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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241211/the-role-of-pannexin3-modified-human-dental-pulp-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-repairing-rat-cranial-critical-sized-bone-defects
#1
Fangfang Song, Hualing Sun, Liyuan Huang, Dongjie Fu, Cui Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hDPSCs) are promising seed cells for tissue engineering due to their easy accessibility and multi-lineage differentiation. Pannexin3 (Panx3) plays crucial roles during bone development and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Panx3 on osteogenesis of hDPSCs and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Utilizing qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, we explored the change of Panx3 during osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs...
December 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241208/exosomes-from-mir-126-overexpressing-adscs-are-therapeutic-in-relieving-acute-myocardial-ischaemic-injury
#2
Qiancheng Luo, Dongfeng Guo, Guorong Liu, Guo Chen, Min Hang, Mingming Jin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have indicated that exosomes play an important role in adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplant-mediated ischaemic heart disease therapy. However, the treatment effect is not obvious. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ADSC-derived exosomes enriched with microRNA (miR)-126 have a more protective effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Exosomes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and the exosome particles were further examined using nanoparticle tracking analyses...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241165/sc1-promotes-mir124-3p-expression-to-maintain-the-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-by-inhibiting-the-mek-erk-pathway
#3
Qing Wei, Hongliang Liu, Zhiying Ai, Yongyan Wu, Yingxiang Liu, Zhaopeng Shi, Xuexue Ren, Zekun Guo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Self-renewal is one of the most important features of embryonic stem (ES) cells. SC1 is a small molecule modulator that effectively maintains the self-renewal of mouse ES cells in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), serum and feeder cells. However, the mechanism by which SC1 maintains the undifferentiated state of mouse ES cells remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, microarray and small RNA deep-sequencing experiments were performed on mouse ES cells treated with or without SC1 to identify the key genes and microRNAs that contributed to self-renewal...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241144/the-diverse-reasons-for-using-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-qualitative-study-of-the-users-own-perspectives
#4
Christophe Soussan, Martin Andersson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively...
December 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241092/trehalose-protects-against-oxidative-stress-by-regulating-the-keap1-nrf2-and-autophagy-pathways
#5
Yuhei Mizunoe, Masaki Kobayashi, Yuka Sudo, Shukoh Watanabe, Hiromine Yasukawa, Daiki Natori, Ayana Hoshino, Arisa Negishi, Naoyuki Okita, Masaaki Komatsu, Yoshikazu Higami
Dysfunction of autophagy, which regulates cellular homeostasis by degrading organelles and proteins, is associated with pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and metabolic disease. Trehalose, a naturally occurring nontoxic disaccharide found in plants, insects, microorganisms and invertebrates, but not in mammals, was reported to function as a mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR)-independent inducer of autophagy. In addition, trehalose functions as an antioxidant though its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
September 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241003/chiral-coalition-in-helical-sense-enhancement-of-copolymers-the-role-of-the-absolute-configuration-of-comonomers
#6
Sandra Arias, Rafael Rodríguez, Emilio Quiñoá, Ricardo Riguera, Felix Freire
Both the role of the absolute configuration and the tendency of a chiral monomer to promote a certain helical scaffold in a polyphenylacetylene (PPA) have been evaluated to study the communication between two chiral monomers within a copolymer chain. 19 different PPA copolymer series -47 helical copolymers altogether- were prepared to explore the existence of a chiral to chiral communication mechanism. From the data obtained, we found that communication between two different chiral monomers emerge when both exhibit two special features: (a) a different conformational composition -one must exist in a single low energy conformation ("chiral Sergeant") and the other must present two conformers ("chiral Soldier")-, and (b) the induction of a similar scaffold in the PPA, either cis-cisoidal or cis-transoidal...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240919/genome-wide-dose-dependent-inhibition-of-histone-deacetylases-studies-reveal-their-roles-in-enhancer-remodeling-and-suppression-of-oncogenic-super-enhancers
#7
Gilson J Sanchez, Phillip A Richmond, Eric N Bunker, Samuel S Karman, Joseph Azofeifa, Aaron T Garnett, Quanbin Xu, Graycen E Wheeler, Cathryn M Toomey, Qinghong Zhang, Robin D Dowell, Xuedong Liu
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to alter gene expression by both up- and down-regulation of protein-coding genes in normal and cancer cells. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms of action remain uncharacterized. Here we investigated genome wide dose-dependent epigenetic and transcriptome changes in response to HDACI largazole in a transformed and a non-transformed cell line. Exposure to low nanomolar largazole concentrations (<GI50) predominantly resulted in upregulation of gene transcripts whereas higher largazole doses (≥GI50) triggered a general decrease in mRNA accumulation...
