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Neural correlates of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665228/ultra-high-field-fmri-insights-on-insight-neural-correlates-of-the-aha-moment
#1
Martin Tik, Ronald Sladky, Caroline Di Bernardi Luft, David Willinger, André Hoffmann, Michael J Banissy, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Christian Windischberger
Finding creative solutions to difficult problems is a fundamental aspect of human culture and a skill highly needed. However, the exact neural processes underlying creative problem solving remain unclear. Insightful problem solving tasks were shown to be a valid method for investigating one subcomponent of creativity: the Aha!-moment. Finding insightful solutions during a remote associates task (RAT) was found to elicit specific cortical activity changes. Considering the strong affective components of Aha!-moments, as manifested in the subjectively experienced feeling of relief following the sudden emergence of the solution of the problem without any conscious forewarning, we hypothesized the subcortical dopaminergic reward network to be critically engaged during Aha...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626343/a-neural-correlate-for-common-trait-dissociation-decreased-eeg-connectivity-is-related-to-dissociative-absorption
#2
Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Doron Todder, Leah Shelef, Inbal Deutsch, Shirley Gordon
OBJECTIVE: Dissociation refers to a disintegration between psychological elements; common manifestations are embodied in "absorption and imaginative involvement", a propensity for being immersed in a stimulus while oblivious to the environment, and acting without awareness. Trait dissociation was hypothesized to relate to lower EEG signal connectivity, but studies on healthy populations are scarce. The present study set out to examine whether dissociative absorption in a non-clinical sample will be associated with decreased intra-hemispheric coherence...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609007/intra-hemispheric-integration-underlies-perception-of-tilt-illusion
#3
Chen Song, Geraint Rees
The integration of inputs across the entire visual field into a single conscious experience is fundamental to human visual perception. This integrated nature of visual experience is illustrated by contextual illusions such as the tilt illusion, in which the perceived orientation of a central grating appears tilted away from its physical orientation, due to the modulation by a surrounding grating with a different orientation. Here we investigated the relative contribution of local, intra-hemispheric and global, inter-hemispheric integration mechanisms to perception of the tilt illusion...
March 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576980/the-right-thalamus-may-play-an-important-role-in-anesthesia-awakening-regulation-in-frogs
#4
Yanzhu Fan, Xizi Yue, Fei Xue, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Background: Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods: An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ) was used in the present study...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515465/threat-response-system-parallel-brain-processes-in-pain-vis-%C3%A3-vis-fear-and-anxiety
#5
REVIEW
Igor Elman, David Borsook
Pain is essential for avoidance of tissue damage and for promotion of healing. Notwithstanding the survival value, pain brings about emotional suffering reflected in fear and anxiety, which in turn augment pain thus giving rise to a self-sustaining feedforward loop. Given such reciprocal relationships, the present article uses neuroscientific conceptualizations of fear and anxiety as a theoretical framework for hitherto insufficiently understood pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain. To that end, searches of PubMed-indexed journals were performed using the following Medical Subject Headings' terms: pain and nociception plus amygdala, anxiety, cognitive, fear, sensory, and unconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515454/-in-vivo-recording-of-neural-and-behavioral-correlates-of-anesthesia-induction-reversal-and-euthanasia-in-cephalopod-molluscs
#6
Hanna M Butler-Struben, Samantha M Brophy, Nasira A Johnson, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513276/emergence-eeg-pattern-classification-in-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#7
Zhenhu Liang, Cheng Huang, Yongwang Li, Darren F Hight, Logan J Voss, Jamie W Sleigh, Xiaoli Li, Yang Bai

 Objective. Significant spectral characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns exist in individual patients during re-establishing consciousness after general anesthesia. However, these EEG patterns cannot be quantitatively identified using commercially available depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitors. This study proposed an effective classification method and indices to classify these patterns among patients.
 Approach. Four types of emergence EEG patterns were identified based on EEG data set from 52patients undergoing sevoflurane general anesthesia from two hospitals...
March 7, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501558/integration-of-non-invasive-biometrics-with-sensory-analysis-techniques-to-assess-acceptability-of-beer-by-consumers
#8
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate Howell, Damir D Torrico, Frank R Dunshea
Traditional sensory tests rely on conscious and self-reported responses from participants. The integration of non-invasive biometric techniques, such as heart rate, body temperature, brainwaves and facial expressions can gather more information from consumers while tasting a product. The main objectives of this study were i) to assess significant differences between beers for all conscious and unconscious responses, ii) to find significant correlations among the different variables from the conscious and unconscious responses and iii) to develop a model to classify beers according to liking using only the unconscious responses...
