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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234089/impact-of-treatment-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-metabolism-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#1
A L van der Straten, D Denys, G A van Wingen
Neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that its clinical symptoms such as repetitive thoughts and behaviors are related to hyperactivity in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit. Small scale neuroimaging studies have shown that treatment of OCD is associated with reduced activity across different brain structures within this circuitry. We performed the first meta-analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies that investigated cerebral blood flow or glucose metabolism in patients with OCD before and after pharmacological or psychological treatment...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233751/differential-binding-of-antibodies-in-pandas-patients-to-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-striatum
#2
Luciana Frick, Maximiliano Rapanelli, Kantiya Jindachomthong, Paul Grant, James F Leckman, Susan Swedo, Kyle Williams, Christopher Pittenger
Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus, or PANDAS, is a syndrome of acute childhood onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and other neuropsychiatric symptoms in the aftermath of an infection with Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS). Its pathophysiology remains unclear. PANDAS has been proposed to result from cross-reactivity of antibodies raised against GABHS with brain antigens, but the targets of these antibodies are unclear and may be heterogeneous. We developed an in vivo assay in mice to characterize the cellular targets of antibodies in serum from individuals with PANDAS...
December 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229708/neuronal-glutamate-transporters-control-dopaminergic-signaling-and-compulsive-behaviors
#3
Stefania Bellini, Kelsey E Fleming, Modhurika De, John P McCauley, Maurice A Petroccione, Lianna Y D'Brant, Artem Katchenko, SoYoung Kwon, Lindsey A Jones, Annalisa Scimemi
There is an ongoing debate on the contribution of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 to the onset of compulsive behaviors. Here we use behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular and viral approaches in male and female mice to identify the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which EAAC1 controls the execution of repeated motor behaviors. Our findings show that in the striatum, a brain region implicated with movement execution, EAAC1 limits group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluRI) activation, facilitates D1 dopamine receptor (D1R) expression and ensures long-term synaptic plasticity...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228982/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-manic-state-with-mixed-and-psychotic-features-in-a-teenager-with-bipolar-disorder-and-comorbid-episodic-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report
#4
Olof Rask, Klara Suneson, Eva Holmström, Beata Bäckström, Björn Axel Johansson
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder is common in adolescence. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms may be episodic and secondary to alterations in mood, and display specific features. Management of pediatric bipolar disorder-obsessive-compulsive disorder is challenging, as pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder may induce or exacerbate manic episodes and there is limited evidence of treatment efficacy. Electroconvulsive therapy is sparsely used in children and adolescents, but is documented to be a safe and efficacious intervention in adults with bipolar disorder...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227895/patients-with-ocd-report-lower-quality-of-life-after-controlling-for-expert-rated-symptoms-of-depression-and-anxiety
#6
Leila Jahangard, Vahid Fadaei, Arezoo Sajadi, Mohammad Haghighi, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Nasrin Matinnia, Hafez Bajoghli, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Undine Lang, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: One to three percent of the adult population suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Previous studies have also shown that, compared to controls, patients with OCD report a lower QoL. The latter is associated with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life of OCD patients with that of healthy controls, while introducing expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety as covariates. Gender was also taken into account as an additional associated factor...
December 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225044/fear-extinction-in-an-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-animal-model-influence-of-sex-and-estrous-cycle
#7
Adriano Edgar Reimer, Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira, Juliana Belo Diniz, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Mohammed Ragib Milad, Marcus Lira Brandão
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220783/a-study-to-compare-the-differences-between-genders-in-psychiatric-comorbidities-in-individuals-with-psychoses
#8
Praveen Das, Priya Sreedaran, Ashok Mv
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidities worsen the outcome and increase severity of suffering in psychotic disorders. Gender differences have also been found to impact the severity and outcome in psychoses. In this background, this study attempted to compare psychiatric comorbidity between genders. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare psychiatric co-morbidity between men and women with psychotic disorders. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used...
November 29, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218455/the-primary-cilium-once-a-rudimentary-organelle-that-is-now-a-ubiquitous-sensory-cellular-structure-involved-in-many-pathological-disorders
#9
Denys N Wheatley
This article looks mostly at the steps that have led to the primary cilium finding its place in our understanding of cell biology, developmental biology, and medical syndromes due to its aberrations. It is a personal account that stresses, if nothing else, the value of the adage "stick to your guns". My obsession with this organelle, following on from fascination with the centriole, has led to a whole career devoted to determining the nature and role of primary cilia in basic cell biology, which has proved much more important than had been appreciated for almost a century...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217994/local-fields-in-human-subthalamic-nucleus-track-the-lead-up-to-impulsive-choices
#10
John M Pearson, Patrick T Hickey, Shivanand P Lad, Michael L Platt, Dennis A Turner
The ability to adaptively minimize not only motor but cognitive symptoms of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a primary goal of next-generation deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices. On the basis of studies demonstrating a link between beta-band synchronization and severity of motor symptoms in PD, the minimization of beta band activity has been proposed as a potential training target for closed-loop DBS. At present, no comparable signal is known for the impulsive side effects of PD, though multiple studies have implicated theta band activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the site of DBS treatment, in processes of conflict monitoring and countermanding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216747/factor-structure-and-further-validation-of-the-20-item-short-form-of-the-obsessive-beliefs-questionnaire
#11
Thomas A Fergus, Shawn J Latendresse, Kevin D Wu
A 44-item version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) put forward by the Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group remains the most widely used version of the OBQ, despite research casting doubt on its factorial validity and the existence of a short form (i.e., OBQ-20). In a large sample of undergraduate students ( n = 1,210), a bifactor model of the OBQ-20, consisting of a general factor and four specific factors (threat, responsibility, importance/control of thoughts, perfectionism/certainty), was supported as the best-fitting model...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215937/orthorexia-nervosa-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Christine B Costa, Kholoud Hardan-Khalil, Kimberly Gibbs
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been noted by clinicians since 1996 and described in the scientific literature, and yet there is no formal recognition of ON as a psychiatric diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: Review the latest available literature regarding diagnoses similarities, presentation uniqueness, assessment/assessment tools, and suggested treatments of ON. METHOD/DESIGN: A literature search of four databases focusing on articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted to evaluate the status of the literature on Orthorexia...