December 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240807/diversification-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-in-mammals
#8
Peter Rotwein
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a small, secreted peptide growth factor, is involved in a variety of physiological and patho-physiological processes, including somatic growth, tissue repair, and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. IGF1 gene expression appears to be controlled by several different signaling cascades in the few species in which it has been evaluated, with growth hormone playing a major role by activating a pathway involving the Stat5b transcription factor. Here, genes encoding IGF1 have been evaluated in 25 different mammalian species representing 15 different orders and ranging over ~180 million years of evolutionary diversification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240531/enhancing-dignity-for-older-inpatients-the-photograph-next-to-the-bed-study
#9
Ruth E Hubbard, Melissa Bak, Jacqueline Watts, David Shum, Angelica Lynch, Nancye M Peel
OBJECTIVES: Older inpatients compromised by illness and cognitive decline may be stripped of physical and cultural identifiers, making them vulnerable to erosion of dignity. This study explored the experiences of patients, carers and clinical staff in response to a simple intervention that could enhance the dignity of care for older inpatients. METHODS: All patients in a rehabilitation ward were encouraged to have a photograph of themselves next to their bed. Of those who participated, focus groups were recruited for patients, family members and staff to explore their reflections...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240523/injectable-platelet-rich-fibrin-using-the-low-speed-centrifugation-concept-improves-cartilage-regeneration-when-compared-to-platelet-rich-plasma
#10
Mustafa Abd El Raouf, Xuzhu Wang, Si Miusi, Jihua Chai, Abdel Basit Mohamed AbdEl-Aal, Mekkawy M Nefissa Helmy, Shahram Ghanaati, Joseph Choukroun, Elisa Choukroun, Yufeng Zhang, Richard J Miron
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) on cultivated chondrocytes and osteochondral regeneration in critical-sized osteochondral defect of the rabbit's knee in comparison to autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Chondrocytes were first investigated for their ability to proliferate and differentiate in response to PRP and i-PRF. Thereafter, full-thickness critical-sized osteochondral defects 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth were created in the knee joint of 12 adult female New Zealand White rabbits...
December 14, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240449/mir-19-5p-enhances-tumorigenesis-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-targeting-tspyl5
#11
Chao Huang, Hesheng Luo
The cancer suppressor gene, testis-specific protein Y-encoded-like 5 (TSPYL5), has been implicated in various cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the role of TSPYL5 in the development of CRC in vitro. First, we used bioinformatics to predict the binding target of TSPYL5, and found that the microRNA, miR-19-5p, bound to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TSPYL5. This interaction was further validated by the dual-luciferase assay. Second, we found that overexpressed TSPYL5 enhanced apoptosis in HT29 cells and reduced cell proliferation, reduced cell migration/invasion, and most of the cells accumulated in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle...
