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Neural correlates of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921217/don-t-make-me-angry-you-wouldn-t-like-me-when-i-m-angry-volitional-choices-to-act-or-inhibit-are-modulated-by-subliminal-perception-of-emotional-faces
#1
Jim Parkinson, Sarah Garfinkel, Hugo Critchley, Zoltan Dienes, Anil K Seth
Volitional action and self-control-feelings of acting according to one's own intentions and in being control of one's own actions-are fundamental aspects of human conscious experience. However, it is unknown whether high-level cognitive control mechanisms are affected by socially salient but nonconscious emotional cues. In this study, we manipulated free choice decisions to act or withhold an action by subliminally presenting emotional faces: In a novel version of the Go/NoGo paradigm, participants made speeded button-press responses to Go targets, withheld responses to NoGo targets, and made spontaneous, free choices to execute or withhold the response for Choice targets...
December 5, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882594/-cuts-in-action-a-high-density-eeg-study-investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-different-editing-techniques-in-film
#2
Katrin S Heimann, Sebo Uithol, Marta Calbi, Maria A Umiltà, Michele Guerra, Vittorio Gallese
In spite of their striking differences with real-life perception, films are perceived and understood without effort. Cognitive film theory attributes this to the system of continuity editing, a system of editing guidelines outlining the effect of different cuts and edits on spectators. A major principle in this framework is the 180° rule, a rule recommendation that, to avoid spectators' attention to the editing, two edited shots of the same event or action should not be filmed from angles differing in a way that expectations of spatial continuity are strongly violated...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857199/neural-correlates-underlying-impaired-memory-facilitation-and-suppression-of-negative-material-in-depression
#3
Dandan Zhang, Hui Xie, Yunzhe Liu, Yuejia Luo
Previous behavioral studies demonstrated that depressed individuals have difficulties in forgetting unwanted, especially negative, event. However, inconsistent results still exit and the neural mechanism of this phenomenon has not been investigated. This study examined the intentional memory facilitation/suppression of negative and neutral materials in depression using Think/No-Think paradigm. We found that compared with nondepressed group, depressed group recalled more negative items, irrespective of either "Think" or "No-Think" instructions...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829654/minimally-conscious-state-evolution-of-concept-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Ricardo Hodelín-Tablada
The study of consciousness disorders is a scientific challenge, and clinical differentiation among the various sorts of alterations in consciousness is difficult. Persistent vegetative state was defined in 1972, but years later cases appeared in which diagnosed patients showed signs of cognitive activity, and therefore could not be considered vegetative. Minimally conscious state was defined in 2002. This article discusses minimally conscious state based on a literature review and the author's clinical experience...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814457/functional-connectivity-during-masked-and-unmasked-face-emotion-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#5
Wan-Ling Tseng, Laura A Thomas, Elizabeth Harkins, Joel Stoddard, Carlos A Zarate, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Little is known regarding the neural connectivity and correlates during automatic, unconscious face emotion processing in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, 14 adults with BD and 14 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent fMRI scanning while completing an affective priming task with unconsciously perceived and consciously perceived faces (angry, happy, neutral, blank oval). We found that, regardless of awareness level and emotion types, BD patients exhibited diminished functional connectivity between amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared to HV...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812318/neural-correlates-of-auditory-perceptual-awareness-and-release-from-informational-masking-recorded-directly-from-human-cortex-a-case-study
#6
Andrew R Dykstra, Eric Halgren, Alexander Gutschalk, Emad N Eskandar, Sydney S Cash
