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Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Kai-Yun Fu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, juvenile hormone (JH) is critical for the control of species-specific size. However, whether the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim domain receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) is involved remains unconfirmed. In the present paper, we found that RNA interference (RNAi)-aided knockdown of Met gene (LdMet) lowered the larval and pupal fresh weights and shortened the larval development period in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Dietary introduction of JH into the LdMet RNAi larvae rescued neither the decreased weights nor the reduced development phase, even though JH ingestion by control larvae extended developmental time and caused large pupae...
April 19, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Joseph H Wagner, Genny M Maupin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of statin use and musculoskeletal conditions within the population of U.S. Air Force active duty aviators. METHODS: The study was a retrospective cohort analysis of aviators between 2004-2014 as identified from personnel data. Based on pharmacy data, participants were divided into two groups: statin users (received a statin for at least 90 d) and nonusers (never received a statin throughout the study period)...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Andreas H Mahnken, Alexander Marc König, Jens Holger Figiel
PURPOSE:  Local ablative therapies have become an established treatment option in interventional oncology. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) are a standard of care in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Currently, there is an increasing interest in cryotherapy, one of the oldest ablation techniques. It has some unique characteristics with regard to technology and mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A systematic literature search using the terms cryotherapy, cryosurgery and cryoablation was performed...
April 17, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Jing Gao, Huijuan Guo, Yucheng Sun, Feng Ge
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of nitrogen fertilization on the performance of phytophagous insects have been extensively reported, the physiological and molecular basis involved, however, are largely unclear. Here, we experimentally test whether the enhancement of juvenile hormone (JH) is responsible for the increased weight and fecundity of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) under nitrogen fertilization. RESULTS: Aphids fed on Medicago truncatula with nitrogen fertilization have more amino acids content, greater weight at the 4th instar and adult stage, and produce more offspring than those without nitrogen fertilization...
April 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Hege Grindem, Amelia Jh Arundale, Clare L Ardern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Diana P Castiblanco, Darrell D Norton, Robert W Maul, Patricia J Gearhart
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) introduces nucleotide substitutions within the variable region of immunoglobulin genes to promote antibody diversity. This activity, which is limited to 1.5 kb downstream of the variable gene promoter, mutates both the coding exon and downstream intronic sequences. We recently reported that RNA polymerase II accumulates in these regions during transcription in mice. This build-up directly correlates with the area that is accessible to AID, and manipulation of RNA polymerase II levels alters the mutation frequency...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Yukika Yamada, Miyoko Miura, Mayu Tagari, Kazuo Oshimi, Tomokazu Shiragata, Wataru Suga, Tatsurou Takahashi, Kazuyoshi Shimizu, Kouichi Ohshima, Keizou Kajiwara
A 62-year-old man presented to the hospital with thrombocytopenia, and splenomegaly was detected. His blood films prepared by natural air drying revealed medium-sized lymphocytes with unevenly distributed large and small villous projections. The cytoplasm was basophilic, nuclei were oval with clumped chromatin, and nucleoli were absent in most cells. Immune phenotypes CD19+, CD20+, CD11c+, FMC7+, IgM+, and Igκ+ were detected. TRAP stain appeared negative, IgH JH chain genes were monoclonally rearranged, and BRAF V600E mutation was not detected...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Lynn M Riddiford, James W Truman, Aljoscha Nern
The development of the adult optic lobe (OL) of Drosophila melanogaster is directed by a wave of ingrowth of the photoreceptors over a two day period at the outset of metamorphosis which is accompanied by the appearance of the pupal-specific transcription factor Broad-Z3 (Br-Z3) and expression of early drivers in OL neurons. During this time, there are pulses of ecdysteroids that time the metamorphic events. At the outset, the transient appearance of juvenile hormone (JH) prevents precocious development of the OL caused by the ecdysteroid peak that initiates pupariation, but the artificial maintenance of JH after this time misdirects subsequent development...
April 4, 2018: Biology Open
Binbin Wu, Lingling Ma, Enyan Zhang, Juan Du, Suning Liu, Jeffrey Price, Sheng Li, Zhangwu Zhao
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are a universal phenomenon in animals. In the model animal fruit fly Drosophila, males and females exhibit long- and short-sleep phenotypes, respectively. However, the mechanism is still a mystery. In this study, we showed that juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in regulation of sexually dimorphic sleep in Drosophila, in which gain of JH function enlarges differences of the dimorphic sleep phenotype with higher sleep in males and lower sleep in females, while loss of JH function blurs these differences and results in feminization of male sleep and masculinization of female sleep...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Leonora Sf Boogerd, Maxime Jm van der Valk, Martin C Boonstra, Hendrica Ajm Prevoo, Denise E Hilling, Cornelis Jh van de Velde, Cornelis Fm Sier, Arantza Fariña Sarasqueta, Alexander L Vahrmeijer
Purpose: Intraoperative identification of rectal cancer (RC) can be challenging, especially because of fibrosis after treatment with preoperative chemo- and radiotherapy (CRT). Tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging can enhance the contrast between tumor and normal tissue during surgery. Promising targets for RC imaging are carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the tyrosine-kinase receptor Met (c-Met). The effect of CRT on their expression determines their applicability for imaging...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Zhen-Peng Kai, Jing-Jing Zhu, Xi-Le Deng, Xin-Ling Yang, Shan-Shan Chen
Insect G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in modulating biology, physiology and behavior. They have been identified as candidate targets for next-generation insecticides, yet these targets have been relatively poorly exploited for insect control. In this study, we present a pipeline of novel Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT) antagonist discovery with homology modeling, docking, molecular dynamics simulation and structure-activity relationship. A series of truncated and alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT were assayed for the stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis...
