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Neural correlates of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885482/long-range-temporal-correlations-in-the-brain-distinguish-conscious-wakefulness-from-induced-unconsciousness
#1
Thomas Thiery, Tarek Lajnef, Etienne Combrisson, Arthur Dehgan, Pierre Rainville, George A Mashour, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Karim Jerbi
Rhythmic neuronal synchronization across large-scale networks is thought to play a key role in the regulation of conscious states. Changes in neuronal oscillation amplitude across states of consciousness have been widely reported, but little is known about possible changes in the temporal dynamics of these oscillations. The temporal structure of brain oscillations may provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness. To address this question, we examined long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) of EEG oscillation amplitudes recorded during both wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness...
June 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869764/neural-correlates-of-reflection-on-present-and-past-selves-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Hanna B Cygan, Artur Marchewka, Ilona Kotlewska, Anna Nowicka
Previous studies indicate that autobiographical memory is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Successful recollection of information referring to one's own person requires the intact ability to re-activate representation of the past self. In the current fMRI study we investigated process of conscious reflection on the present self, the past self, and a close-other in the ASD and typically developing groups. Significant inter-group differences were found in the Past-Self condition. In individuals with ASD, reflection on the past self was associated with additional engagement of the posterior cingulate and posterior temporal structures...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860085/cortical-dynamics-underpinning-the-self-other-distinction-of-touch-a-tms-eeg-study
#3
Alberto Pisoni, Leonor Josefina Romero Lauro, Alessandra Vergallito, Ottavia Maddaluno, Nadia Bolognini
Touch supports processes crucial to human social behaviour, adding a bodily dimension to the perception and understanding of others' feelings. Mirror cortical activity was proposed to underpin the interpersonal sharing of touch, allowing an automatic and unconscious simulation of others' somatic states. However, recent evidence questioned the existence of a tactile shared representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and the neural correlates of self-other distinction in the somatosensory system remains unknown...
May 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766586/awareness-is-related-to-reduced-post-stimulus-alpha-power-a-no-report-inattentional-blindness-study
#4
Anthony M Harris, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
Delineating the neural correlates of sensory awareness is a key requirement for developing a neuroscientific understanding of consciousness. A neural signal that has been proposed as a key neural correlate of awareness is amplitude reduction of 8-14 Hz alpha oscillations. Alpha oscillations are also closely linked to processes of spatial attention, providing potential alternative explanations for past results associating alpha oscillations with awareness. We employed a no-report inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm with electroencephalography to examine the association between awareness and the power of 8-14 Hz alpha oscillations...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740372/large-scale-brain-simulation-and-disorders-of-consciousness-mapping-technical-and-conceptual-issues
#5
Michele Farisco, Jeanette H Kotaleski, Kathinka Evers
Modeling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate the plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683806/role-of-network-science-in-the-study-of-anesthetic-state-transitions
#6
UnCheol Lee, George A Mashour
The heterogeneity of molecular mechanisms, target neural circuits, and neurophysiologic effects of general anesthetics makes it difficult to develop a reliable and drug-invariant index of general anesthesia. No single brain region or mechanism has been identified as the neural correlate of consciousness, suggesting that consciousness might emerge through complex interactions of spatially and temporally distributed brain functions. The goal of this review article is to introduce the basic concepts of networks and explain why the application of network science to general anesthesia could be a pathway to discover a fundamental mechanism of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness...
April 23, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665228/ultra-high-field-fmri-insights-on-insight-neural-correlates-of-the-aha-moment
#7
Martin Tik, Ronald Sladky, Caroline Di Bernardi Luft, David Willinger, André Hoffmann, Michael J Banissy, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Christian Windischberger
Finding creative solutions to difficult problems is a fundamental aspect of human culture and a skill highly needed. However, the exact neural processes underlying creative problem solving remain unclear. Insightful problem solving tasks were shown to be a valid method for investigating one subcomponent of creativity: the Aha!-moment. Finding insightful solutions during a remote associates task (RAT) was found to elicit specific cortical activity changes. Considering the strong affective components of Aha!-moments, as manifested in the subjectively experienced feeling of relief following the sudden emergence of the solution of the problem without any conscious forewarning, we hypothesized the subcortical dopaminergic reward network to be critically engaged during Aha...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626343/a-neural-correlate-for-common-trait-dissociation-decreased-eeg-connectivity-is-related-to-dissociative-absorption
#8
Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Doron Todder, Leah Shelef, Inbal Deutsch, Shirley Gordon
OBJECTIVE: Dissociation refers to a disintegration between psychological elements; common manifestations are embodied in "absorption and imaginative involvement", a propensity for being immersed in a stimulus while oblivious to the environment, and acting without awareness. Trait dissociation was hypothesized to relate to lower EEG signal connectivity, but studies on healthy populations are scarce. The present study set out to examine whether dissociative absorption in a non-clinical sample will be associated with decreased intra-hemispheric coherence...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609007/intra-hemispheric-integration-underlies-perception-of-tilt-illusion
#9
Chen Song, Geraint Rees
The integration of inputs across the entire visual field into a single conscious experience is fundamental to human visual perception. This integrated nature of visual experience is illustrated by contextual illusions such as the tilt illusion, in which the perceived orientation of a central grating appears tilted away from its physical orientation, due to the modulation by a surrounding grating with a different orientation. Here we investigated the relative contribution of local, intra-hemispheric and global, inter-hemispheric integration mechanisms to perception of the tilt illusion...
