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Diazepam in premedication

Mara F Schier, Anthea L Raisis, Cristy J Secombe, Giselle Hosgood, Gabrielle C Musk, Guy D Lester
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of acepromazine maleate premedication on cardiovascular function before and after infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride for 30 minutes in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Each horse was anesthetized once following premedication with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) administered 30 minutes prior to anesthetic induction (ACP+ treatment) and once without premedication (ACP- treatment). Anesthesia was induced with IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride (0...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sarah E Bigby, Jennifer E Carter, Sébastien Bauquier, Thierry Beths
Anesthesia protocols for patients with intracranial lesions need to provide hemodynamic stability, preserve cerebrovascular autoregulation, avoid increases in intracranial pressure, and facilitate a rapid recovery. Propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) maintains cerebral blood flow autoregulation and is considered superior to inhalant agents as an anesthetic protocol for patients with intracranial lesions. A propofol-based TIVA subsequent to premedication with medetomidine and diazepam was used in a king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after a new onset of seizures...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Maryam Raoof, Hamed Ebrahimnejad, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Ladan Amirkhosravi, Ramin Raoof, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Mohsen Ramazani, Noushin Shokouhinejad, Mehrfam Khoshkhounejad
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. METHODS: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
C M Loughran, A L Raisis, G Hosgood, C J Secombe, G D Lester
REASON FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Cardiac output does not always increase with dobutamine administration in anaesthetised horses and information on peripheral perfusion is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of intravenous dobutamine infusion with and without a concurrent 20 mL/kg bodyweight bolus of crystalloid fluids on the cardiovascular function of acepromazine premedicated, hypotensive, isoflurane-anaesthetised horses. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, crossover experiment...
June 28, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Rohini V Bhat Pai, Santhoshi Badiger, Roopa Sachidananda, Santhosh Mysore Chandramouli Basappaji, Raghunath Shanbhag, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) provides a challenge and an opportunity to the anesthesiologists to prove their mettle and give the surgeons a surgical field which can make their delicate surgery safer,more precise and faster. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical field and the rate of blood loss in patients premedicated with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ASA I or II patients who were scheduled to undergo ESS were randomly allocated to group D (n = 30) or group C (n = 30)...
April 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Jennifer L Bornkamp, Sheilah Robertson, Natalie M Isaza, Kelly Harrison, Brian A DiGangi, Luisito Pablo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of anesthetic induction with a benzodiazepine plus ketamine or propofol on hypothermia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy without heat support. ANIMALS: 23 adult sexually intact female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURES: Baseline rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded prior to premedication with buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam or diazepam (0...
April 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Clara Conde Ruiz, Inga-Catalina Cruz Benedetti, Isabelle Guillebert, Karine Genevieve Portier
This prospective blinded randomized study aimed to determine whether the timing of morphine and phenylbutazone administration affects the breathing response to skin incision, recovery quality, behavior, and cardiorespiratory variables in horses undergoing fetlock arthroscopy. Ten Standardbred horses were premedicated with acepromazine (0.04 mg kg(-1) IM) and romifidine (0.04 mg kg(-1) IV). Anesthesia was induced with diazepam (0.05 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.2 mg kg(-1)) IV at T0. Horses in group PRE (n = 5) received morphine (0...
2015: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Bonnie J Gatson, Luisito Pablo, Caryn E Plummer, Tiffany D Granone
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of diazepam combined with ketamine hydrochloride or propofol for induction of anesthesia (IOA) following premedication with sustained-release buprenorphine hydrochloride (SRB) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in sheep. ANIMALS: 20 healthy adult sheep. PROCEDURES: Diazepam with ketamine or propofol was given IV to each of 10 sheep after premedication with SRB (0.01 mg/kg, SC); after > 4 weeks, each sheep received the other induction combination with no premedication...
September 2015: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jacques P Ferreira, T Brighton Dzikit, Gareth E Zeiler, Roxanne Buck, Bruce Nevill, Bruce Gummow, Lynette Bester
Induction of anaesthesia occasionally has been associated with undesirable behaviour in dogs. High quality of induction of anaesthesia with propofol has been well described while in contrast variable induction and recovery quality has been associated with diazepam-ketamine. In this study, anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of diazepam-ketamine combination with propofol alone were compared in dogs undergoing elective orchidectomy. Thirty-six healthy adult male dogs were used. After habitus scoring (simple descriptive scale [SDS]), the dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine...
2015: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Javed M Ashraf, Marc Schweiger, Neelima Vallurupalli, Sandra Bellantonio, James R Cook
BACKGROUND: Sedatives and analgesics are often administered to achieve conscious sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Appropriate concerns have been raised regarding post procedure delirium related to peri-procedural medication in the elderly. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of premedication on new onset delirium and procedural care in elderly patients. METHODS: Patients ≥ 70 years old and scheduled for elective cardiac catheterization were randomly assigned to receive either oral diphenhydramine and diazepam (25 mg/5 mg) or no premedication...
