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Older individuals

Wai Jia Tam, Philip Yap
Approximately two-thirds of the world's older adults live in developing nations. By 2050, as many as 80% of such older people will live in low- and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, the number of individuals aged 60 and older is projected to reach 163 million. Despite this demographic wave, the majority of Africa has limited access to qualified geriatric health care.(3) Although foreign aid and capacity-building efforts can help to close this gap over time, it is likely that failure to understand the unique context of Africa's older adults, many of whom are marginalized, will lead to inadequacies in service delivery and poor health outcomes...
October 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
E Laird, T Shannon, V E F Crowley, M Healy
CONTEXT: There have been few published reports of visualising vitamin D status at a micro level, i.e., within large individual urban centres of countries. OBJECTIVE: To produce a visual map of the vitamin D status [25-hydroxy vitamin D-25(OH)D] of a large urban centre (n > 350,000) incorporating the regions of Dublin city that constitute the general practitioner catchment area of a large academic teaching adult hospital. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: An observational investigation of 5287 free living Irish adults (>18 years)...
October 21, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Maurice M Ohayon, Kanika Bagai, Laura W Roberts, Arthur S Walters, Cristina Milesi
OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) using DSM-5 criteria and determines what is the most appropriate threshold for the frequency and duration of RLS symptoms. METHODS: The Sleep-EVAL knowledge base system queried the interviewed subjects on life, sleeping habits, and health. Questions on sleep and mental and organic disorders (DSM-5, ICD-10) were also asked. A representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals older than 18 years living in the United States was interviewed through a cross-sectional telephone survey...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Rohit Varma, Mina Torres, Roberta McKean-Cowdin, Fen Rong, Chunyi Hsu, Xuejuan Jiang
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in adult Chinese Americans, and evaluate factors associated with myopia and high myopia. DESIGN: A population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Chinese Americans 50 years and older residing in Monterey Park, California, were recruited. Noncycloplegic automated refraction with supplemental subjective refraction was performed. Myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, and high hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent of < -0...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Silvana B Sandbakk, Javaid Nauman, Nina Zisko, Øyvind Sandbakk, Nils Petter Aspvik, Dorthe Stensvold, Ulrik Wisløff
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations and/or having high age-specific cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) attenuate the adverse effect of prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular risk factor (CV-RF) clustering in older adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Norwegian women (495) and men (379) aged 70 to 77 years from August 22, 2012, through June 30, 2013. Sedentary time and PA were assessed by accelerometers and CRF by directly measured peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)...
October 8, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Omar Mahmoud, Lara Hathout, Sherif G Shaaban, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Sushil Beriwal, William Small
PURPOSE: The Gynecologic Oncology group (GOG) 0263 trial is currently exploring whether adding chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy improves recurrence-free and/or overall survival in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients with pathologic intermediate-risk factors. Using the National Cancer Data Base, we evaluated the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy over adjuvant radiotherapy alone in the community practice setting. MATERIALS: The analysis included 869 stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy retrieving intermediate-risk factors justifying adjuvant therapy...
October 18, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Přemysl Frič, Jan Škrha, Aleksi Šedo, Tomaš Zima, Petr Bušek, Klára Kmochová, Martin Laclav, Bohuš Bunganič, Svatopluk Solař, Petr Hrabal, František Bělina, Pavel Záruba, Pavel Škrha, Miroslav Zavoral
High-resolution imaging methods (HRIMs) and biomarkers present the second step of pancreatic cancer (PC) diagnostics in at-risk individuals. These include patients with positive risk factors, early symptoms, nonresponders to the initial antidiabetic therapy, patients older than 50 years of age with new-onset unstable diabetes requiring insulin as well as patients with long-term insulin-non-dependent diabetes and recent (up to 6 months) failure of antidiabetic therapy. The procedures should be started without delay and the co-operation between the primary and tertiary medical centers is highly desirable...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
David Geard, Peter Reaburn, Amanda Rebar, Rylee Dionigi
Global population aging has raised academic interest in successful aging to a public policy priority. Currently there is no consensus regarding the definition of successful aging. However, a synthesis of research shows successful aging can be defined as a late-life process of change characterized by high physical, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning. Masters athletes systematically train for, and compete in, organized forms of team and individual sport specifically designed for older adults. Masters athletes are often proposed as exemplars of successful aging...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Maria Kosma, David Buchanan, Jan M Hondzinski
Despite the exercise benefits, disparities among diverse older adults continue to exist where African American women have the lowest percentage of any population group in meeting national recommended activity guidelines. Drawing on the philosophical tradition of phronesis (practical reasoning) introduced by Aristotle, we studied perceptions of the exercise value among 14 older African American women. Three themes included: 1) exercise goals (e.g., effort exerted), 2) exercise reasons (e.g., health benefits, enjoyment and convenience, and activity recommendation), and 3) inactivity reasons (e...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Manal Zafar, Ariyana Bozzorg, Madeleine E Hackney
PURPOSE: Our aims were to determine (1) the impact of aging versus combined aging and disease on participation and (2) participation before and after a 12-week, Adapted Tango dance intervention (AT) in older adults with and without Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Participant responses to open and closed-ended questions on the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire (IPA) were recorded before, one-week-after, and three-months after 20 lessons of AT...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ada Wai Tung Fung, Wai-Chi Chan, Corine Sau-Man Wong, Eric Yu-Hai Chen, Roger Man-Kin Ng, Edwin Ho-Ming Lee, Wing-Chung Chang, Se-Fong Hung, Eric Fuk-Chi Cheung, Pak-Chung Sham, Helen Fung-Kum Chiu, Ming Lam, Tin-Po Chiang, Jim van Os, Joseph Tak-Fai Lau, Glyn Lewis, Paul Bebbington, Linda Chiu Wa Lam
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are prevalent yet under-recognized in late life. We examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a representative sample of community dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. METHOD: Data on 1,158 non-demented respondents aged 60-75 years were extracted from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity survey (HKMMS). Anxiety was assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). RESULT: One hundred and thirty-seven respondents (11...
