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Neural correlates of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649298/neuroimaging-the-traumatized-self-fmri-reveals-altered-response-in-cortical-midline-structures-and-occipital-cortex-during-visual-and-verbal-self-and-other-referential-processing-in-women-with-ptsd
#1
Paul Frewen, Elizabeth Thornley, Daniela Rabellino, Ruth Lanius
Background: Changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in DSM-5 reflect an increased emphasis on negative cognition referring to self and other, including self-blame, and related pervasive negative affective states including for self-conscious emotions such as guilt and shame. Objective: Investigate the neural correlates of valenced self-referential processing (SRP) and other-referential processing (ORP) in persons with PTSD. Method: We compared response to the Visual-Verbal Self-Other Referential Processing Task in an fMRI study of women with (n = 20) versus without (n = 24) PTSD primarily relating to childhood and interpersonal trauma histories using statistical parametric mapping and group independent component analysis...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638328/protocol-for-the-reconstructing-consciousness-and-cognition-reccognition-study
#2
Kaitlyn L Maier, Andrew R McKinstry-Wu, Ben Julian A Palanca, Vijay Tarnal, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Mathias Basner, Michael S Avidan, George A Mashour, Max B Kelz
Important scientific and clinical questions persist about general anesthesia despite the ubiquitous clinical use of anesthetic drugs in humans since their discovery. For example, it is not known how the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after the profound functional perturbation of the anesthetized state, nor has a specific pattern of functional recovery been characterized. To date, there has been a lack of detailed investigation into rates of recovery and the potential orderly return of attention, sensorimotor function, memory, reasoning and logic, abstract thinking, and processing speed...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619656/the-large-scale-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-consciousness-and-arousal-during-the-healthy-and-pathological-human-sleep-cycle
#3
REVIEW
Enzo Tagliazucchi, Eus J W van Someren
Advances in neuroimaging have greatly improved our understanding of human sleep from a systems neuroscience perspective. However, cognition and awareness are reduced during sleep, hindering the applicability of standard task-based paradigms. Methods recently developed to study spontaneous brain activity fluctuations have proven useful to overcome this limitation. In this review, we focus on the concept of functional connectivity (FC, i.e. statistical covariance between brain activity signals) and its application to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired during sleep...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604786/tinnitus-alters-resting-state-functional-connectivity-rsfc-in-human-auditory-and-non-auditory-brain-regions-as-measured-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs
#4
Juan San Juan, Xiao-Su Hu, Mohamad Issa, Silvia Bisconti, Ioulia Kovelman, Paul Kileny, Gregory Basura
Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591822/neural-sources-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-neural-responses-to-heartbeats-and-their-role-in-bodily-self-consciousness-an-intracranial-eeg-study
#5
Hyeong-Dong Park, Fosco Bernasconi, Roy Salomon, Catherine Tallon-Baudry, Laurent Spinelli, Margitta Seeck, Karl Schaller, Olaf Blanke
Recent research has shown that heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), brain activity in response to heartbeats, are a useful neural measure for investigating the functional role of brain-body interactions in cognitive processes including self-consciousness. In 2 experiments, using intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated (1) the neural sources of HEPs, (2) the underlying mechanisms for HEP generation, and (3) the functional role of HEPs in bodily self-consciousness. In Experiment-1, we found that shortly after the heartbeat onset, phase distributions across single trials were significantly concentrated in 10% of the recording sites, mainly in the insula and the operculum, but also in other regions including the amygdala and fronto-temporal cortex...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588463/looking-for-the-self-phenomenology-neurophysiology-and-philosophical-significance-of-drug-induced-ego-dissolution
#6
Raphaël Millière
There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560156/neural-signature-of-coma-revealed-by-posteromedial-cortex-connection-density-analysis
#7
Briguita Malagurski, Patrice Péran, Benjamine Sarton, Beatrice Riu, Leslie Gonzalez, Fanny Vardon-Bounes, Thierry Seguin, Thomas Geeraerts, Olivier Fourcade, Francesco de Pasquale, Stein Silva
Posteromedial cortex (PMC) is a highly segregated and dynamic core, which appears to play a critical role in internally/externally directed cognitive processes, including conscious awareness. Nevertheless, neuroimaging studies on acquired disorders of consciousness, have traditionally explored PMC as a homogenous and indivisible structure. We suggest that a fine-grained description of intrinsic PMC topology during coma, could expand our understanding about how this cortical hub contributes to consciousness generation and maintain, and could permit the identification of specific markers related to brain injury mechanism and useful for neurological prognostication...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557691/different-electrophysiological-correlates-of-visual-awareness-for-detection-and-identification
#8
Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Antti Revonsuo
Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while the participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554797/juxtaposing-the-real-time-unfolding-of-subjective-experience-and-erp-neuromarker-dynamics
#9
Renate Rutiku, Talis Bachmann
Electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials have remained a valuable source of data and theories concerning neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). The EEG based methods are far from being exhausted and are continually valuable in the quest for the markers of NCC. To set the background for the research presented in this issue, we review the published work on EEG-based markers of NCC. The article is organized according to the principle of the time-course aspect of brain potentials with regard to the stimuli for which subject's awareness is experimentally measured and/or manipulated...
