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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323582/white-matter-integrity-in-high-altitude-pilots-exposed-to-hypobaria
#1
Stephen A McGuire, Goldie R E Boone, Paul M Sherman, David F Tate, Joe D Wood, Beenish Patel, George Eskandar, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M Rowland, Geoffrey D Clarke, Patrick M Grogan, John H Sladky, Peter V Kochunov
INTRODUCTION: Nonhypoxic hypobaric (low atmospheric pressure) occupational exposure, such as experienced by U.S. Air Force U-2 pilots and safety personnel operating inside altitude chambers, is associated with increased subcortical white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this discrete WMH change remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that occupational exposure to nonhypoxic hypobaria is associated with altered white matter integrity as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA) measured using diffusion tensor imaging and relate these findings to WMH burden and neurocognitive ability...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319587/sedentary-behavior-physical-activity-and-fitness-the-maastricht-study
#2
Jeroen Hpm van der Velde, Annemarie Koster, Julianne D van der Berg, Simone Js Sep, Carla Jh van der Kallen, Pieter C Dagnelie, Miranda T Schram, Ronald Ma Henry, Simone Jpm Eussen, Martien Cjm van Dongen, Coen DA Stehouwer, Nicolaas C Schaper, Hans Hcm Savelberg
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the mutual independent associations of sedentary behavior, lower intensity physical activity (LPA) and higher intensity physical activity HPA (an approximation of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: 2,024 participants were included from The Maastricht Study (mean±SD age: 59.7±8.1 years, 49.6% men). With the activPAL3 activity monitor we assessed sedentary time (ST), sedentary pattern variables (number of sedentary breaks, average sedentary bout duration, and number of prolonged sedentary bouts (≥30 min)), LPA, and HPA...
March 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301607/green-tea-proanthocyanidins-cause-impairment-of-hormone-regulated-larval-development-and-reproductive-fitness-via-repression-of-juvenile-hormone-acid-methyltransferase-insulin-like-peptide-and-cytochrome-p450-genes-in-anopheles-gambiae-sensu-stricto
#3
Jackson M Muema, Steven G Nyanjom, James M Mutunga, Sospeter N Njeru, Joel L Bargul
Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292900/hormone-and-receptor-interplay-in-the-regulation-of-mosquito-lipid-metabolism
#4
Xueli Wang, Yuan Hou, Tusar T Saha, Gaofeng Pei, Alexander S Raikhel, Zhen Zou
Mosquitoes transmit devastating human diseases because they need vertebrate blood for egg development. Metabolism in female mosquitoes is tightly coupled with blood meal-mediated reproduction, which requires an extremely high level of energy consumption. Functional analysis has shown that major genes encoding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (LM) in the mosquito fat bodies are down-regulated at the end of the juvenile hormone (JH)-controlled posteclosion (PE) phase but exhibit significant elevation in their transcript levels during the post-blood meal phase (PBM), which is regulated mainly by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286202/using-a-real-time-location-system-for-assessment-of-patient-ambulation-in-a-hospital-setting
#5
In Cheol Jeong, David Bychkov, Stephanie Hiser, Julie Kreif, Lisa Klein, Erik Hoyer, Peter Searson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using an infrared-based Real Time Location System (RTLS) for measuring patient ambulation in a two minute walk test (2MWT) by comparing distance walked and Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) score to clinician observation as a criterion standard. DESIGN: Criterion standard validation study. SETTING: Inpatient, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: 25 Adult Neuroscience/Brain Rescue Unit patients INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: RTLS and clinician reported ambulation distance in feet and JH-HLM score on an 8-point ordinal scale...
