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Songdou Zhang, Shiheng An, Kelli Hoover, Zhen Li, Xiangrui Li, Xiaoming Liu, Zhongjian Shen, Haibo Fang, Vera I D Ros, Qingwen Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu
Baculoviruses manipulate host climbing behavior to ensure that the hosts die at elevated positions on host plants to facilitate virus proliferation and transmission, which is a process referred to as tree-top disease. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying tree-top disease has not been elucidated. Using transcriptome analysis we showed that two hormone signals, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are key components involved in HaSNPV-induced tree-top disease in Helicoverpa armigera larvae...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Claus Tittiger, Gary J Blomquist
Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Vicent Esteve, Jose Carneiro, Gabriel Salazar, Mónica Pou, Irati Tapia, Miquel Fulquet, Verónica Duarte, Anna Saurina, Fátima Moreno, Manel Ramírez de Arellano
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterised by bothersome symptoms associated with impaired quality of life and sleep hygiene. Rotigotine is a novel therapeutic alternative, although few studies have been published in patients on haemodialysis (HD) with RLS treated with rotigotine. OBJECTIVES: 1.- To establish the prevalence of RLS in our HD unit. 2.- To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of rotigotine and its effect on symptoms, quality of life and sleep hygiene in our HD population with RLS...
November 30, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
JiHyun Kim, Hana S Fukuto, Deborah A Brown, James B Bliska, Erwin London
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes acute gastrointestinal illness, but its mechanisms of infection are incompletely described. We examined how host cell sterol composition affected Y. pseudotuberculosis uptake. To do this, we depleted or substituted cholesterol in human MDA-MB-231 epithelial cells with various alternative sterols. Decreasing host cell cholesterol significantly reduced pathogen internalization. When host cell cholesterol was substituted with various sterols, only desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol supported internalization...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Y Xiao, D A Carlson, Z Lin, N Alhalel, J E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that symptoms in Jackhammer esophagus (JH) are associated with an imbalance between the prepeak and postpeak phases of contraction. Thus, we developed a method to distinguish the contractile integral components of prepeak and postpeak phase contractile activity to determine the contribution of each phase and their association with dysphagia. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with JH were enrolled and compared to controls. The first five intact swallows during manometry were analyzed...
November 29, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Luis Corral-Gudino, Adrian Jh Tan, Javier Del Pino-Montes, Stuart H Ralston
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates are considered to be the treatment of choice for people with Paget's disease of bone. However, the effects of bisphosphonates on patient-centred outcomes have not been extensively studied. There are insufficient data to determine whether reducing and maintaining biochemical markers of bone turnover to within the normal range improves quality of life and reduces the risk of complications. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of bisphosphonates for adult patients with Paget's disease of bone...
December 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wanna Zhang, Long Ma, Haijun Xiao, Chen Liu, Lin Chen, Shaolong Wu, Gemei Liang
Juvenile hormones (JHs) are crucial regulators for multiple physiological processes in insects. In the current study, 10 genes in mevalonate pathway involved in JH biosynthesis were identified from Helicoverpa armigera. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that six genes were highly expressed in the head which contained the JH biosynthetic gland (corpora allata). Temporal expression pattern showed that 10 of 12 genes were highly transcribed in the late 2nd-instar when the in vivo JH titer reached the peak, indicating a tight correlation between JH titer and the transcription of JH synthetic pathway genes...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marie-Ève Picard, Audrey Nisole, Catherine Béliveau, Stephanie Sen, Aline Barbar, Rong Shi, Michel Cusson
Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an enzyme from the class of short chain (E)-prenyltransferases that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP, C5) with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP, C5) to generate the C15 product FPP. In insects, FPPS plays a key role in the biosynthesis of the morphogenetic and gonadotropic "juvenile hormone" (JH). Lepidopteran genomes encode two very distinct FPPS paralogs, one of which ("type-II") is expressed almost exclusively in the JH-producing glands, the corpora allata...
November 25, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Robin Healy, Ian Kenny, Drew Harrison
PURPOSE: The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. METHODS: Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Carlos A M Cardoso-Júnior, Karina R Guidugli-Lazzarini, Klaus Hartfelder
The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers...
November 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jelena Čvorović, Sherman A James
We describe how self-reported health (SRH) varies with gender and John Henryism (a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping to overcome adversity) in a low income sample of Serbian Roma. Data were collected in 2016 in several Roma settlements around Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of 90 men and 112 women. In addition to John Henryism (JH), measured by a Serbian version of the John Henryism Scale, demographic data and data on SRH and family relationships dynamics were collected...
November 15, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Rohit Ramaswamy, Claire Rothschild, Funmi Alabi, Eric Wachira, Faith Muigai, Nick Pearson
Quality problem or issue: Jacaranda Health (JH) is a Kenya-based organization that attempts to provide affordable, high-quality maternal and newborn healthcare through a chain of private health facilities in Nairobi. Initial assessment: JH needed to adopted quality improvement as an organization-wide strategy to optimize effectiveness and efficiency. Choice of solution: Value Stream Mapping, a Lean Management tool, was used to engage staff in prioritizing opportunities to improve clinical outcomes and patient-centered quality of care...