October 21, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Yurii B Shvetsov, Brook E Harmon, Reynolette Ettienne, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Carol J Boushey
The alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score is an adaptation of the original Mediterranean diet score. Raw (aMED) and energy-standardised (aMED-e) versions have been used. How the diet scores and their association with health outcomes differ between the two versions is unclear. We examined differences in participants' total and component scores and compared the association of aMED and aMED-e with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. As part of the Multiethnic Cohort, 193 527 men and women aged 45-75 years from Hawaii and Los Angeles completed a baseline FFQ and were followed up for 13-18 years...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Lydia W Li, Hongwei Xu, Zhenmei Zhang, Jinyu Liu
China accounts for a large number of suicides worldwide, and most occur in rural areas. Suicide research in China has primarily focused on individual-level risk factors, few have studied the influence of neighborhood contexts. This ecological study examines the association of suicide rates with social fragmentation and socioeconomic deprivation in Chinese rural villages. Data from the community survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were analyzed using negative binomial regression. A total of 307 rural villages were included...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Saeed Talebian, Akbar Biglarian, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad
Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this analytic cross-sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Salman Razvi, Lorna Ingoe, Vicky Ryan, Simon H S Pearce, Scott Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is a common condition, particularly in the older population. Thyroid hormone requirements change with age and serum TSH levels also alter, especially in older patients. However, in practice laboratory reference ranges for thyroid function are not age-specific and treatment in older patients aims to achieve a similar target thyroid function level as younger age groups. METHODS: A dual centre, single blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted to determine the feasibility of a future definitive RCT in hypothyroid individuals aged 80 years or older who were treated with levothyroxine...
2016: Thyroid Research
Rebecca S Nader, Anthony L Murkar, Carlyle T Smith
Recent research has suggested that some of the inter-individual variation in sleep spindle activity is due to innate learning ability. Sleep spindles have also been observed to vary following learning in both young and older adults. We examined the effect of procedural task acquisition on sleep stages and on sleep spindles in an adolescent sample. Participants were 32 adolescents (17 females) between the ages of 12 and 19 years. Spindle activity was examined in three different frequency ranges: 11.00-13.50 Hz (slow), 13...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ling Na, Sean Hennessy, Hillary R Bogner, Jibby E Kurichi, Margaret Stineman, Joel E Streim, Pui L Kwong, Dawei Xie, Liliana E Pezzin
BACKGROUND: Receipt of recommended care among older adults is generally low. Findings regarding service use among persons with disabilities supports the notion of disparities but provides inconsistent evidence of underuse of recommended care. OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which receipt of recommended care among older Medicare beneficiaries varies by disability status, using a newly developed staging method to classify individuals according to disability. METHODS: In a cohort study, we included community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older who participated in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey between 2001 and 2008...
October 4, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Mehmet Ali Aslaner, Mustafa Boz, Ali Çelik, Asliddin Ahmedali, Sercan Eroğlu, Nalan Metin Aksu, Serkan Emre Eroğlu
OBJECTIVES: Altered mental status (AMS) is a challenging diagnosis in older patients and has a large range of etiologies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of such etiologies for physicians to be better aware of AMS backgrounds and hence improve outcomes and mortality rates. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at 4 emergency departments. Patients 65 years and older who presented to the emergency department with acute AMS (≤1 week), with symptoms ranging from comas and combativeness, were eligible for inclusion in this study...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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