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Neural correlates of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986208/dynamic-functional-connectivity-and-brain-metastability-during-altered-states-of-consciousness
#1
REVIEW
Federico Cavanna, Martina G Vilas, Matías Palmucci, Enzo Tagliazucchi
The scientific study of human consciousness has greatly benefited from the development of non-invasive brain imaging methods. The quest to identify the neural correlates of consciousness combined psychophysical experimentation with neuroimaging tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the changes in neural activity associated with conscious vs. unconscious percepts. Different neuroimaging methods have also been applied to characterize spontaneous brain activity fluctuations during altered states of consciousness, and to develop quantitative metrics for the level of consciousness...
October 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981609/neural-evidence-for-non-conscious-working-memory
#2
Fredrik Bergström, Johan Eriksson
Recent studies have found that non-consciously perceived information can be retained for several seconds, a feat that has been attributed to non-conscious working memory processes. However, these studies have mainly relied on subjective measures of visual experience, and the neural processes responsible for non-conscious short-term retention remains unclear. Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious in a delayed match-to-sample task together with fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of non-conscious short-term (5-15 s) retention...
August 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978697/are-the-neural-correlates-of-consciousness-in-the-front-or-in-the-back-of-the-cerebral-cortex-clinical-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Melanie Boly, Marcello Massimini, Naotsugu Tsuchiya, Bradley R Postle, Christof Koch, Giulio Tononi
The role of the frontal cortex in consciousness remains a matter of debate. In this Perspective, we will critically review the clinical and neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the front versus the back of the cortex in specifying conscious contents and discuss promising research avenues.Dual Perspectives Companion Paper: Should a Few Null Findings Falsify Prefrontal Theories of Conscious Perception?, by Brian Odegaard, Robert T. Knight, and Hakwan Lau.
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978696/should-a-few-null-findings-falsify-prefrontal-theories-of-conscious-perception
#4
REVIEW
Brian Odegaard, Robert T Knight, Hakwan Lau
Is activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) critical for conscious perception? Major theories of consciousness make distinct predictions about the role of PFC, providing an opportunity to arbitrate between these views empirically. Here we address three common misconceptions: (1) PFC lesions do not affect subjective perception; (2) PFC activity does not reflect specific perceptual content; and (3) PFC involvement in studies of perceptual awareness is solely driven by the need to make reports required by the experimental tasks rather than subjective experience per se...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961523/oscillatory-brain-mechanisms-of-the-hypnotically-induced-out-of-body-experience
#5
Maor Zeev-Wolf, Yair Dor-Ziderman, Abraham Goldstein, Omer Bonne, Eitan G Abramowitz
One of the most challenging questions regarding the nature and neural basis of consciousness is the embodied dimension of the phenomenon, that is, feeling located within the body and viewing the world from that spatial perspective. Current theories in neurophysiology highlight the active role of multisensory and sensorimotor integration in supporting self-location and self-perspective, and propose the right temporal-parietal-junction (rTPJ) as a key area for such function. These theories are based mainly on findings from two experimental paradigms: manipulation of bottom-up multisensory information integration regarding one's body location (full-body illusion), or direct and invasive manipulation disrupting brain activity at the rTPJ...
August 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950918/specific-amygdala-response-to-masked-fearful-faces-in-post-traumatic-stress-relative-to-other-anxiety-disorders
#6
P Neumeister, K Feldker, C Y Heitmann, C Buff, L Brinkmann, M Bruchmann, T Straube
BACKGROUND: Altered amygdala activation to fear-related stimuli has been proposed to be a potential neural correlate of heightened threat sensitivity in anxiety- and stress-related disorders. However, the role of stimulus awareness and disorder specificity remains widely unclear. Here we investigated amygdala responses to conscious and unconscious fearful faces in patients suffering from panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in a large sample of healthy controls (HC)...
