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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923196/environmental-preconditioning-rejuvenates-adult-stem-cells-proliferation-and-chondrogenic-potential
#1
REVIEW
Ming Pei
Adult stem cells are a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration. Unfortunately, due to donor age and ex vivo expansion, stem cell senescence becomes a huge hurdle for these cells to be used clinically. Increasing evidence indicates that environmental preconditioning is a powerful approach in promoting stem cells' ability to resist a harsh environment post-engraftment, such as hypoxia and inflammation. However, few reports organize and evaluate the literature regarding the rejuvenation effect of environmental preconditioning on stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation capacity, which are important variables for stem cell based tissue regeneration...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923117/examining-topological-domain-influence-on-enhancer-function
#2
Robert A Beagrie, Ana Pombo
Enhancers regulate the expression of target genes across large genomic distances, but it is unclear how recently discovered topological domains affect this regulation. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Symmons et al. (2016) show that the endogenous Shh topological domain promotes functional interactions between Shh and its remote enhancer.
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923061/comparative-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-analyses-reveal-new-regulators-of-murine-brown-adipogenesis
#3
Reinhard Brunmeir, Jingyi Wu, Xu Peng, Sun-Yee Kim, Sofi G Julien, Qiongyi Zhang, Wei Xie, Feng Xu
Increasing energy expenditure through brown adipocyte recruitment is a promising approach to combat obesity. We report here the comprehensive profiling of the epigenome and transcriptome throughout the lineage commitment and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line into brown adipocytes. Through direct comparison to datasets from differentiating white adipocytes, we systematically identify stage- and lineage-specific coding genes, lncRNAs and microRNAs. Utilizing chromatin state maps, we also define stage- and lineage-specific enhancers, including super-enhancers, and their associated transcription factor binding motifs and genes...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922841/stress-resiliency-practices-in-neonatal-nurses
#4
Lisa M Pannell, Lynn Rowe, Salena Tully
BACKGROUND: Multiple environmental changes were experienced in a large level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) causing a perception of work-related stress leading to high nurse turnover, decreased engagement, and decreased satisfaction. PURPOSE: To identify a preintervention measure of perceived stress resiliency and ranking of interpretive styles in a population of neonatal, bedside registered nurses faced with a change in the physical practice environment...
December 5, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922761/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-4-integrin-regulates-the-collective-migration-of-epithelial-cells
#5
Zachary T Colburn, Jonathan C R Jones
α6β4 integrin is localized in a unique punctate distribution at the cell-substratum interface along the leading front of single, front-rear polarized, A549 cells. These puncta are interspersed between focal adhesions and lack association with the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of β4 integrin in A549 cells inhibits their directed migration, with knockdown cells exhibiting large focal adhesions and reduced actin dynamics. Despite these changes, the speed of knockdown cells is equivalent to controls cells. Interestingly, in such cells, α6 integrin retains its punctate distribution...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922667/pituitary-sex-hormones-enhance-the-pro%C3%A2-metastatic-potential-of-human-lung-cancer-cells-by-downregulating-the-intracellular-expression-of-heme-oxygenase%C3%A2-1
#6
Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Gabriela Schneider, Jacek Niklinski, Radoslaw Charkiewicz, Marcin Moniuszko, Magda Kucia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
We report that human lung cancer cell lines express functional receptors for pituitary sex hormones (SexHs) and respond to stimulation by follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). Expression of these receptors has also been confirmed in patient lung cancer samples at the mRNA level. Stimulation of human lung cancer cell lines with FSH, LH, or PRL stimulated migration and chemotaxis, and some cell lines responded by enhanced proliferation. Moreover, priming of human lung cancer cells by exposing them to pituitary SexHs resulted in enhanced seeding efficiency of injected human lung cancer cells into bone marrow, liver, and lungs in an immunodeficient mouse model...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#7
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922602/elevated-temperature-increases-carbon-and-nitrogen-fluxes-between-phytoplankton-and-heterotrophic-bacteria-through-physical-attachment
#8
Nestor Arandia-Gorostidi, Peter K Weber, Laura Alonso-Sáez, Xosé Anxelu G Morán, Xavier Mayali
Quantifying the contribution of marine microorganisms to carbon and nitrogen cycles and their response to predicted ocean warming is one of the main challenges of microbial oceanography. Here we present a single-cell NanoSIMS isotope analysis to quantify C and N uptake by free-living and attached phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria, and their response to short-term experimental warming of 4 °C. Elevated temperature increased total C fixation by over 50%, a small but significant fraction of which was transferred to heterotrophs within 12 h...
