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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666372/brain-serotonin-synthesis-capacity-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-sertraline
#1
Jennifer I Lissemore, Debbie Sookman, Paul Gravel, Alexandre Berney, Amir Barsoum, Mirko Diksic, Thomas E Nordahl, Gilbert Pinard, Igor Sibon, Jean Cottraux, Marco Leyton, Chawki Benkelfat
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are both effective treatments for some patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about the neurochemical changes related to these treatment modalities. Here, we used positron emission tomography and the α-[11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan tracer to examine the changes in brain regional serotonin synthesis capacity in OCD patients following treatment with CBT or SSRI treatment. Sixteen medication-free OCD patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either CBT or sertraline treatment...
April 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664313/voluntary-wheel-running-induces-exercise-seeking-behavior-in-male-rats-a-behavioral-study
#2
Mojtaba Naghshvarian, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast, Seyedeh Fatemeh Sajjadi
BACKGROUND: Research evidence shows that exercise is associated with positive physical and mental health. Moreover, exercise and wheel running in rats activate overlapping neural systems and reward system. The most commonly used models for the study of rewarding and aversive effects of exercise involve using treadmill and wheel running paradigms in mice or rats. The purpose of our experiment was to study the influence of continuous voluntary exercise on exercise-seeking behavior. METHODS: In this experimental study, we used 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 275-300 g on average...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663874/n-acetyl-cysteine-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-a-general-review
#3
Flavia di Michele, Alberto Siracusano, Talamo Alessandra, Cinzia Niolu
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. This demonstrates the need for more targeted therapeutics. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover there are studies suggesting that neuroimmune abnormalities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that would modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660751/-exposure-therapy-with-the-help-of-a-wearable-defibrillator-device-used-in-the-treatment-of-severe-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-congenital-lqts-an-example-for-interdisciplinary-treatment
#4
Fabian Sinowatz, Clemens Jilek, Ulrich Voderholzer, Ulrich Cuntz, Martin Greetfeld, Petra Hopfner, Jürgen Pache
We report on a case of a young female suffering from both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a severe underlying cardiac disease. Due to the somatic comorbidity, treatment according to guidelines with exposure and reaction prevention was not initially conducted, due to potentially fatal risks to the patient. However, through collaboration with a cardiology clinic, we were able to find an innovative solution which allowed for the continuation of the exposure therapy. This case report demonstrates a successful interdisciplinary collaboration and is intended to sensitize the reader to the need for checking for somatic contraindications before conducting exposure therapy...
April 16, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659102/initial-severity-and-antidepressant-efficacy-for-anxiety-disorders-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#5
Ymkje Anna de Vries, Annelieke M Roest, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that antidepressant benefits are smaller for mild than severe depression. Because antidepressants are also used for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we examined the influence of severity for these disorders. METHODS: We used individual patient data of eight trials (3,430 participants) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); four trials (1,195 participants) for social anxiety disorder (SAD); four trials (1,132 participants) for OCD; three trials (1,071 participants) for PTSD; and 10 trials (2,151 participants) for panic disorder (PD)...
April 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657563/influence-of-culture-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-its-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Humberto Nicolini, Rafael Salin-Pascual, Brenda Cabrera, Nuria Lanzagorta
Background: The aspects of cultural identity and its impact on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been un-derstudied. There are different opinions, ranging from the idea that culture does not affect the symptoms of this condition to the idea that cultures with high religiosity may have more severity of OCD. Also, the concept of OCD has considerably var-ied across history and cultures, from being considered an issue related to lack of control of blasphemous ideas, and a part of anxious issues, to the description of complex neurobiological systems in its causation...