November 9, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Ana Fernandez-Nicolas, Xavier Belles
The role of juvenile hormone (JH) in insect embryos is a mystery, especially in short germ-band hemimetabolan species. To shed light on this mystery, we depleted the mRNA levels of Kruppel homolog 1, Methoprene tolerant and JH acid O-methyltransferase, key elements of JH signaling, in embryos of the short germ-band hemimetabolan species Blattella germanica This precluded the formation of the germ-band anlage in a group of embryos. Hatchability was also reduced, which may have been due to premature upregulation of laccase 2, a promoter of cuticle tanning...
November 9, 2017: Development
Qiangqiang Jia, Suning Liu, Di Wen, Yongxu Cheng, William G Bendena, Jian Wang, Sheng Li
Tissue remodeling is a crucial process in animal development and disease progression. Coordinately controlled by the two main insect hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), tissues are remodeled context-specifically during insect metamorphosis. We previously discovered that two matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) cooperatively induce fat body cell dissociation in Drosophila. However, the molecular events involved in this Mmps-mediated dissociation are unclear. Here we report that JH and 20E coordinately and precisely control the developmental timing of Mmps-induced fat body cell dissociation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ru Zheng Lin, Kuang-Yang Cheng, Fu-Ming Pan, Jeng-Tzong Sheu
This paper describes a novel method, using device-localized Joule heating (JH) in a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) system, for the selective deposition of platinum (Pt) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the n- regions of n+/n-/n+ polysilicon nanobelts (SNBs). COMSOL simulations were adopted to estimate device temperature distribution. However, during ALD process, the resistance of SNB device decreased gradually and reached to minima after 20-min JH. As a result, thermal decomposition of precursors occurred during PEALD process...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Erik H Hoyer, Daniel L Young, Lisa M Klein, Julie Kreif, Kara Shumock, Stephanie Hiser, Michael Friedman, Annette Lavezza, Alan Jette, Kitty S Chan, Dale M Needham
Background: The lack of common language among interprofessional inpatient clinical teams is an important barrier to achieving inpatient mobilization. In The Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Inpatient Mobility Short Form (IMSF), also called "6-Clicks,"and the Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) are part of routine clinical practice. The measurement characteristics of these tools when used by both nurses and physical therapists for interprofessional communication or assessment are unknown...
November 2, 2017: Physical Therapy
Vennetia R Danes, Josephine Anthony, Kaveh Rayani, Kenneth W Spitzer, Glen F Tibbits
The ability of cardiomyocytes to recover from a proton load was examined in the hearts of exercise-trained (T) and sedentary control (C) rats in CO2/HCO3--free media. Acidosis was created by the NH4Cl pre-pulse technique and pHi was determined using fluorescence microscopy on carboxy-SNARF-1 AM loaded isolated cardiomyocytes. CO2-independent intracellular pH buffering capacity (βi) was measured by incrementally reducing the [NH4Cl]o in steps of 50% from 20 to 1.25 mM. βi increased as pHi decreased in both T and C groups...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Bao-Juan Zeng, Yuan Lv, Li-Li Zhang, Li-Hua Huang, Qi-Li Feng
Juvenile hormone (JH) is one of key insect hormones that regulate metamorphosis. Juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) is an enzyme involved in JH metabolism and catalyzes JH diol to form a polar end product, JH diol phosphate that has no JH activity. In this study, a JHDK cDNA was cloned from Spodoptera litura and the structure and expression of the gene was characterized. The cDNA was 714 base pairs in length and encoded a protein of 183 amino acids with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and a pI of 4.55. Based on the structure three putative calcium binding motifs and GTP-binding motifs were predicted in the protein...
October 28, 2017: Insect Science
Vanessa R Marcelino, Madeleine Jh van Oppen, Heroen Verbruggen
Physiological performance, disease and bleaching prevalence are often patchy within individual coral colonies. These responses are largely influenced by coral-associated microbes, but how the coral microbiome changes over small spatial scales has never been quantified before. We performed a high-resolution quantification of the spatial scale of microbial species turnover (β-diversity) within skeletons of boulder-forming Porites corals. We found very strong prokaryotic species turnover across spatial scales ranging from 4 mm to 2 m within individual colonies, possibly resulting from dispersal limitation and microbial interactions...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
Helen M Palethorpe, Paul A Drew, Eric Smith
BACKGROUND: We showed previously that nuclear localization of the androgen receptor (AR) and expression of the androgen-responsive gene FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) tissues were associated with decreased patient survival, suggesting a role for androgens in this cancer. AIM: To investigate the effect of the AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on AR-expressing EAC cell lines in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: In tissue resection specimens from EAC patients, FKBP5 expression was positively associated with proliferation as measured by Ki-67 expression...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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