December 6, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922516/advances-in-endoscope-reprocessing-technology-and-its-impact-on-pathogen-transmission
#9
Cathleen Shellnutt
Pathogen transmissions via flexible endoscopes have been documented in the literature and have been historically related to human error or omission of steps in the reprocessing cycle. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report challenged manufacturers of automated endoscope reprocessors to improve and advance technology to automate more of the reprocessing steps. A review and synthesis of the literature following the 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report was performed to evaluate whether advances in reprocessing technology have occurred and whether these have had an impact on pathogen transmission via flexible endoscopes...
November 2016: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922062/enhanced-self-organized-dewetting-of-ultrathin-polymer-blend-film-for-large-area-fabrication-of-sers-substrate
#10
Huanhuan Zhang, Lin Xu, Yabo Xu, Gang Huang, Xueyu Zhao, Yuqing Lai, Tongfei Shi
We study the enhanced dewetting of ultrathin Polystyrene (PS)/Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend films in a mixed solution, and reveal the dewetting can act as a simple and effective method to fabricate large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. A bilayer structure consisting of under PMMA layer and upper PS layer forms due to vertical phase separation of immiscible PS/PMMA during the spin-coating process. The thicker layer of the bilayer structure dominates the dewetting structures of PS/PMMA blend films...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922061/thermo-sensitive-hydrogels-combined-with-decellularised-matrix-deliver-bfgf-for-the-functional-recovery-of-rats-after-a-spinal-cord-injury
#11
He-Lin Xu, Fu-Rong Tian, Cui-Tao Lu, Jie Xu, Zi-Liang Fan, Jing-Jing Yang, Pian-Pian Chen, Ya-Dong Huang, Jian Xiao, Ying-Zheng Zhao
Because of the short half-life, either systemic or local administration of bFGF shows significant drawbacks to spinal injury. In this study, an acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASC) was encapsulated in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel to overcome these limitations. The ASC was firstly prepared from the spinal cord of healthy rats and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. bFGF could specifically complex with the ASC scaffold via electrostatic or receptor-mediated interactions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921400/effects-of-taurine-and-housing-density-on-renal-function-in-laying-hens
#12
Zi-Li Ma, Yang Gao, Hai-Tian Ma, Liu-Hai Zheng, Bin Dai, Jin-Feng Miao, Yuan-Shu Zhang
This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921280/ph-responsive-triblock-copolymeric-micelles-decorated-with-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-provide-efficient-doxorubicin-delivery
#13
Khen Eng Ng, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Haliza Katas, Muhammad Wahab Amjad, Adeel Masood Butt, Prashant Kesharwani, Arun K Iyer
This study developed novel triblock pH-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) using cholic acid-polyethyleneimine-poly-L-arginine (CA-PEI-pArg) copolymers. PEI provided pH sensitivity, while the hydrophilic cell-penetrating pArg peptide promoted cellular PM internalization. The copolymers self-assembled into PMs in aqueous solution at above the critical micelle concentration (2.98 × 10(-7) M) and encapsulated doxorubicin in the core region, with a 34.2% (w/w) entrapment efficiency. PMs showed pH-dependent swelling, increasing in size by almost sevenfold from pH 7...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921263/overexpression-of-protein-phosphatase-1%C3%AE-pp1%C3%AE-is-associated-with-enhanced-cell-proliferation-and-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Chunsun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Guijuan Zong, Chunhua Wan, Qingqing Liu, Huiling Zhou, Lu Hua, Yuyan Chen, Xudong Chen, Cuihua Lu
BACKGROUND: Protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ), as a member of the protein phosphatase 1 family, may be involved in regulation of multiple cellular processes, such as mitosis, cell survival, and apoptosis. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which PP1γ regulates hepatocellular carcinoma development. AIM: We investigated the expression profile of PP1γ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and human HCC specimens, as well as its potential prognostic significance in HCC...