April 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jay Jh Park, Kristian Thorlund, Edward J Mills
Adaptive clinical trials are an innovative trial design aimed at reducing resources, decreasing time to completion and number of patients exposed to inferior interventions, and improving the likelihood of detecting treatment effects. The last decade has seen an increasing use of adaptive designs, particularly in drug development. They frequently differ importantly from conventional clinical trials as they allow modifications to key trial design components during the trial, as data is being collected, using preplanned decision rules...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Marcela Nouzova, Kayvan Etebari, Fernando G Noriega, Sassan Asgari
The corpora allata (CA) are a pair of endocrine glands with neural connections to the brain and close association with another neuroendocrine organ, the corpora cardiaca (CC). The CA from adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes synthesizes fluctuating levels of juvenile hormone (JH), which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs), a type of small non-coding RNAs, in the regulation of gene expression in CA-CC complexes during mosquito reproductive development, at stages with distinct JH biosynthesis patterns...
March 29, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yijun Pan, Elonie R Morris, Martin J Scanlon, Philip J Marriott, Christopher Jh Porter, Joseph A Nicolazzo
The cytoplasmic trafficking of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a cognitively-beneficial fatty acid, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is governed by fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). Lower levels of brain DHA have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is associated with diminished BBB expression of FABP5. Therefore, upregulating FABP5 expression at the BBB may be a novel approach for enhancing BBB transport of DHA in AD. DHA supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in various mouse models of AD, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether DHA has the potential to upregulate the BBB expression of FABP5, thereby enhancing its own uptake into the brain...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Xiang Qiu, Gita Kumari, Tatiana Gerasimova, Hansen Du, Lawal Labaran, Amit Singh, Supriyo De, William H Wood, Kevin G Becker, Weiqiang Zhou, Hongkai Ji, Ranjan Sen
Immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) genes are assembled by DNA rearrangements that juxtapose a variable (VH ), a diversity (DH ), and a joining (JH ) gene segment. Here, we report that in the absence of intergenic control region 1 (IGCR1), the intronic enhancer (Eμ) associates with the next available CTCF binding site located close to VH 81X via putative heterotypic interactions involving YY1 and CTCF. The alternate Eμ/VH 81X loop leads to formation of a distorted recombination center and altered DH rearrangements and disrupts chromosome conformation that favors distal VH recombination...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
Marzana Chowdhury, David Euhus, Banu Arun, Chris Umbricht, Swati Biswas, Pankaj Choudhary
PURPOSE: Women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer are increasingly choosing to remove their other unaffected breast through contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) to reduce the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Yet a large proportion of CPMs are believed to be medically unnecessary. Thus, there is a pressing need to educate patients effectively on their CBC risk. We had earlier developed a CBC risk prediction model called CBCRisk based on eight personal risk factors...
March 24, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Tianlei Zhang, Wei Song, Zheng Li, Wenliang Qian, Ling Wei, Yan Yang, Weina Wang, Xuan Zhou, Meng Meng, Jian Peng, Qingyou Xia, Norbert Perrimon, Daojun Cheng
In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroid hormone ecdysone have opposing effects on regulation of the larval-pupal transition. Although increasing evidence suggests that JH represses ecdysone biosynthesis during larval development, the mechanism underlying this repression is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of the Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a gene encoding a transcription factor that mediates JH signaling, in ecdysone-producing organ prothoracic gland (PG) represses ecdysone biosynthesis by directly inhibiting the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes in both Drosophila and Bombyx Application of a JH mimic on ex vivo cultured PGs from Drosophila and Bombyx larvae induces Kr-h1 expression and inhibits the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes...
March 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shan-Shan Huang, Shan-Shan Chen, Hong-Ling Zhang, Han Yang, Hui-Juan Yang, Yujie Ren, Zhen-Peng Kai
FGLamide allatostatins (ASTs) are regarded as possible insecticide candidates although the absence of in vivo effects, rapid degradation, poor water solubility, and high production costs, preclude their practical use in pest control. In contrast to previous research, the C-terminal tripeptide (FGLa) was selected as the lead compound in this study. Five non-peptide AST analogs (2-amino-1-[3-oxo-3-(substituted-anilino)propyl]pyridinium nitrate derivatives) were designed based on the structure-activity relationship and docking results of FGLa...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rachel L Becker, Jamila H Siamwala, Brandon R Macias, Alan R Hargens
BACKGROUND: We compared microvascular and macrovascular blood flows of the tibia and anterior tibial artery during graded whole-body tilt. We hypothesized equal responses for bone microvascular and macrovascular blood flows during varying angles of tilt. METHODS: There were 18 volunteers who were randomly positioned in the following postures: supine, 15° head-up tilt, 6° head-up tilt, 6° head-down tilt, and 15° head-down tilt using an inversion table with reference to seated posture (baseline control)...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Nicolette Broby, Jane H Lassetter, Mary Williams, Blaine A Winters
Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps...
March 14, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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