In complex acoustic environments, even salient supra-threshold sounds sometimes go unperceived, a phenomenon known as informational masking. The neural basis of informational masking (and its release) has not been well-characterized, particularly outside auditory cortex. We combined electrocorticography in a neurosurgical patient undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring with trial-by-trial perceptual reports of isochronous target-tone streams embedded in random multi-tone maskers. Awareness of such masker-embedded target streams was associated with a focal negativity between 100 and 200 ms and high-gamma activity (HGA) between 50 and 250 ms (both in auditory cortex on the posterolateral superior temporal gyrus) as well as a broad P3b-like potential (between ~300 and 600 ms) with generators in ventrolateral frontal and lateral temporal cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738996/the-neural-correlates-of-lexical-processing-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#7
Anna Nigri, Eleonora Catricalà, Stefania Ferraro, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ludovico D'Incerti, Davide Sattin, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Silvana Franceschetti, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Benti, Matilde Leonardi, Stefano F Cappa
There is a growing interest in the use of functional imaging to assess brain activity in the absence of behavioural responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). In the present study, we applied a hierarchical auditory stimulation paradigm to functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) in a group of long-term DOC adult patients. Brain response to pairs of pseudowords, of unrelated words and of semantically related words, i.e. stimuli differing in lexical status (words vs. pseudowords) and semantic relatedness (related vs...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731403/vagus-nerve-stimulation-alters-phase-synchrony-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-facilitates-decision-making-in-rats
#8
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723803/a-comparison-of-multiscale-permutation-entropy-measures-in-on-line-depth-of-anesthesia-monitoring
#9
Cui Su, Zhenhu Liang, Xiaoli Li, Duan Li, Yongwang Li, Mauro Ursino
OBJECTIVE: Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. METHODS: Six MSPE algorithms-derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis-were studied...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704409/neural-mapping-of-guilt-a-quantitative-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#10
Anthony J Gifuni, Adam Kendal, Fabrice Jollant
Guilt is a self-conscious emotion associated with the negative appraisal of one's behavior. In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of guilt, but no meta-analyses have yet identified the most robust activation patterns. A systematic review of literature found 16 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with whole-brain analyses meeting the inclusion criteria, for a total of 325 participants and 135 foci of activation. A meta-analysis was then conducted using activation likelihood estimation...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622575/disentangling-disorders-of-consciousness-insights-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-machine-learning
#11
Zhong S Zheng, Nicco Reggente, Evan Lutkenhoff, Adrian M Owen, Martin M Monti
Previous studies have suggested that disorders of consciousness (DOC) after severe brain injury may result from disconnections of the thalamo-cortical system. However, thalamo-cortical connectivity differences between vegetative state (VS), minimally conscious state minus (MCS-, i.e., low-level behavior such as visual pursuit), and minimally conscious state plus (MCS+, i.e., high-level behavior such as language processing) remain unclear. Probabilistic tractography in a sample of 25 DOC patients was employed to assess whether structural connectivity in various thalamo-cortical circuits could differentiate between VS, MCS-, and MCS+ patients...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569701/beyond-the-neuropsychology-of-dreaming-insights-into-the-neural-basis-of-dreaming-with-new-techniques-of-sleep-recording-and-analysis
#12
Carlo Cipolli, Michele Ferrara, Luigi De Gennaro, Giuseppe Plazzi
Recent advances in electrophysiological [e.g., surface high-density electroencephalographic (hd-EEG) and intracranial recordings], video-polysomnography (video-PSG), transcranial stimulation and neuroimaging techniques allow more in-depth and more accurate investigation of the neural correlates of dreaming in healthy individuals and in patients with brain-damage, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders or parasomnias. Convergent evidence provided by studies using these techniques in healthy subjects has led to a reformulation of several unresolved issues of dream generation and recall [such as the inter- and intra-individual differences in dream recall and the predictivity of specific EEG rhythms, such as theta in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, for dream recall] within more comprehensive models of human consciousness and its variations across sleep/wake states than the traditional models, which were largely based on the neurophysiology of REM sleep in animals...