December 2017: Current Psychiatry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656823/-association-splitting-versus-cognitive-remediation-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Lena Jelinek, Marit Hauschildt, Birgit Hottenrott, Michael Kellner, Steffen Moritz
Studies have confirmed the efficacy of the cognitive intervention Association Splitting (AS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) when applied as a self-help technique. AS aims to alter symptom-provoking automated cognitive networks of OC-related stimuli by building new or strengthening established but weak neutral associations. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptance and benefits of therapist-assisted AS as an add-on to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). One hundred and nine patients with OCD who were undergoing CBT were randomly assigned to either AS or cognitive remediation (CR)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655967/visual-search-for-verbal-material-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Fabiano Botta, Nicolas Vibert, Ghina Harika-Germaneau, Mickaël Frasca, François Rigalleau, Eric Fakra, Christine Ros, Jean-François Rouet, Florian Ferreri, Nematollah Jaafari
This study aimed at investigating attentional mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by analysing how visual search processes are modulated by normal and obsession-related distracting information in OCD patients and whether these modulations differ from those observed in healthy people. OCD patients were asked to search for a target word within distractor words that could be orthographically similar to the target, semantically related to the target, semantically related to the most typical obsessions/compulsions observed in OCD patients, or unrelated to the target...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653158/mice-deficient-in-akap13-brx-develop-compulsive-like-behavior-and-increased-body-weight
#9
K Maravet Baig, Szu-Chi Su, Sunni L Mumford, Emma Giuliani, Sinnie Sin Man Ng, Charles Armstrong, Margaret F Keil, Kamaria Cayton Vaught, Nils Olsen, Elyse Pettiford, Irina Burd, James H Segars
OBJECTIVE: Hormonal contributions to the sex-dependent development of both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obesity have been described, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 13 (AKAP13) significantly augments ligand-dependent activation of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are implicated in the development and exacerbation of OCD and obesity and have strong AKAP13 expression. The AKAP13 localization pattern observed in these key brain regions together with its effects on sex steroid action suggest a potential role for AKAP13 in compulsive-like behaviors...
April 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652103/a-10-year-follow-up-study-of-japanese-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Akihiro Nakajima, Naomi Matsuura, Keiichiro Mukai, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Hisashi Yamada, Kensei Maebayashi, Kazuhisa Hayashida, Hisato Matsunaga
AIM: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a well-known chronic illness. This study retrospectively investigated 10-year outcomes and associated clinical factors in Japanese obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. We focused on the impact of several sociocultural factors, including medical expenses and insurance systems specific to each country, on the differences or biases in follow-up procedures of obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder who received a standardized combination of treatments for 10 continuous years were divided into three groups according to their improvement rates on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale after 10 years of treatment...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650697/cell-type-specific-contributions-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-to-flexible-behaviors
#11
Hirofumi Nakayama, Ines Ibañez-Tallon, Nathaniel Heintz
Behavioral flexibility and impulse control are necessary for successful execution of adaptive behavior. They are impaired in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in some clinically important conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been investigated as a critical structure for behavioral flexibility and impulse control, the contribution of the underlying pyramidal neuron cell types in the mPFC remained to be understood. Here we show that interneuron-mediated local inactivation of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of male and female mice induces both premature responses and choice bias, and establish that these impulsive and compulsive responses are modulated independently...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650226/are-cushing-s-disease-patients-curable
#12
Xavier Bertagna
Treatment of Cushing's disease remains a challenge. Whereas pituitary surgery can "cure" the patient and restore a completely normal pituitary adrenal axis, there are immediate failures and late recurrences which ultimately require alternate therapeutic approaches. These are numerous, but so are their drawbacks, and all appear to be "default options". For the future, pituitary adenoma has to remain the "reasonable obsession" of efficient and optimistic therapists….
April 9, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642887/association-between-level-of-suicide-risk-characteristics-of-suicide-attempts-and-mental-disorders-among-suicide-attempters
#13
Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Tak Youn, Byung Soo Kim, Jong Ik Park, Haesoo Kim, Hyo Chu Lee, Jin Pyo Hong
BACKGROUND: Past attempted suicide is a strong predictor of future suicide risk, but the risk varies among suicide attempters. Hence, it is important to clarify distinguishing features of lifetime attempters with a high level of current suicide risk for efficient preventive management. METHODS: We compared characteristics of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics among high-, moderate-, and low-risk attempters. Among the total of 6022 participants in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 193 reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime, 36 of which had high, 126 moderate, and 30 low levels of current suicide risk (1 incomplete response)...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628272/altered-grey-matter-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-schizo-obsessive-comorbidity
#14
Yong-Ming Wang, Lai-Quan Zou, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Xiong-Zhao Zhu, Eric F C Cheung, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Arne Møller, Raymond C K Chan
Recent findings suggest that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC) may be a unique diagnostic entity. We examined grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness in 22 patients with SOC, and compared them with 21 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, 22 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs). We found that patients with SOC exhibited reduced GM volume in the left thalamus, the left inferior semi-lunar lobule of the cerebellum, the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (medial oFC), the medial superior frontal gyrus (medial sFG), the rectus gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) compared with HCs...