March 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272539/choices-for-return-of-primary-and-secondary-genomic-research-results-of-790-members-of-families-with-mendelian-disease
#6
Katie Fiallos, Carolyn Applegate, Debra Jh Mathews, Juli Bollinger, Amanda L Bergner, Cynthia A James
Although consensus is building that primary (PR) and secondary findings (SF) from genomic research should be offered to participants under some circumstances, data describing (1) actual choices of study participants and (2) factors associated with these choices are limited, hampering study planning. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of choices made for return of PR and SF during informed consent by members of the first 247 families (790 individuals) enrolled in the Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics, a genome sequencing study...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270774/distinct-roles-of-met-and-interacting-proteins-on-the-expressions-of-takeout-family-genes-in-brown-planthopper
#7
Xinda Lin, Ling Zhang, Yanyun Jiang
The takeout family genes encode relatively small proteins that are related to olfaction and are regulated by juvenile hormone (JH). The takeout genes modulate various physiological processes, such as behavioral plasticity in the migratory locust Locusta migraloria and feeding and courtship behaviors in Drosophila. Therefore, to understand the regulatory mechanism of these physiological processes, it is important to study the expressions of the takeout genes that are regulated by JH signaling. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) to study the role of JH signaling in the regulation of the takeout family genes in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263284/replacement-effects-of-sedentary-time-on-metabolic-outcomes-the-maastricht-study
#8
Julianne D van der Berg, Jeroen Hpm van der Velde, Ellis Ac de Waard, Hans Bosma, Hans Hcm Savelberg, Nicolaas C Schaper, Joop Pw van den Bergh, Piet Pmm Geusens, Miranda T Schram, Simone Js Sep, Carla Jh van der Kallen, Ronald Ma Henry, Pieter C Dagnelie, Simone Jpm Eussen, Martien Cjm van Dongen, Sebastian Köhler, Abraham A Kroon, Coen DA Stehouwer, Annemarie Koster
INTRODUCTION: Sedentary time has been associated with detrimental health effects, so in some countries guidelines to reduce sedentary time have been developed. As reducing sedentary time inevitably results in more non-sedentary time, effects of this reduction may depend on the activity with which it is replaced. PURPOSE: To examine associations of theoretical reallocations of sedentary time to standing or stepping with cardio-metabolic outcomes and type 2 diabetes...
March 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261832/comparative-luciferase-assay-for-establishing-reliable-in-vitro-screening-system-of-juvenile-hormone-agonists
#9
Hitoshi Miyakawa, Taisen Iguchi
The cultured cell-based in vitro assay using the stringency of ligand-receptor interactions is typically useful for screening certain hormone agonists from among a very large number of molecules. However, ligands are frequently altered or modified through evolution; indeed, even in the same receptor orthologs, different ligand sensitivity profiles are considered to arise among species and/or taxa. Such ligand transition has been observed in juvenile hormone (JH), one of the most important endocrine factors in arthropods...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251937/comparison-of-the-impact-of-sfas-from-cheese-and-butter-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Didier Brassard, Maude Tessier-Grenier, Janie Allaire, Ethendhar Rajendiran, Yongbo She, Vanu Ramprasath, Iris Gigleux, Denis Talbot, Emile Levy, Angelo Tremblay, Peter Jh Jones, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: Controversies persist concerning the association between intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cardiovascular disease risk.Objective: We compared the impact of consuming equal amounts of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors.Design: In a multicenter, crossover, randomized controlled trial, 92 men and women with abdominal obesity and relatively low HDL-cholesterol concentrations were assigned to sequences of 5 predetermined isoenergetic diets of 4 wk each separated by 4-wk washouts: 2 diets rich in SFAs (12...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251154/effects-of-six-commercial-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-on-phenolic-attributes-antioxidant-activity-and-aroma-of-kiwifruit-actinidia-deliciosa-cv-wine
#11
Xingchen Li, Yage Xing, Lin Cao, Qinglian Xu, Shaohua Li, Ranran Wang, Zijing Jiang, Zhenming Che, Hongbin Lin
"Hayward" kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv.), widely planted all around the world, were fermented with six different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, WLP77, JH-2, and CR476) to reveal their influence on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and aromatic components. Significant differences in the levels of caffeic acid, protocatechuate, and soluble solid content were found among wines with the six fermented strains. Wines fermented with RC212 strain exhibited the highest total phenolic acids as well as DPPH radical scavenging ability and also had the strongest ability to produce volatile esters...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247468/discovery-and-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-lepidopteran-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-as-selective-insecticides
#12
Yang-Yang Zang, Yuan-Mei Li, Yue Yin, Shan-Shan Chen, Zhen-Peng Kai
BACKGROUND: In the previous study, we have demonstrated that insect 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) can be a potential selective insecticide target. Three series of inhibitors were designed based on the difference of HMGR structures from Homo sapiens and Manduca sexta with the aim for discovering potent selective insecticide candidate. RESULTS: Bioassay in vitro showed that gem-difluoromethylenated statin analogs have potent effects on JH biosynthesis of M...