July 28, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555378/interactions-between-phasic-alerting-and-consciousness-in-the-fronto-striatal-network
#13
Ana B Chica, Dimitri J Bayle, Fabiano Botta, Paolo Bartolomeo, Pedro M Paz-Alonso
Only a small fraction of all the information reaching our senses can be the object of conscious report or voluntary action. Although some models propose that different attentional states (top-down amplification and vigilance) are necessary for conscious perception, few studies have explored how the brain activations associated with different attentional systems (such as top-down orienting and phasic alerting) lead to conscious perception of subsequent visual stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural mechanisms associated with endogenous spatial attention and phasic alertness, and their interaction with the conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536228/the-neurological-traces-of-look-alike-avatars
#14
Mar Gonzalez-Franco, Anna I Bellido, Kristopher J Blom, Mel Slater, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
We designed an observational study where participants (n = 17) were exposed to pictures and look-alike avatars pictures of themselves, a familiar friend or an unfamiliar person. By measuring participants' brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG), we found face-recognition event related potentials (ERPs) in the visual cortex, around 200-250 ms, to be prominent for the different familiarity levels. A less positive component was found for self-recognized pictures (P200) than pictures of others, showing similar effects in both real faces and look-alike avatars...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507950/a-deeper-look-at-the-neural-correlate-of-consciousness
#15
Sascha Benjamin Fink
A main goal of the neuroscience of consciousness is: find the neural correlate to conscious experiences (NCC). When have we achieved this goal? The answer depends on our operationalization of "NCC." Chalmers (2000) shaped the widely accepted operationalization according to which an NCC is a neural system with a state which is minimally sufficient (but not necessary) for an experience. A deeper look at this operationalization reveals why it might be unsatisfactory: (i) it is not an operationalization of a correlate for occurring experiences, but of the capacity to experience; (ii) it is unhelpful for certain cases which are used to motivate a search for neural correlates of consciousness; (iii) it does not mirror the usage of "NCC" by scientists who seek for unique correlates; (iv) it hardly allows for a form of comparative testing of hypotheses, namely experimenta crucis...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497220/clinical-concepts-emerging-from-fmri-functional-connectomics
#16
REVIEW
Paul M Matthews, Adam Hampshire
Recent advances in connectomics have led to a synthesis of perspectives regarding the brain's functional organization that reconciles classical concepts of localized specialization with an appreciation for properties that emerge from interactions across distributed functional networks. This provides a more comprehensive framework for understanding neural mechanisms of normal cognition and disease. Although fMRI has not become a routine clinical tool, research has already had important influences on clinical concepts guiding diagnosis and patient management...
August 3, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492675/hallucinatory-experience-as-aberrant-event-memory-formation-implications-for-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
If hallucinations are not fundamentally different from normal wakeful experiences, then the neural basis of hallucinations has to be essentially that of consciousness in general. The additional insight that consciousness reflects the formation (as opposed to consolidation) of event (episodic) memories links the pathophysiology of hallucinations to the hippocampus. Perceptions and misperceptions, insofar as they are consciously experienced, constitute contextualized and unitary phenomena (which are embedded as discrete events in the stream of consciousness); they are experiential manifestations of activity patters that recurrently emerge in the CA3 network of the hippocampus (and that are secondarily consolidated into retrievable and declarable memories)...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474521/striatal-activation-as-a-neural-link-between-cognitive-and-perceptual-flexibility
#18
Maria Sekutowicz, Katharina Schmack, Rosa Steimke, Lena Paschke, Philipp Sterzer, Henrik Walter, Christine Stelzel
Our brain continuously evaluates different perceptual interpretations of the available sensory data in order to enable flexible updates of conscious experience. Individuals' perceptual flexibility can be assessed using ambiguous stimuli that cause our perception to continuously switch between two mutually exclusive interpretations. Neural processes underlying perceptual switching are thought to involve the visual cortex, but also non-sensory brain circuits that have been implicated in cognitive processes, such as frontal and parietal regions...
November 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466149/future-directions-for-identifying-the-neural-correlates-of-consciousness
#19
Kristian Sandberg, Stefan Frässle, Michael Pitts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456269/transient-loss-of-consciousness-during-hypercapnia-and-hypoxia-involvement-of-pathways-associated-with-general-anesthesia
#20
Guy Meiri, Sa'ar Lanir, Anne Minert, Marshall Devor
Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC), frequently triggered by perturbation in essential physiological parameters such as pCO2or O2, is considered a passive consequence of generalized degradation in high-level cerebral functioning.However, the fact that it is almost always accompanied by atonia and loss of spinal nocifensive reflexes suggests that it might actually be part of a "syndrome" mediated by neural circuitry, and ultimately be adaptive. Widespread suppression by molecules distributed in the vasculature is also the classical explanation of general anesthesia...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
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