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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539140/hemoglobin-oxygen-saturation-with-mild-hypoxia-and-microgravity
#1
Johnny Conkin, James H Wessel, Jason R Norcross, Omar S Bekdash, Andrew F J Abercromby, Matthew D Koslovsky, Michael L Gernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Microgravity (μG) exposure and even early recovery from μG in combination with mild hypoxia may increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen (O2) partial pressure gradient. METHODS: Four male astronauts on STS-69 (1995) and four on STS-72 (1996) were exposed on Earth to an acute sequential hypoxic challenge by breathing for 4 min 18.0%, 14.9%, 13.5%, 12.9%, and 12.2% oxygen-balance nitrogen. The 18.0% O2 mixture at sea level resulted in an inspired O2 partial pressure (PIo2) of 127 mmHg...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536442/characterization-of-juvenile-hormone-related-genes-regulating-cantharidin-biosynthesis-in-epicauta-chinensis
#2
Ming Jiang, Shumin Lü, Yalin Zhang
Cantharidin is a defensive toxin biosynthesized by blister beetles. It is well known for medical applications and toxicity. However, the biosynthesis process of cantharidin is still not well understood. In the present study, three genes (methyl farnesoate epoxidase (EcMFE), juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (EcJHAMT) and juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (EcJHEH)) were identified from Epicauta chinensis. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of these three genes revealed that the expression levels of EcMFE and EcJHEH were high in the first instar larval stage of E...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522854/genetic-tools-to-study-juvenile-hormone-action-in-drosophila
#3
A A Baumann, M J Texada, H M Chen, J N Etheredge, D L Miller, S Picard, R Warner, J W Truman, L M Riddiford
The insect juvenile hormone receptor is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein, a novel type of hormone receptor. In higher flies like Drosophila, the ancestral receptor germ cell-expressed (gce) gene has duplicated to yield the paralog Methoprene-tolerant (Met). These paralogous receptors share redundant function during development but play unique roles in adults. Some aspects of JH function apparently require one receptor or the other. To provide a foundation for studying JH receptor function, we have recapitulated endogenous JH receptor expression with single cell resolution...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522416/implantation-assays-using-the-integument-of-early-stage-bombyx-larvae-insights-into-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-acquisition-of-competence-for-metamorphosis
#4
Tomohiro Inui, Takaaki Daimon
It is widely accepted that the anti-metamorphic action of insect juvenile hormones (JHs) is required to inhibit larval-pupal metamorphosis. However, recent studies using RNAi or knockout techniques reveal that larval status may be maintained independently of JHs during the early larval stages. To investigate why larvae of very early instars do not have competence to metamorphose and how they acquire this competence through larval development, we revisited the classic experiments of Piepho (ca. 1930s) and performed implantation assays using the integument of very young larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518004/middle-ear-barotrauma-in-student-pilots
#5
Jung Heob Sohn, Kyoung Rai Cho
INTRODUCTION: The present study reports the clinical features of middle ear barotrauma in student pilots in the Republic of Korea Air Force. METHODS: The authors reviewed medical records of student pilots with barotrauma. The grade of barotrauma was assigned using Teed's classification. This study included nasal symptoms, endoscopic findings of the nasal cavity, and clinical course (duration, recurrence). The relationship between middle ear barotrauma and the nasal airway was also evaluated...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517999/venous-gas-emboli-and-ambulation-at-4-3-psia
#6
Johnny Conkin, Neal W Pollock, Michael J Natoli, Stefanie D Martina, James H Wessel, Michael L Gernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Ambulation during extravehicular activity on Mars may increase the risk of decompression sickness through enhanced bubble formation in the lower body. HYPOTHESES: walking effort (ambulation) before an exercise-enhanced denitrogenation (prebreathe) protocol at 14.7 psia does not increase the incidence of venous gas emboli (VGE) at 4.3 psia, but does increase incidence if performed after tissues become supersaturated with nitrogen at 4.3 psia. METHODS: VGE results from 45 control subjects who performed exercise prebreathe without ambulation before or during a 4-h exposure to 4...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513277/effect-of-gastrocnemius-kinesio-taping-on-countermovement-jump-performance-and-vertical-stiffness-following-muscle-fatigue
#7
Sahar Boozari, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Ali Amiri, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani
CONTEXT: Kinesio Tape (KT) is a widely used intervention in the fields of sports and rehabilitation. However, its effects on lower extremity behavior during functional activities are not entirely known. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that application of KT can change performance and vertical stiffness during the countermovement jump (CMJ) before and after a fatigue protocol. DESIGN: A pre and post design to study the effect of KT in two situations, pre- and post-fatigue...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510511/corrigendum