July 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576980/the-right-thalamus-may-play-an-important-role-in-anesthesia-awakening-regulation-in-frogs
#10
Yanzhu Fan, Xizi Yue, Fei Xue, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Background: Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods: An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ) was used in the present study...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515465/threat-response-system-parallel-brain-processes-in-pain-vis-%C3%A3-vis-fear-and-anxiety
#11
REVIEW
Igor Elman, David Borsook
Pain is essential for avoidance of tissue damage and for promotion of healing. Notwithstanding the survival value, pain brings about emotional suffering reflected in fear and anxiety, which in turn augment pain thus giving rise to a self-sustaining feedforward loop. Given such reciprocal relationships, the present article uses neuroscientific conceptualizations of fear and anxiety as a theoretical framework for hitherto insufficiently understood pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain. To that end, searches of PubMed-indexed journals were performed using the following Medical Subject Headings' terms: pain and nociception plus amygdala, anxiety, cognitive, fear, sensory, and unconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515454/-in-vivo-recording-of-neural-and-behavioral-correlates-of-anesthesia-induction-reversal-and-euthanasia-in-cephalopod-molluscs
#12
Hanna M Butler-Struben, Samantha M Brophy, Nasira A Johnson, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513276/emergence-eeg-pattern-classification-in-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#13
Zhenhu Liang, Cheng Huang, Yongwang Li, Darren F Hight, Logan J Voss, Jamie W Sleigh, Xiaoli Li, Yang Bai
OBJECTIVE: Significant spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern characteristics exist in individual patients during the re-establishment of consciousness after general anesthesia. However, these EEG patterns cannot be quantitatively identified using commercially available depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitors. This study proposes an effective classification method and indices to classify these patterns among patients. APPROACH: Four types of emergence EEG patterns were identified based on the EEG data set from 52 patients undergoing sevoflurane general anesthesia from two hospitals...
April 26, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501558/integration-of-non-invasive-biometrics-with-sensory-analysis-techniques-to-assess-acceptability-of-beer-by-consumers
#14
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate Howell, Damir D Torrico, Frank R Dunshea
Traditional sensory tests rely on conscious and self-reported responses from participants. The integration of non-invasive biometric techniques, such as heart rate, body temperature, brainwaves and facial expressions can gather more information from consumers while tasting a product. The main objectives of this study were i) to assess significant differences between beers for all conscious and unconscious responses, ii) to find significant correlations among the different variables from the conscious and unconscious responses and iii) to develop a model to classify beers according to liking using only the unconscious responses...
March 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480684/artificial-neural-networks-can-be-effectively-used-to-model-changes-of-intracranial-pressure-icp-during-spinal-surgery-using-different-non-invasive-icp-surrogate-estimators
#15
Abdulla Watad, Nicola L Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Howard Amital, Samaa Watad, Kassem Sharif, Bishara Bisharat, Anna Siri, Ala Mahamid, Hakim Abu Ras, Ahmed Nasr, Federico Bilotta, Chiara Robba, Mohammad Adawi
BACKGROUND: Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques play a major role in anesthesiology, even though their importance is often overlooked. In the extant literature, AI approaches, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), have been underutilized, mainly being used to model patient's consciousness state, to predict the precise amount of anesthetic gases, the level of analgesia, or the need of anesthesiological blocks, among others. In the field of neurosurgery, ANNs have been effectively applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral tumors, seizures, low back pain, and also to the monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410608/toward-a-neuroscience-of-adult-cognitive-developmental-theory
#16
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409999/errors-can-elicit-an-error-positivity-in-the-absence-of-an-error-negativity-evidence-for-independent-systems-of-human-error-monitoring
#17
Francesco Di Gregorio, Martin E Maier, Marco Steinhauser
Errors in human behavior elicit a cascade of brain activity related to performance monitoring and error detection. Whereas the early error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) has been assumed to reflect a fast mismatch or prediction error signal in the medial frontal cortex, the later error positivity (Pe) is viewed as a correlate of conscious error processing. A still open question is whether these components represent two independent systems of error monitoring that rely on different types of information to detect an error...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409683/neural-correlates-of-unconsciousness-in-large-scale-brain-networks
#18
REVIEW
George A Mashour, Anthony G Hudetz
The biological basis of consciousness is one of the most challenging and fundamental questions in 21st century science. A related pursuit aims to identify the neural correlates and causes of unconsciousness. We review current trends in the investigation of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological states of unconsciousness at the level of large-scale functional brain networks. We focus on the roles of brain connectivity, repertoire, graph-theoretical techniques, and neural dynamics in understanding the functional brain disconnections and reduced complexity that appear to characterize these states...
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391838/spotlight-on-dream-recall-the-ages-of-dreams
#19
REVIEW
Anastasia Mangiaruga, Serena Scarpelli, Chiara Bartolacci, Luigi De Gennaro
Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377435/breakdown-in-the-temporal-and-spatial-organization-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-during-general-anesthesia
#20
Jianfeng Zhang, Zirui Huang, Yali Chen, Jun Zhang, Diana Ghinda, Yuliya Nikolova, Jinsong Wu, Jianghui Xu, Wenjie Bai, Ying Mao, Zhong Yang, Niall Duncan, Pengmin Qin, Hao Wang, Bing Chen, Xuchu Weng, Georg Northoff
Which temporal features that can characterize different brain states (i.e., consciousness or unconsciousness) is a fundamental question in the neuroscience of consciousness. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we investigated the spatial patterns of two temporal features: the long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs), measured by power-law exponent (PLE), and temporal variability, measured by standard deviation (SD) during wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. We found that both PLE and SD showed global reductions across the whole brain during anesthetic state comparing to wakefulness...
May 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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