May 26, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553118/psychosis-in-parkinsonism-an-unorthodox-approach
#10
REVIEW
Marco Onofrj, Danilo Carrozzino, Aurelio D'Amico, Roberta Di Giacomo, Stefano Delli Pizzi, Astrid Thomas, Valeria Onofrj, John-Paul Taylor, Laura Bonanni
Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently considered as the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions. The historical meaning of the term psychosis was, however, broader, encompassing a disorganization of both consciousness and personality, including behavior abnormalities, such as impulsive overactivity and catatonia, in complete definitions by the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Our review is aimed at reminding that complex psychotic symptoms, including impulsive overactivity and somatoform disorders (the last being a recent controversial entity in PD), were carefully described in postencephalitic parkinsonism (PEP), many decades before dopaminergic treatment era, and are now described in other parkinsonisms than PD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544942/behavioural-and-neural-evidence-for-the-impact-of-fluency-context-on-conscious-memory
#11
Carlos Alexandre Gomes, Axel Mecklinger, Hubert Zimmer
It has been recently suggested that fluency may impact recognition memory performance when the fluency context varies from trial-to-trial. Surprisingly, such an effect has proved difficult to detect in the masked priming paradigm, one of the most popular means to increase fluency-based memory judgements. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants encoded words at study and, at test, performed a recognition memory task within a masked priming procedure. In order to optimise the chances of finding priming effects on recognition memory performance, we used low-frequency words, which have been shown to increase hits relative to false alarms and enhance masked priming effects...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#12
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505152/a-predictive-coding-account-of-bistable-perception-a-model-based-fmri-study
#13
Veith Weilnhammer, Heiner Stuke, Guido Hesselmann, Philipp Sterzer, Katharina Schmack
In bistable vision, subjective perception wavers between two interpretations of a constant ambiguous stimulus. This dissociation between conscious perception and sensory stimulation has motivated various empirical studies on the neural correlates of bistable perception, but the neurocomputational mechanism behind endogenous perceptual transitions has remained elusive. Here, we recurred to a generic Bayesian framework of predictive coding and devised a model that casts endogenous perceptual transitions as a consequence of prediction errors emerging from residual evidence for the suppressed percept...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473797/reorganization-of-the-connectivity-between-elementary-functions-a-model-relating-conscious-states-to-neural-connections
#14
Jesper Mogensen, Morten Overgaard
In the present paper it is argued that the "neural correlate of consciousness" (NCC) does not appear to be a separate "module" - but an aspect of information processing within the neural substrate of various cognitive processes. Consequently, NCC can only be addressed adequately within frameworks that model the general relationship between neural processes and mental states - and take into account the dynamic connectivity of the brain. We presently offer the REFGEN (general reorganization of elementary functions) model as such a framework...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444975/dissociation-between-the-neural-correlates-of-conscious-face-perception-and-visual-attention
#15
Joaquin Navajas, Aleksander W Nitka, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga
Given the higher chance to recognize attended compared to unattended stimuli, the specific neural correlates of these two processes, attention and awareness, tend to be intermingled in experimental designs. In this study, we dissociated the neural correlates of conscious face perception from the effects of visual attention. To do this, we presented faces at the threshold of awareness and manipulated attention through the use of exogenous prestimulus cues. We show that the N170 component, a scalp EEG marker of face perception, was modulated independently by attention and by awareness...
April 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442276/investigating-the-effects-of-nitrous-oxide-sedation-on-frontal-parietal-interactions
#16
Ji-Ho Ryu, Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Yong-Seo Koo, Teo Jeon Shin
Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC)...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422113/increased-spontaneous-meg-signal-diversity-for-psychoactive-doses-of-ketamine-lsd-and-psilocybin
#17
Michael M Schartner, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
What is the level of consciousness of the psychedelic state? Empirically, measures of neural signal diversity such as entropy and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity score higher for wakeful rest than for states with lower conscious level like propofol-induced anesthesia. Here we compute these measures for spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from humans during altered states of consciousness induced by three psychedelic substances: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. For all three, we find reliably higher spontaneous signal diversity, even when controlling for spectral changes...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398813/neural-correlates-of-consciousness-at-near-electrocerebral-silence-in-an-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-model
#18
Donald E Lee, Lauren G Lee, Danny Siu, Afsheen K Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Tin J Dinh, Josue Orellana, Wei Xiong, Beth A Lopour, Yama Akbari
Recent electrophysiological studies have suggested surges in electrical correlates of consciousness (i.e., elevated gamma power and connectivity) after cardiac arrest (CA). This study examines electrocorticogram (ECoG) activity and coherence of the dying brain during asphyxial CA. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were induced with isoflurane anesthesia, which was washed out before asphyxial CA. Mean phase coherence and ECoG power were compared during different stages of the asphyxial period to assess potential neural correlates of consciousness...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394322/the-neural-correlates-of-dreaming
#19
Francesca Siclari, Benjamin Baird, Lampros Perogamvros, Giulio Bernardi, Joshua J LaRocque, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
Consciousness never fades during waking. However, when awakened from sleep, we sometimes recall dreams and sometimes recall no experiences. Traditionally, dreaming has been identified with rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, characterized by wake-like, globally 'activated', high-frequency electroencephalographic activity. However, dreaming also occurs in non-REM (NREM) sleep, characterized by prominent low-frequency activity. This challenges our understanding of the neural correlates of conscious experiences in sleep...
June 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392004/-paradox-of-slow-frequencies-are-slow-frequencies-in-upper-cortical-layers-a-neural-predisposition-of-the-level-state-of-consciousness-npc
#20
Georg Northoff
Consciousness research has much focused on faster frequencies like alpha or gamma while neglecting the slower ones in the infraslow (0.001-0.1Hz) and slow (0.1-1Hz) frequency range. These slower frequency ranges have a "bad reputation" though; their increase in power can observed during the loss of consciousness as in sleep, anesthesia, and vegetative state. However, at the same time, slower frequencies have been conceived instrumental for consciousness. The present paper aims to resolve this paradox which I describe as "paradox of slow frequencies"...
April 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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