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Cerebral small vessels disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#1
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
February 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#2
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329254/periodic-limb-movements-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-first-ever-minor-stroke-or-high-risk-tia
#3
Mark I Boulos, Brian J Murray, Ryan T Muir, Fuqiang Gao, Gregory M Szilagyi, Menal Huroy, Alexander Kiss, Arthur S Walters, Sandra E Black, Andrew S Lim, Richard H Swartz
Study Objectives: Emerging evidence suggests that periodic limb movements (PLMs) may contribute to the development of cerebrovascular disease. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a widely accepted biomarker for cerebral small vessel disease, are associated with incident stroke and death. We evaluated the association between increased PLM indices and WMH burden in patients presenting with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), while controlling for vascular risk factors and stroke severity...
December 29, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#4
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319156/differential-impact-of-serum-total-bilirubin-level-on-cerebral-atherosclerosis-and-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#5
Jonguk Kim, Seung-Jae Yoon, Min-Hee Woo, Sang-Heum Kim, Nam-Keun Kim, Jinkwon Kim, Ok-Joon Kim, Seung-Hun Oh
BACKGROUND: A low serum total bilirubin (T-bil) level is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. However, the differential impact of the serum T-bil level on cerebral atherosclerosis and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is still unclear. METHODS: We evaluated serum T-bil levels from 1,128 neurologically healthy subjects. Indices of cerebral atherosclerosis (extracranial arterial stenosis [ECAS] and intracranial arterial stenosis [ICAS]), and indices of SVD (silent lacunar infarct [SLI], and moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities [msWMH]) were evaluated by the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318355/dementia-incidence-and-predictors-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-patients-without-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Michael J Jessel, Marco Pasi, Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Emily Merrill, Kristin Schwab, Deborah Blacker, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of cognitive impairment in older individuals. This study aimed to investigate predictors of dementia in CAA patients without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 158 non-demented patients from the Stroke Service or the Memory Clinic who met the modified Boston Criteria for probable CAA were included. At baseline, neuroimaging markers, including lobar microbleeds (cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible centrum semiovale perivascular spaces (CSO-PVS), lacunes, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA) were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314762/cerebral-microhemorrhages-mechanisms-consequences-and-prevention
#7
Zoltan I Ungvari, Stefano Tarantini, Angelia C Kirkpatrick, Anna Csiszar, Calin I Prodan
The increasing prevalence of multifocal cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs, also known as "cerebral microbleeds") is a significant, newly recognized problem in the aging population of the Western world. CMHs are associated with rupture of small intracerebral vessels and are thought to progressively impair neuronal function, potentially contributing to cognitive decline, geriatric psychiatric syndromes and gait disorders. Clinical studies show that aging and hypertension significantly increase prevalence of CMHs...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314624/cerebral-white-matter-hypoperfusion-increases-with-small-vessel-disease-burden-data-from-the-third-international-stroke-trial
#8
Francesco Arba, Grant Mair, Trevor Carpenter, Eleni Sakka, Peter A G Sandercock, Richard I Lindley, Domenico Inzitari, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is associated with impaired cerebral perfusion, but the effect of individual and combined small-vessel disease (SVD) features on white matter perfusion is unclear. METHODS: We studied patients recruited with perfusion imaging in the Third International Stroke Trial. We rated individual SVD features (leukoaraiosis, lacunes) and brain atrophy on baseline plain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Separately, we assessed white matter at the level of the lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the stroke for visible areas of hypoperfusion (present or absent) on 4 time-based perfusion imaging parameters...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302914/new-insights-into-mechanisms-of-small-vessel-disease-stroke-from-genetics
#9
REVIEW
Rhea Tan, Matthew Traylor, Loes Rutten-Jacobs, Hugh Markus
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of lacunar strokes, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia. SVD is thought to result in reduced cerebral blood flow, impaired cerebral autoregulation and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SVD are incompletely understood. Recent studies in monogenic forms of SVD, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and 'sporadic' SVD have shed light on possible disease mechanisms in SVD...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285092/visceral-to-subcutaneous-fat-ratio-is-independently-related-to-small-and-large-cerebrovascular-lesions-even-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Satoshi Higuchi, Yusuke Kabeya, Kiyoe Kato
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The severity of obesity is evaluated by visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VS ratio), which may be useful for predicting atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear how VS ratio affects different types of cerebrovascular lesions. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical impact of visceral fat accumulation on the cerebrovascular lesions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 980 apparently healthy Japanese adults who underwent a health check-up program focused toward atherosclerosis, between 2011 and 2014...