March 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628064/long-term-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-planning-and-prefrontal-cortex-function-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Anouk van der Straten, Chaim Huyser, Lidewij Wolters, Damiaan Denys, Guido van Wingen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed changes after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in prefrontal cortex function and cognitive performance in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unknown whether these changes are short lasting or persistent during a period of brain maturation. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of CBT on planning performance and brain function in pediatric OCD using a longitudinal design. METHODS: Fifteen pediatric OCD patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects ranging from the ages of 8 to 18 years performed the Tower of London planning task during functional magnetic resonance imaging at three time points: before treatment, after 16 sessions of CBT, and after 2 years of naturalistic follow-up...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627704/bipolar-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-the-comorbidity-does-not-further-impair-the-neurocognitive-profile
#16
Renato de Filippis, Matteo Aloi, Antonella Bruni, Raffaele Gaetano, Cristina Segura-Garcia, Pasquale De Fazio
BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been widely described. Several studies have investigated the cognitive profiles of BD and OCD patients, but studies that compare BD, BD-OCD, and OCD patients in neuropsychological domains do not exist. The purpose of this study was to compare set-shifting, decision making, and central coherence among BD, BD-OCD, and OCD patients. METHODS: A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 68 patients (22 BD, 26 BD-OCD, 20 OCD)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627697/are-the-components-of-social-reciprocity-transdiagnostic-across-pediatric-neurodevelopmental-disorders-evidence-for-common-and-disorder-specific-social-impairments
#17
Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, Susanna Chang, James J McGough, James T McCracken, John C Piacentini
Deficits in social communication are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet significant social problems have been observed in youth with many neurodevelopmental disorders. In this preliminary investigation, we aimed to explore whether domains of social reciprocity (i.e., social communication, social cognition, social awareness, social motivation, and restricted and repetitive behaviors) represent transdiagnostic traits. These domains were compared across youth ages 7-17 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; N = 32), tic disorders (TD; N = 20), severe mood dysregulation (N = 33) and autism spectrum disorder (N = 35)...
March 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623062/lucid-dreaming-intensity-but-not-frequency-is-inversely-related-to-psychopathology
#18
Liat Aviram, Nirit Soffer-Dudek
Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622050/amygdala-prefrontal-connectivity-during-appraisal-of-symptom-related-stimuli-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Sandra Paul, Jan C Beucke, Christian Kaufmann, Anna Mersov, Stephan Heinzel, Norbert Kathmann, Daniela Simon
BACKGROUND: Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit dysfunctional appraisal of disorder-relevant stimuli in patients, suggesting disturbances in the processes relying on amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. Recent neuroanatomical models add to the traditional view of dysfunction in corticostriatal circuits by proposing alterations in an affective circuit including amygdala-prefrontal connections. However, abnormalities in amygdala-prefrontal coupling during symptom provocation, and particularly during conditions that require stimulus appraisal, remain to be demonstrated directly...
April 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621650/what-matters-more-common-or-specific-factors-in-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-ocd-therapeutic-alliance-and-expectations-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome
#20
Asher Y Strauss, Jonathan D Huppert, H Blair Simpson, Edna B Foa
CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a strong challenge to the contention that common factors explain most of the variance in outcomes in all therapies and all disorders, given that the treatment is focused and placebo response is low. In this study, the relative contributions of expectancy and therapeutic alliance as predictors of outcome in the treatment of OCD are examined and compared to the contribution of specific treatment effects. One hundred and eight patients with OCD were randomly assigned to two forms of CBT: exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) or stress management training (SMT)...
March 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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