February 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480684/artificial-neural-networks-can-be-effectively-used-to-model-changes-of-intracranial-pressure-icp-during-spinal-surgery-using-different-non-invasive-icp-surrogate-estimators
#9
Abdulla Watad, Nicola L Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Howard Amital, Samaa Watad, Kassem Sharif, Bishara Bisharat, Anna Siri, Ala Mahamid, Hakim Abu Ras, Ahmed Nasr, Federico Bilotta, Chiara Robba, Mohammad Adawi
BACKGROUND: Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques play a major role in anesthesiology, even though their importance is often overlooked. In the extant literature, AI approaches, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), have been underutilized, mainly being used to model patient's consciousness state, to predict the precise amount of anesthetic gases, the level of analgesia, or the need of anesthesiological blocks, among others. In the field of neurosurgery, ANNs have been effectively applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral tumors, seizures, low back pain, and also to the monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410608/toward-a-neuroscience-of-adult-cognitive-developmental-theory
#10
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409999/errors-can-elicit-an-error-positivity-in-the-absence-of-an-error-negativity-evidence-for-independent-systems-of-human-error-monitoring
#11
Francesco Di Gregorio, Martin E Maier, Marco Steinhauser
Errors in human behavior elicit a cascade of brain activity related to performance monitoring and error detection. Whereas the early error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) has been assumed to reflect a fast mismatch or prediction error signal in the medial frontal cortex, the later error positivity (Pe) is viewed as a correlate of conscious error processing. A still open question is whether these components represent two independent systems of error monitoring that rely on different types of information to detect an error...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409683/neural-correlates-of-unconsciousness-in-large-scale-brain-networks
#12
REVIEW
George A Mashour, Anthony G Hudetz
The biological basis of consciousness is one of the most challenging and fundamental questions in 21st century science. A related pursuit aims to identify the neural correlates and causes of unconsciousness. We review current trends in the investigation of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological states of unconsciousness at the level of large-scale functional brain networks. We focus on the roles of brain connectivity, repertoire, graph-theoretical techniques, and neural dynamics in understanding the functional brain disconnections and reduced complexity that appear to characterize these states...
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391838/spotlight-on-dream-recall-the-ages-of-dreams
#13
REVIEW
Anastasia Mangiaruga, Serena Scarpelli, Chiara Bartolacci, Luigi De Gennaro
Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377435/breakdown-in-the-temporal-and-spatial-organization-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-during-general-anesthesia
#14
Jianfeng Zhang, Zirui Huang, Yali Chen, Jun Zhang, Diana Ghinda, Yuliya Nikolova, Jinsong Wu, Jianghui Xu, Wenjie Bai, Ying Mao, Zhong Yang, Niall Duncan, Pengmin Qin, Hao Wang, Bing Chen, Xuchu Weng, Georg Northoff
Which temporal features that can characterize different brain states (i.e., consciousness or unconsciousness) is a fundamental question in the neuroscience of consciousness. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we investigated the spatial patterns of two temporal features: the long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs), measured by power-law exponent (PLE), and temporal variability, measured by standard deviation (SD) during wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. We found that both PLE and SD showed global reductions across the whole brain during anesthetic state comparing to wakefulness...
January 28, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364232/recording-brain-electromagnetic-activity-during-the-administration-of-the-gaseous-anesthetic-agents-xenon-and-nitrous-oxide-in-healthy-volunteers
#15
Andria Pelentritou, Levin Kuhlmann, John Cormack, Will Woods, Jamie Sleigh, David Liley
Anesthesia arguably provides one of the only systematic ways to study the neural correlates of global consciousness/unconsciousness. However to date most neuroimaging or neurophysiological investigations in humans have been confined to the study of γ-Amino-Butyric-Acid-(GABA)-receptor-agonist-based anesthetics, while the effects of dissociative N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-(NMDA)-receptor-antagonist-based anesthetics ketamine, nitrous oxide (N2O) and xenon (Xe) are largely unknown. This paper describes the methods underlying the simultaneous recording of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) from healthy males during inhalation of the gaseous anesthetic agents N2O and Xe...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355647/reliability-in-reporting-perceptual-experience-behaviour-and-electrophysiology-in-hemianopic-patients
#16
Chiara Mazzi, Chiara Francesca Tagliabue, Gaetano Mazzeo, Silvia Savazzi
Patients with hemianopia can present with the so called blindsight phenomenon: the ability to perform above chance in the absence of acknowledged awareness. Proper awareness reports are, thus, crucial to distinguish pure forms of blindsight from forms of conscious, yet degraded, vision. It has, in fact, been recently shown that 1) dichotomous and graded measures to assess awareness can lead to different behavioural results in patients with hemianopia and that 2) different grades of perceptual clarity show different electrophysiological correlates in healthy participants...
January 25, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344763/visual-awareness-negativity-is-an-early-neural-correlate-of-awareness-a-preregistered-study-with-two-gabor-sizes
#17
Rasmus Eklund, Stefan Wiens
Electrophysiological recordings are commonly used to study the neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Previous research is inconsistent as to whether awareness can be indexed with visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms or if it occurs later. The present study was preregistered with two main aims: First, to provide independent evidence for or against the presence of VAN, and second, to study whether stimulus size may account for the inconsistent findings. Subjects were shown low-contrast Gaussian filtered gratings (Gabor patches) in the four visual quadrants...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249806/cortical-high-gamma-network-oscillations-and-connectivity-a-translational-index-for-antipsychotics-to-normalize-aberrant-neurophysiological-activity
#18
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, T Van de Casteele, W H I M Drinkenburg
Oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range is a critical mechanism, which integrates neural networks within and across brain structures during cognitive processes. In schizophrenia, abnormalities in high gamma oscillations are ubiquitous and most likely reflect dysfunction in neuronal networks. In conscious rats, disturbed network oscillations associated with positive symptoms and cognitive deficits were modeled in different cortical areas by the dopaminergic agonist (amphetamine) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (PCP and MK801)...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#19
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
March 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232704/do-early-neural-correlates-of-visual-consciousness-show-the-oblique-effect-a-binocular-rivalry-and-event-related-potential-study
#20
Bradley N Jack, Urte Roeber, Robert P O'Shea
When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings...
2017: PloS One
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