from distal tract outputs (60 mL ...
March 1991: Gastroenterology
K Tazi-Saad, J Chariot, M Del Tacca, C Rozé
1. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine, guanabenz, detomidine and medetomidine on pepsin secretion in conscious rats provided with gastric chronic fistula and to compare this with acid secretion. 2. Basal interdigestive gastric secretion, which is mainly neurally driven in the rat, and the secretion directly stimulated by the two main stimulants of chief cells, cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) and methacholine, were studied. 3. Basal secretion of pepsin and acid was inhibited by all four drugs with comparable EC50S...
August 1992: British Journal of Pharmacology
H M Jennewein
The effect of clonidine on gastric acid secretion was investigated using rats and dogs. In the stomach lumen perfused rat basal gastric acid secretion was increased by clonidine in the anaesthetized rat but inhibited in the conscious animal. Clonidine also reduced the basal gastric acid secretion in rats with chronic gastric fistula, (ED50 12 microng/kg p.O.). In addition, gastric secretion stimulated by insulin hypoglycaemia was inhibited by clonidine in anaesthetized stomach lumen perfused rats and in conscious dogs with gastric fistula...
March 1977: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
T Jen, H Van Hoeven, W Groves, R McLean, B Loev
Correlations of antihypertensive and antisecretory activities with various structural modifications of the antihypertensive agent clonidine (2-(2,6-dichlorophenylimino)imidazolidine) are described. Eleven chemical classes of compounds containing an "amidine" moiety were prepared in this study. The antihypertensive activity of these compounds was evaluated in metacorticoid hypertensive rats and unanesthetized neurogenic hypertensive dogs following oral administration. Antisecretory activity was evaluated in fistula rats by measuring pH and volume of gastric secretion...
January 1975: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
P T Ridley, V A Margeta, J H Schlosser, W G Groves
A series of known antisecretory compounds, including glycopyrrolate, clonidine, propantheline bromide, CMN 131 (2-pyridylthiocetamide), and desmethylimipramine (DMI) were tested in the gastric fistula rat and monkey. The order of potency for inhibiting acid output was similar in both species. A general similarity exists in the responsiveness of the rat and monkey to gastric antisecretory agents. These data support the use of the squirrel monkey for assessment of gastric antisecretory activity.
July 1977: Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
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