March 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244806/the-need-for-precision-medicine-clinical-trials-in-childhood-asthma-rationale-and-design-of-the-puffin-trial
#13
Susanne Jh Vijverberg, Mariëlle W Pijnenburg, Anke M Hövels, Gerard H Koppelman, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee
A 'one-size fits all'-approach does not fit all pediatric asthma patients. Current evidence suggests that in children with persistent asthma, ADRB2 genotype-guided treatment can improve treatment outcomes, yet this evidence is mainly derived from observational and genotype-stratified studies. Implementation of precision medicine-guided asthma treatment in clinical practice will only occur if randomized clinical trials can show that this approach will improve patient outcomes and is cost effective. In this paper, we will discuss why precision medicine trials are currently needed to improve childhood asthma management and present the rationale and design of the PUFFIN trial, that has been set up to address this need...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241066/ras-like-family-small-gtpases-genes-in-nilaparvata-lugens-identification-phylogenetic-analysis-gene-expression-and-function-in-nymphal-development
#14
Weixia Wang, Kailong Li, Pinjun Wan, Fengxiang Lai, Qiang Fu, Tingheng Zhu
Twenty-nine cDNAs encoding Ras-like family small GTPases (RSGs) were cloned and sequenced from Nilaparvata lugens. Twenty-eight proteins are described here: 3 from Rho, 2 from Ras, 9 from Arf and 14 from Rabs. These RSGs from N.lugens have five conserved G-loop motifs and displayed a higher degree of sequence conservation with orthologues from insects. RT-qPCR analysis revealed NlRSGs expressed at all life stages and the highest expression was observed in hemolymph, gut or wing for most of NlRSGs. RNAi demonstrated that eighteen NlRSGs play a crucial role in nymphal development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235950/the-mast-cell-b-cell-axis-in-lung-vascular-remodeling-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Siegfried Breitling, Zhang Hui, Diana Zabini, Yijie Hu, Julia Hoffmann, Neil M Goldenberg, Arata Tabuchi, Roland Buelow, Claudia Dos Santos, Wolfgang Michael Kuebler
Over the past years, a critical role for the immune system and in particular, for mast cells, in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) has emerged. However, the way in which mast cells promote PH is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which mast cells may contribute to PH, specifically focusing on the interaction between the innate and adaptive immune response and the role of B-cells and autoimmunity. Experiments were performed in Sprague Dawley rats and B-cell deficient JH-KO rats in the monocrotaline, sugen-hypoxia and the aortic banding model of PH...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199783/next-generation-transgenic-cotton-pyramiding-rnai-and-bt-counters-insect-resistance
#16
Mi Ni, Wei Ma, Xiaofang Wang, Meijing Gao, Yan Dai, Xiaoli Wei, Lei Zhang, Yonggang Peng, Shuyuan Chen, Lingyun Ding, Yue Tian, Jie Li, Haiping Wang, Xiaolin Wang, Guowang Xu, Wangzhen Guo, Yihua Yang, Yidong Wu, Shannon Heuberger, Bruce E Tabashnik, Tianzhen Zhang, Zhen Zhu
Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are extensively cultivated worldwide. To counter rapidly increasing pest resistance to crops that produce single Bt toxins, transgenic plant "pyramids" producing two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest have been widely adopted. However, cross-resistance and antagonism between Bt toxins limits the sustainability of this approach. Here we describe development and testing of the first pyramids of cotton combining protection from a Bt toxin and RNA interference (RNAi)...
February 15, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179214/self-management-support-program-for-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-user-centered-development-of-the-tailored-web-based-program-vascular-view
#18
Saskia Puijk-Hekman, Betsie Gi van Gaal, Sebastian Jh Bredie, Maria Wg Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Sandra van Dulmen
BACKGROUND: In addition to medical intervention and counseling, patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) need to manage their disease and its consequences by themselves in daily life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of "Vascular View," a comprehensive, multi-component, tailored, Web-based, self-management support program for patients with CVD, and how this program will be tested in an early randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: The Vascular View program was systematically developed in collaboration with an expert group of 6 patients, and separately with a group of 6 health professionals (medical, nursing, and allied health care professionals), according to the following steps of the intervention mapping (IM) framework: (1) conducting a needs assessment; (2) creating matrices of change objectives; (3) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical applications; (4) organizing methods and applications into an intervention program; (5) planning the adaption, implementation, and sustainability of the program, and (6) generating an evaluation plan...
February 8, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158248/modeling-the-flux-of-metabolites-in-the-juvenile-hormone-biosynthesis-pathway-using-generalized-additive-models-and-ordinary-differential-equations
#19
Raúl O Martínez-Rincón, Crisalejandra Rivera-Pérez, Luis Diambra, Fernando G Noriega
Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152832/estimating-the-cost-savings-of-a-comprehensive-hospital-based-palliative-care-program
#20
Chunhua Lu, John P McQuade, Thomas J Smith, A Rab Razzak
2 Background: In FY 2012, Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM) established a palliative care inpatient unit (PCU). The PCU received patients as transfers and direct admissions. PCUs can improve care (Roza K, et al. JPM 2015) and lower per diem costs compared to usual care (Smith TJ, et al. JPM 2003; Goldstein J, et al. JPSM 2015). This project studied the financial impact of the PCU and PC program on JHM. METHODS: Using one fiscal year of admissions, the team calculated the per day variable cost of pre-transfer in to palliative care (from ED) and palliative care transfer...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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