December 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215777/atypical-anorexia-nervosa-is-not-related-to-brain-structural-changes-in-newly-diagnosed-adolescent-patients
#13
Gaia Olivo, Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients. METHOD: We investigated brain structure through a voxel-based morphometry analysis in 22 adolescent females newly-diagnosed with atypical AN, and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214602/peromyscus-maniculatus-bairdii-as-a-naturalistic-mammalian-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-current-status-and-future-challenges
#14
De Wet Wolmarans, Isabella M Scheepers, Dan J Stein, Brian H Harvey
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive behavior. Animal models of OCD arguably have the potential to contribute to our understanding of the condition. Deer mice (Permomyscus maniculatus bairdii) are characterized by stereotypic behavior which is reminiscent of OCD symptomology, and which may serve as a naturalistic animal model of this disorder. Moreover, a range of deer mouse repetitive behaviors may be representative of different compulsive-like phenotypes...
December 6, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213280/subthreshold-psychiatric-psychopathology-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-can-it-be-the-bridge-between-gastroenterology-and-psychiatry
#15
Cristina Stasi, Cristiana Nisita, Sonia Cortopassi, Giorgio Corretti, Dario Gambaccini, Nicola De Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Natalia Simonetti, Angelo Ricchiuti, Liliana Dell'Osso, Santino Marchi, Massimo Bellini
Background and Aims: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs) are multifactorial disorders of the gut-brain interaction. This study investigated the prevalence of Axis I and spectrum disorders in patients with FGD and established the link between FGDs and psychopathological dimensions. Methods: A total of 135 consecutive patients with FGD were enrolled. The symptoms' severity was evaluated using questionnaires, while the psychiatric evaluation by clinical interviews established the presence/absence of mental (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-4th edition, Axis I Diagnosis) or spectrum disorders...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210866/abrupt-improvement-in-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-upon-discontinuation-of-clozapine
#16
Lindsay-Rose Dykema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210194/error-related-brain-activity-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Tamara E Rosen, Matthew D Lerner
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. In other populations, these same symptoms are associated with a larger error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that reflects endogenous threat sensitivity. As such, it is possible that the ERN may relate to the clinical presentation of anxiety in ASD. However, studies examining these associations in youth with ASD have yielded mixed results...
December 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210107/higher-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-early-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-undergoing-escitalopram-treatment-a-11-c-dasb-pet-study
#18
Junhee Lee, Bo-Hyung Kim, Euitae Kim, Oliver D Howes, Kang Ik Kevin Cho, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Jun Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (EOCD) and late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (LOCD) are distinct subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD patients are treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but the difference in serotonin transporter (SERT) availability between medicated EOCD and LOCD is unexplored yet. METHODS: Six EOCD and 6 LOCD patients were enrolled. They underwent serial [11 C]DASB positron emission tomography scans during maintenance therapy with escitalopram, and their plasma concentration of escitalopram was measured simultaneously with the scan...
December 6, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203850/polygenic-prediction-of-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms
#19
N R Zilhão, A Abdellaoui, D J A Smit, D C Cath, J J Hottenga, D I Boomsma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203843/bisexuality-among-a-cohort-of-university-students-prevalence-and-psychological-distress
#20
Giacomo Ciocca, Caterina Solano, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Erika Limoncin, Daniele Mollaioli, Eleonora Carosa, Alberto Collazzoni, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Emanuela Bianciardi, Cinzia Niolu, Alberto Siracusano, Alessandro Rossi, Emmanuele A Jannini
Sociocultural prejudices and pressures may impair the mental health of bisexual people. We aim to evaluate psychological status according to sexual orientation in a sample of Italian university students, with specific attention to bisexuality and its frequency. Among a recruited sample of 551 university students, we found the following percentages for sexual orientation: heterosexuals 96.9% (n = 534), homosexuals 1.1% (n = 6), bisexuals 2% (n = 11). The cross-sectional analysis for psychological symptoms, with the Symptoms Check List-90 Revised (SCL-90-R), revealed that bisexual subjects have statistically significant higher scores on some symptomatic scales compared to heterosexuals...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
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