March 2, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282806/abnormalities-of-cerebral-deep-medullary-veins-on-7-tesla-mri-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#11
Willem H Bouvy, Hugo J Kuijf, Jaco J M Zwanenburg, Huiberdina L Koek, L Jaap Kappelle, Peter R Luijten, M Kamran Ikram, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) contributes to cognitive impairment and dementia. SVD may affect veins, but veins are difficult to detect with 1.5 and 3T MRI. We compared deep medullary veins (DMVs) visualized on 7T-MRI between patients with early Alzheimer's sisease (eAD; n = 17) or amnestic MCI (aMCI; n = 12) and controls (n = 40). The number and density of DMVs was similar in patients and controls, but tortuosity was higher in eAD (Cohen's d = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.1-1.2, p = 0.02) and aMCI (Cohen's d = 0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281108/recognizing-cadasil-a-secondary-cause-of-migraine-with-aura
#12
REVIEW
John Glenn Burkett, Carrie Dougherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is an important disease to consider in the differential diagnosis of migraine with aura. This review examines current literature regarding migraine in CADASIL, as well as diagnostic and treatment modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that smoking is a modifiable risk factor for progression of CADASIL (Chabriat et al. in Stroke 47:4-11, 2015)...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275700/peripheral-inflammatory-markers-indicate-microstructural-damage-within-periventricular-white-matter-hyperintensities-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-report
#13
Walter Swardfager, Di Yu, Joel Ramirez, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Gregory Szilagyi, Melissa F Holmes, Christopher J M Scott, Gustavo Scola, Pak C Chan, Jialun Chen, Parco Chan, Demetrios J Sahlas, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, Ana C Andreazza, Jacqueline A Pettersen, Sandra E Black
INTRODUCTION: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) presumed to reflect cerebral small vessel disease and increased peripheral inflammatory markers are found commonly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their interrelationships remain unclear. METHODS: Inflammatory markers were assayed in 54 elderly participants (n = 16 with AD). Periventricular WMH were delineated from T1, T2/proton density, and fluid-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging using semiautomated fuzzy lesion extraction and coregistered with maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of microstructural integrity assessed using diffusion tensor imaging...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275245/prevalence-of-fabry-disease-and-gla-c-196g-c-variant-in-japanese-stroke-patients
#14
Kiyoshiro Nagamatsu, Yoshiki Sekijima, Katsuya Nakamura, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Kiyoko Hattori, Masao Ota, Yusaku Shimizu, Fumio Endo, Shu-Ichi Ikeda
Fabry disease is an important underlying disease in young cryptogenic stroke patients. However, little is known regarding the frequency of Fabry disease in the general stroke population, especially in elderly patients. A total of 588 stroke patients (61.7% men; average age 74.1±12.5 years) were enrolled in this prospective study. Blood samples were obtained to produce blood spots to determine α-galactosidase A (α-GalA) activity and for GLA gene analysis. One 65-year-old female patient had a known GLA gene mutation, c...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272264/the-elevated-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-activity-is-associated-with-the-occurrence-and-recurrence-of-acute-cerebral-infarction
#15
Lingli Wei, Zunyu Ke, Yu Zhao, Zhiyou Cai
There is a strong association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels and atherosclerosis-related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Lp-PLA2 in the ischemic stroke and further offer clinical evidence that measuring Lp-PLA2 helps predict the risk of stroke occurrence and recurrence. A total of 328 hospitalized patients were recruited, including 179 cases of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and 149 non-ACI controls. The serum level of Lp-PLA2 in ACI was significantly higher than non-ACI...
March 7, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265034/extracellular-matrix-inflammation-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#16
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262564/is-dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-bilaterally-impaired-after-unilateral-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
Li Xiong, Ge Tian, Wenhua Lin, Wei Wang, Lijuan Wang, Thomas Leung, Vincent Mok, Jia Liu, Xiangyan Chen, Ka Sing Wong
OBJECTIVE: Whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is impaired focally in the affected hemisphere or bilaterally in both the affected and nonaffected hemispheres after ischemic stroke remains controversial. We therefore investigated the pattern of dCA in acute ischemic stroke patients with different subtypes. METHODS: Sixty acute ischemic stroke patients with unilateral anterior circulation infarct [30 with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), 13 with small vessel disease (SVD), and 17 with coexisting LAA and SVD] and 16 healthy controls were enrolled...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260527/genetics-of-vascular-dementia-review-from-the-icvd-working-group
#18
REVIEW
M Arfan Ikram, Anna Bersano, Raquel Manso-Calderón, Jian-Ping Jia, Helena Schmidt, Lefkos Middleton, Benedetta Nacmias, Saima Siddiqi, Hieab H H Adams
BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia is a common disorder resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Determining the extent to which genes play a role in disease susceptibility and their pathophysiological mechanisms could improve our understanding of vascular dementia, leading to a potential translation of this knowledge to clinical practice. DISCUSSION: In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of vascular dementia. The identification of causal genes remains limited to monogenic forms of the disease, with findings for sporadic vascular dementia being less robust...
March 6, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255864/hyperinsulinemia-and-elevated-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-predict-white-matter-hyperintensities-with-associated-cognitive-decrement-in-the-middle-aged-offspring-of-dementia-patients
#19
Keith A Hawkins, Nazli Emadi, Godfrey D Pearlson, Anderson M Winkler, Beth Taylor, Latha Dulipsingh, Diana King, Brian Pittman, Karen Blank
Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline...
March 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254515/hereditary-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Christian Baastrup Søndergaard, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Christine Krarup Hansen, Hanne Christensen
Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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