September 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#7
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928634/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-mechanisms-and-protocols
#8
REVIEW
Amir V Tavakoli, Kyongsik Yun
Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882629/intracranial-markers-of-conscious-face-perception-in-humans
#9
Fabiano Baroni, Jochem van Kempen, Hiroto Kawasaki, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroyuki Oya, Matthew A Howard, Ralph Adolphs, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Investigations of the neural basis of consciousness have greatly benefited from protocols that involve the presentation of stimuli at perceptual threshold, enabling the assessment of the patterns of brain activity that correlate with conscious perception, independently of any changes in sensory input. However, the comparison between perceived and unperceived trials would be expected to reveal not only the core neural substrate of a particular conscious perception, but also aspects of brain activity that facilitate, hinder or tend to follow conscious perception...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#10
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855866/structure-function-revisited-a-simple-tool-for-complex-analysis-of-neuronal-activity
#11
Federico Nanni, Daniela S Andres
Neural systems are characterized by their complex dynamics, reflected on signals produced by neurons and neuronal ensembles. This complexity exhibits specific features in health, disease and in different states of consciousness, and can be considered a hallmark of certain neurologic and neuropsychiatric conditions. To measure complexity from neurophysiologic signals, a number of different nonlinear tools of analysis are available. However, not all of these tools are easy to implement, or able to handle clinical data, often obtained in less than ideal conditions in comparison to laboratory or simulated data...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827744/auditory-verbal-hallucinations-related-to-altered-long-range-synchrony-of-gamma-band-oscillations
#12
Saskia Steinmann, Gregor Leicht, Christina Andreou, Nenad Polomac, Christoph Mulert
Our understanding of the neural correlates of auditory-verbal-hallucinations (AVH) has substantially increased during the last few years, but is far from sufficient. One current hypothesis, the interhemispheric miscommunication theory, is based on findings from fMRI, DTI and EEG, but there is only limited evidence so far concerning underlying functional coupling mechanisms. Here we report a 64-channel EEG study using lagged phase synchronization analysis and eLORETA source estimation to examine the functional connectivity between bilateral auditory cortices in the gamma-band in 26 schizophrenia patients (13 with and 13 without AVH) and 26 matched healthy controls (HC) while performing a dichotic listening task...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760626/how-do-the-brain-s-time-and-space-mediate-consciousness-and-its-different-dimensions-temporo-spatial-theory-of-consciousness-ttc
#13
REVIEW
Georg Northoff, Zirui Huang
Time and space are the basic building blocks of nature. As a unique existent in nature, our brain exists in time and takes up space. The brain's activity itself also constitutes and spreads in its own (intrinsic) time and space that is crucial for consciousness. Consciousness is a complex phenomenon including different dimensions: level/state, content/form, phenomenal aspects, and cognitive features. We propose a Temporo-spatial Theory of Consciousness (TTC) focusing primarily on the temporal and spatial features of the brain activity...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759805/common-and-distinct-neural-mechanisms-associated-with-the-conscious-experience-of-vicarious-pain
#14
Thomas Grice-Jackson, Hugo D Critchley, Michael J Banissy, Jamie Ward
Vicarious pain perception has been an influential paradigm for investigating the social neuroscience of empathy. This research has highlighted the importance of both shared representations (i.e., involved in both experiencing first-hand physical pain and observing pain) and mechanisms that discriminate between self and other. The majority of this research has been conducted in healthy younger adults using a group-average approach. There are, however, known inter-individual differences that can contribute to vicarious experience...
July 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756954/illusory-jitter-perceived-at-the-frequency-of-alpha-oscillations
#15
Sorato Minami, Kaoru Amano
Neural oscillations, such as alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (30-100 Hz), are widespread across cortical areas, and their possible functional roles include feature binding [1], neuronal communication [2, 3], and memory [1, 4]. The most prominent signal among these neural oscillations is the alpha oscillation. Although accumulating evidence suggests that alpha oscillations correlate with various aspects of visual processing [5-18], the number of studies proving their causal contribution in visual perception is limited [11, 16-18]...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753443/activity-in-part-of-the-neural-correlates-of-consciousness-reflects-integration
#16
Johan Eriksson
Integration is commonly viewed as a key process for generating conscious experiences. Accordingly, there should be increased activity within the neural correlates of consciousness when demands on integration increase. We used fMRI and "informational masking" to isolate the neural correlates of consciousness and measured how the associated brain activity changed as a function of required integration. Integration was manipulated by comparing the experience of hearing simple reoccurring tones to hearing harmonic tone triplets...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740471/no-evidence-of-narrowly-defined-cognitive-penetrability-in-unambiguous-vision
#17
Nikki A Lammers, Edward H de Haan, Yair Pinto
The classical notion of cognitive impenetrability suggests that perceptual processing is an automatic modular system and not under conscious control. Near consensus is now emerging that this classical notion is untenable. However, as recently pointed out by Firestone and Scholl, this consensus is built on quicksand. In most studies claiming perception is cognitively penetrable, it remains unclear which actual process has been affected (perception, memory, imagery, input selection or judgment). In fact, the only available "proofs" for cognitive penetrability are proxies for perception, such as behavioral responses and neural correlates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737503/directional-connectivity-in-the-eeg-is-able-to-discriminate-wakefulness-from-nrem-sleep
#18
Giulia Lioi, Steven L Bell, David C Smith, David M Simpson
A reliable measure of consciousness is of great interest for various clinical applications including sleep studies and the assessment of depth of anaesthesia. A number of measures of consciousness based on the EEG have been proposed in the literature and tested in studies of dreamless sleep, general anaesthesia and disorders of consciousness. However, reliability has remained a persistent challenge. Despite considerable theoretical and experimental effort, the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness remain unclear, but connectivity between brain regions is thought to be disrupted, impairing information flow...
July 24, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736543/oscillatory-correlates-of-visual-consciousness
#19
REVIEW
Stefano Gallotto, Alexander T Sack, Teresa Schuhmann, Tom A de Graaf
Conscious experiences are linked to activity in our brain: the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). Empirical research on these NCCs covers a wide range of brain activity signals, measures, and methodologies. In this paper, we focus on spontaneous brain oscillations; rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal (population) activity which can be characterized by a range of parameters, such as frequency, amplitude (power), and phase. We provide an overview of oscillatory measures that appear to correlate with conscious perception...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684334/just-a-thought-how-mind-wandering-is-represented-in-dynamic-brain-connectivity
#20
REVIEW
Aaron Kucyi
The neuroscience of mind-wandering has begun to flourish, with roles of brain regions and networks being defined for various components of spontaneous thought. However, often underappreciated is that most of brain activity does not represent immediately occurring thoughts. Instead, spontaneous, organized network activity largely reflects "intrinsic" functions that are unrelated to the current experience. There remains no consensus on how brain networks represent mind-wandering in parallel to functioning in other ongoing, predominantly unconscious processes...
July 3, 2017: NeuroImage
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