#8
(no author information available yet)
Birkeland AC, Owen JH, Prince ME. 2015. Targeting head and neck cancer stem cells: current advances and future challenges. J Dent Res. 94(11):1516-1523. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0022034515601960 ) In this article, the funding source was not declared. The Acknowledgments have been updated in the online article as follows: Andrew Birkeland is a Research Fellow funded on a T32 Advanced Research Training in Otolaryngology Program Training Grant (T32 DC005356) funded by the National Institutes of Health NIDCD (National Institute On Deafness And Other Communication Disorders)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502113/epigenetic-modifications-of-the-vh-region-after-djh-recombination-in-pro-b-cells
#9
Yanying Dong, Caijun Wu, Xiaohui Zhao, Ping Zhang, Hua Zhang, Mingzhe Zheng, Shichang Li, Junna Jiao, Xiaozhuo Yu, Zhuangwei Lv, Yanhong Ji
The variable region of murine immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) is assembled by sequential DH -JH and VH -DJH recombination. The accessibility of Igh locus determines the order of rearrangement. Because of the large number of VH genes and lack of a suitable model, the epigenetic modifications of VH genes after DJH recombination have not previously been characterized. Here, we employed two v-Abl pro-B cell lines, in which Igh locus is in germline and DJH -recombined configuration, respectively. The DJH junction displays the characteristics of recombination center, such as high levels of activation-associated histone modifications and recombination activating gene protein (RAG) binding in DJH -rearranged pro-B cells, which extend the recombination center model proposed for germline Igh locus...
May 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490760/hormonal-pleiotropy-helps-maintain-queen-signal-honesty-in-a-highly-eusocial-wasp
#10
Ricardo Caliari Oliveira, Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Cintia Akemi Oi, Jelle S van Zweden, Fabio Nascimento, Colin Sullivan Brent, Tom Wenseleers
In insect societies, both queens and workers produce chemicals that reliably signal caste membership and reproductive status. The mechanisms that help to maintain the honesty of such queen and fertility signals, however, remain poorly studied. Here we test if queen signal honesty could be based on the shared endocrine control of queen fertility and the production of specific signals. In support of this "hormonal pleiotropy" hypothesis, we find that in the common wasp, application of methoprene (a juveline hormone analogue) caused workers to acquire a queen-like cuticular hydrocarbon profile, resulting in the overproduction of known queen pheromones as well as some compounds typically linked to worker fertility...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490635/the-foxo-transcription-factor-controls-insect-growth-and-development-by-regulating-juvenile-hormone-degradation-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#11
Baosheng Zeng, Yuping Huang, Jun Xu, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Hua Bai, Subba Reddy Palli, Yongping Huang, Anjiang Tan
Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485092/in-transition-culture-of-experimentation-with-cannabis-in-latin-american-college-students-a-new-role-within-a-potential-drug-use-sequencing-pattern
#12
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Sérgio Nicastri, Magdalena Cerdá, June H Kim, Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Silvia S Martins
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Given a scenario of intense discussion about the legal situation of cannabis users worldwide, this paper aims to investigate the role of cannabis within a drug use sequencing pattern. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data came from a representative sample of college students from 27 Brazilian capitals (n = 12 711). We analysed the patterns of transition from/to the first use of cannabis to/from the first use of alcohol, tobacco and seven other illegal drugs...
May 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465446/sitting-behaviour-is-not-associated-with-incident-diabetes-over-13-years-the-whitehall-ii-cohort-study
#13
Emmanuel Stamatakis, Richard M Pulsford, Eric J Brunner, Annie R Britton, Adrian E Bauman, Stuart Jh Biddle, Melvyn Hillsdon
BACKGROUND: Although certain types of sedentary behaviour have been linked to metabolic risk, prospective studies describing the links between sitting with incident diabetes are scarce and often do not account for baseline adiposity. We investigate the associations between context-specific sitting and incident diabetes in a cohort of mid-aged to older British civil servants. METHODS: Using data from the Whitehall II study (n=4811), Cox proportional hazards models (adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, employment grade, smoking, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable consumption, self-rated health, physical functioning, walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and body mass index (BMI)) were fitted to examine associations between total sitting and context-specific sitting time (work, television (TV), non-TV leisure time sitting at home) at phase 5 (1997-1999) and fasting glucose-defined incident diabetes up to 2011...