December 5, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921261/attempting-to-compensate-for-reduced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-with-nitrate-supplementation-cannot-overcome-metabolic-dysfunction-but-rather-has-detrimental-effects-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-muscle
#15
Cara A Timpani, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ainsley Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Kulmira Nurgali, Andrew C Betik, Nigel Stepto, Alan Hayes, Glenn K McConell, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water...
December 5, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920882/paroxetine-can-enhance-neurogenesis-during-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#16
Maliheh Jahromi, Shahnaz Razavi, Nushin Amirpour, Zahra Khosravizadeh
BACKGROUND: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920773/glucose-metabolism-via-the-entner-doudoroff-pathway-in-campylobacter-a-rare-trait-that-enhances-survival-and-promotes-biofilm-formation-in-some-isolates
#17
Christina S Vegge, Melissa J Jansen van Rensburg, Janus J Rasmussen, Martin C J Maiden, Lea G Johnsen, Morten Danielsen, Sheila MacIntyre, Hanne Ingmer, David J Kelly
Isolates of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter are generally considered to be unable to metabolize glucose due to lack of key glycolytic enzymes. However, the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway has been identified in Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei and a few C. coli isolates. A systematic search for ED pathway genes in a wide range of Campylobacter isolates and in the C. jejuni/coli PubMLST database revealed that 1.7% of >6,000 genomes encoded a complete ED pathway, including both C. jejuni and C. coli from diverse clinical, environmental and animal sources...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920727/genetic-targeting-of-arginase-ii-in-mouse-prevents-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Ji Huang, Angana Rajapakse, Yuyan Xiong, Jean-Pierre Montani, François Verrey, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I) and arginase-II (Arg-II) in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920385/sublethal-streptomycin-concentrations-and-lytic-bacteriophage-together-promote-resistance-evolution
#19
Johannes Cairns, Lutz Becks, Matti Jalasvuori, Teppo Hiltunen
Sub-minimum inhibiting concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics frequently occur in natural environments owing to wide-spread antibiotic leakage by human action. Even though the concentrations are very low, these sub-MICs have recently been shown to alter bacterial populations by selecting for antibiotic resistance and increasing the rate of adaptive evolution. However, studies are lacking on how these effects reverberate into key ecological interactions, such as bacteria-phage interactions. Previously, co-selection of bacteria by phages and antibiotic concentrations exceeding MICs has been hypothesized to decrease the rate of resistance evolution because of fitness costs associated with resistance mutations...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920274/adipose-fatty-acid-binding-protein-promotes-saturated-fatty-acid-induced-macrophage-cell-death-through-enhancing-ceramide-production
#20
Yuwen Zhang, Enyu Rao, Jun Zeng, Jiaqing Hao, Yanwen Sun, Shujun Liu, Edward R Sauter, David A Bernlohr, Margot P Cleary, Jill Suttles, Bing Li
Macrophages play a critical role in obesity-associated chronic inflammation and disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of macrophages to elevated fatty acids (FAs) and their contribution to metabolic inflammation in obesity remain to be fully elucidated. In this article, we report a new mechanism by which dietary FAs, in particular, saturated FAs (sFAs), are able to directly trigger macrophage cell death. We demonstrated that excess sFAs, but not unsaturated FAs, induced the production of cytotoxic ceramides (Cers) in macrophage cell lines...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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