May 2015: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Daniela Casoni, Claudia Spadavecchia, Beat Wampfler, Wolfgang Thormann, Olivier L Levionnois
BACKGROUND: Intravenous anaesthetic drugs are the primary means for producing general anaesthesia in equine practice. The ideal drug for intravenous anaesthesia has high reliability and pharmacokinetic properties indicating short elimination and lack of accumulation when administered for prolonged periods. Induction of general anaesthesia with racemic ketamine preceded by profound sedation has already an established place in the equine field anaesthesia. Due to potential advantages over racemic ketamine, S-ketamine has been employed in horses to induce general anaesthesia, but its optimal dose remains under investigation...
2015: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Reena Mahajan, Amit Kumar, Shiv Kumar Singh
Tetanus is an acute often fatal disease produced by gram positive obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. Tetanolysin damages local tissue and provides optimal conditions for bacterial multiplication. It is therefore important to perform a wide debridement of any wound suspected of being a portal of entry for the bacteria. Little evidence exists to recommend specific anesthetic protocols. We encountered a child scheduled for fracture both bone forearm with developing tetanus. Initial management done with intravenous (i...
January 2014: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Isabelle Prêcheur, Marlène Chevalier
A minimal oral treatment aiming a clean and comfortable mouth could be very helpful in malnutrition control of dependent elderly persons. In such a case, it is necessary and generally it is enough to perform dental scaling and/or extractions with anxiolytic premedication (oral or rectal diazepam). Most of times, such minimal dental care can be performed at bedside, avoiding patient's stress and displacement to a dental surgery. The nursing staff can reassure the residents and their families on the absence of dentures, because saliva would be even more important than teeth...
March 2015: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
P M Taylor, H R Hoare, A de Vries, E J Love, K M Coumbe, K L White, J C Murrell
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Buprenorphine, a μ-agonist opioid, has recently been licensed for equine use, but butorphanol, a κ-agonist opioid, is more commonly used in horses. The effect of the 2 opioids has not previously been compared in a large clinical study. OBJECTIVES: To compare post operative analgesia and physiological variables in horses undergoing elective surgery following premedication with either buprenorphine or butorphanol in a conventional clinical setting...
July 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Eva Anzenbacherova, Alena Spicakova, Lenka Jourova, Jitka Ulrichova, Milan Adamus, Petr Bachleda, Pavel Anzenbacher
Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver microsomal CYP3A4 down to 42% (at rocuronium concentration 189 μM) was found...
February 2015: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Soo Seog Park, Dong-Hyun Kim, In-Chul Nam, Il-Hwan Lee, Jae-Woong Hwang
BACKGROUND: Although various analgesics have been used, postoperative pain remains one of the most troublesome aspects of tonsillectomy for patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of premedication using pregabalin compared with placebo (diazepam) on postoperative pain control in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. METHODS: Forty-eight adult patients were randomly divided into a control group and a pregabalin group...
2015: PloS One
Za Suleiman, Kolawole Ik, Bolaji Bo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a common anaesthetic agent for surgical procedures in both paediatric and adult populations in our environment. In polytraumatised patients its cardio-stimulatory effects may be advantageous in supporting the cardiovascular system while awaiting the clinical effects of on-going resuscitative interventions. However, its clinical uses cause significant cardiovascular stimulations that may be deleterious in patients with cardiovascular diseases. AIM & OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the stimulatory effects of ketamine on cardiovascular system following induction of anaesthesia with ketamine...
January 2012: Journal of the West African College of Surgeons
C Rigotti, A De Vries, P M Taylor
A prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical trial in 47 ponies compared butorphanol and buprenorphine administered intravenously with detomidine prior to castration under anaesthesia. Detomidine 12 μg/kg intravenously was followed by butorphanol 25 μg/kg (BUT) or buprenorphine 5 μg/kg (BUP) before induction of anaesthesia with intravenous ketamine and diazepam. Quality of sedation, induction and recovery from anaesthesia, response to tactile stimulation, and surgical conditions were scored. If anaesthesia was inadequate 'rescue' was given with intravenous ketamine (maximum three doses) followed by intravenous thiopental and detomidine...
December 20, 2014: Veterinary Record
Harun Cakmak, Tolga Kocaturk, Sema O Dundar, Nil Kaan, Mehmet Ozbagcivan, Erol Erkan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of oral diazepam on blood pressure (BP) alterations in patients that underwent cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. METHODS: A total of 147 patients that underwent phacoemulsification surgery under topical anesthesia, were reviewed retrospectively. The study took place in the Department of Ophthalmology, Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty, Aydin, Turkey, between January 2011 and July 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: received 5 mg diazepam per oral one hour prior to surgery, and Group 2 (control group): none administered preoperatively...
July 2014: Saudi Medical Journal
Kristoffer Grong, Pirjo-Riitta Salminen, Lodve Stangeland, Geir O Dahle
OBJECTIVE: To compare baseline cardiovascular function in anesthetised pigs using either pancuronium or vecuronium as a neuromuscular blocker. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, non-randomized comparison. ANIMALS: Norwegian Land Race pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) weighing mean 42 ± SD 3 kg. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen animals from four different research protocols premedicated with identical doses of ketamine, diazepam, atropine and isoflurane, and anaesthetised with pentobarbital, fentanyl, midazolam and N(2)O were arranged into three uniform groups with respect to neuromuscular blocking agent: pancuronium bolus of 0...
May 2015: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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