May 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450545/decreased-motor-neuron-support-by-sma-astrocytes-due-to-diminished-mcp1-secretion
#14
J E Martin, T T Nguyen, C Grunseich, J H Nofziger, P R Lee, R D Fields, K H Fischbeck, E Foran
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe, often fatal muscle weakness, due to loss of motor neurons. SMA patients have deletions and other mutations of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in decreased SMN protein. Astrocytes are the primary support cells of the CNS, responsible for glutamate clearance, metabolic support, response to injury, and regulation of signal transmission.Astrocytes have been implicated in SMA as in in other neurodegenerative disorders...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449121/tri-directional-anaphases-as-a-novel-chromosome-segregation-defect-in-human-oocytes
#15
Jenna Haverfield, Nicola L Dean, Diana Nöel, Gaudeline Rémillard-Labrosse, Veronique Paradis, Isaac-Jacques Kadoch, Greg FitzHarris
STUDY QUESTION: What are the chromosome segregation errors in human oocyte meiosis-I that may underlie oocyte aneuploidy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Multiple modes of chromosome segregation error were observed, including tri-directional anaphases, which we attribute to loss of bipolar spindle structure at anaphase-I. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte aneuploidy is common and associated with infertility, but mechanistic information on the chromosome segregation errors underlying these defects is scarce...
June 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446607/juvenile-hormone-and-its-receptor-methoprene-tolerant-promote-ribosomal-biogenesis-and-vitellogenesis-in-the-aedes-aegypti-mosquito
#16
Jia-Lin Wang, Tusar T Saha, Yang Zhang, Changyu Zhang, Alexander S Raikhel
Juvenile hormone (JH) controls many biological activities in insects, including development, metamorphosis and reproduction. In the Aedes aegypti mosquito, a vector of Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, the metabolic tissue, the fat body, which is an analogue of the vertebrate liver, produces yolk proteins (YPs) for developing oocytes. JH is important for the fat body to acquire competence for YP production. However, the molecular mechanisms of how JH promotes mosquito reproduction are not completely understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439025/endocrine-network-essential-for-reproductive-success-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Matthew Meiselman, Sang Soo Lee, Raymond-Tan Tran, Hongjiu Dai, Yike Ding, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Thilini P Wijesekera, Brigitte Dauwalder, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) was originally discovered and characterized as a molt termination signal in insects through its regulation of the ecdysis sequence. Here we report that ETH persists in adult Drosophila melanogaster, where it functions as an obligatory allatotropin to promote juvenile hormone (JH) production and reproduction. ETH signaling deficits lead to sharply reduced JH levels and consequent reductions of ovary size, egg production, and yolk deposition in mature oocytes. Expression of ETH and ETH receptor genes is in turn dependent on ecdysone (20E)...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431661/hwang-jh-do-ys-park-kb-chung-hh-park-hs-hyun-d-embolization-of-congenital-renal-arteriovenous-malformations-using-ethanol-and-coil-depending-on-angiographic-types-j-vasc-interv-radiol-2017-28-64-70
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415065/acute-effect-of-biomechanical-muscle-stimulation-on-the-counter-movement-vertical-jump-power-and-velocity-in-division-i-football-players
#19
Bert H Jacobson, Taylor P Monaghan, John H Sellers, Eric C Conchola, Zach K Pope, Rob G Glass
Jacobson, BH, Monaghan, TP, Sellers, JH, Conchola, EC, Pope, ZK, and Glass, RG. Acute effect of biomechanical muscle stimulation on the counter-movement vertical jump power and velocity in division I football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1259-1264, 2017-Research regarding whole body vibration (WBV) largely supports such training augmentation in attempts to increase muscle strength and power. However, localized biomechanical vibration has not received the same attention. The purpose of this study was to assess peak and average power before and after acute vibration of selected lower-body sites in division I athletes...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408149/leptinotarsa-cap-n-collar-isoform-c-kelch-like-ech-associated-protein%C3%A2-1-signaling-is-critical-for-the-regulation-of-ecdysteroidogenesis-in-the-larvae
#20
Qiang-Kun Sun, Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Drosophila cap 'n' collar isoform C (CncC) and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) regulate metamorphosis by transcriptional control of a subset of genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling, and juvenile hormone (JH) degradation. In the present paper, we found that prothoracicotropic hormone signal was required for the activation of LdCncC and LdKeap1 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Moreover, RNA interference of LdCncC or LdKeap1 in the fourth-instar larvae delayed development...
April 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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