December 14, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240434/fibrinogen-motif-discriminates-platelet-and-cell-capture-at-peptide-modified-gold-micropore-arrays
#12
Kellie Adamson, Elaine Spain, Una Prendergast, Niamh Moran, Robert J Forster, Tia E Keyes
Human blood platelets and SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cancer cell capture at spontaneously adsorbed monolayers of fibrinogen binding motifs GRGDS (generic integrin adhesion), HHLGGAKQAGDV (exclusive to platelet integrin αIIbβ3) or octanethiol (adhesion inhibitor) at planar gold and ordered 1.6 micron diameter spherical cap gold cavity arrays was compared. In all cases, RGD promoted capture while alkanethiol monolayers inhibited adhesion. Conversely only platelets adhered to AGD modified surfaces, indicating the AGD motif is recognized preferentially by the platelet specific integrin, αIIbβ3...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240343/assessment-of-multifactorial-coronary-artery-disease-by-utilizing-genomic-data
#13
Elisabeth Widén, Samuli Ripatti
The scientific advances in the past few years have enabled individualized prevention and treatment of diseases on the basis of genome-wide information. For example, dozens of genomic regions affecting the risk for coronary artery disease have been identified. Both Finnish and international longitudinal studies show that the risk assessment of coronary artery disease can be significantly improved if the estimate is based both on the newly discovered hereditary risk factors and the long-recognized traditional risk factors, e...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240311/systemic-changes-in-photosynthesis-and-ros-homeostasis-in-shoots-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-infected-with-beet-cyst-nematode-heterodera-schachtii
#14
Mateusz Labudda, Elżbieta Różańska, Weronika Czarnocka, Mirosław Sobczak, Jolanta Maria Dzik
Photosynthetic efficiency and redox homeostasis are important for plant physiological processes during regular development as well as defence responses. The second-stage juveniles of the Heterodera schachtii, induce syncytial feeding sites in host roots. To ascertain whether development of the syncytia alters photosynthesis and metabolism of ROS, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and antioxidant responses were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots at the day of inoculation and at 3, 7 and 15 days post-inoculation (dpi)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240284/extracellular-matrix-stromal-vascular-fraction-gel-conditioned-medium-accelerates-wound-healing-in-a-murine-model
#15
Chengliang Deng, Yunfan He, Jingwei Feng, Ziqing Dong, Yao Yao, Hsiaopei Mok, Maohui Lin, Lu Feng
Conditioned medium (CM) is a new treatment modality in regenerative medicine and has shown a successful outcome in wound healing. We recently introduced extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel (ECM/SVF-gel), an adipose-derived stem cell and adipose native extracellular matrix-enriched product for cytotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CM from ECM/SVF-gel (Gel-CM) on wound healing compared with the conventional CM from adipose tissue (Adi-CM) and stem cell (SVF-CM). In vitro wound healing effect of three CMs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts was evaluated in terms of proliferation property, migratory property, and extracellular matrix production...
December 14, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240236/evaluation-of-osteoblast-differentiation-and-function-when-cultured-on-mesoporous-bioactive-glass-adsorbed-with-testosterone
#16
Kai Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Qianqian Liu, Wei Chen, Gan Wang, Dongyi Zhang, Long Liu
Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), a kind of porous materials with great osteoconductive and osteoinductive ability, shows promising application in bone tissue engineering due to its high specific surface area, orderly channel structure and large pore volume. Here we reported that the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were promoted in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on MBG which adsorbed with testosterone (MBG/T). We found that transcriptional activity of Runx2 which is a critical transcription factor is increased in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on MBG/T...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239726/camp-signaling-regulates-dna-hydroxymethylation-by-augmenting-the-intracellular-labile-ferrous-iron-pool
#17
Vladimir Camarena, David W Sant, Tyler C Huff, Sushimita Mustafi, Ryan K Muir, Allegra T Aron, Christopher J Chang, Adam R Renslo, Paula Monje, Gaofeng Wang
It is widely accepted that cAMP regulates gene transcription principally by activating the protein kinase A (PKA)-targeted transcription factors. Here, we show that cAMP enhances the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in multiple cell types. 5hmC is converted from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Tet methylcytosine dioxygenases, for which Fe(II) is an essential cofactor. The promotion of 5hmC was mediated by a prompt increase of the intracellular labile Fe(II) pool (LIP). cAMP enhanced the acidification of endosomes for Fe(II) release to the LIP likely through RapGEF2...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239724/sirt2-and-lysine-fatty-acylation-regulate-the-transforming-activity-of-k-ras4a
#18
Hui Jing, Xiaoyu Zhang, Stephanie A Wisner, Xiao Chen, Nicole A Spiegelman, Maurine E Linder, Hening Lin
Ras proteins play vital roles in numerous biological processes and Ras mutations are found in many human tumors. Understanding how Ras proteins are regulated is important for elucidating cell signaling pathways and identifying new targets for treating human diseases. Here we report that one of the K-Ras splice variants, K-Ras4a, is subject to lysine fatty acylation, a previously under-studied protein post-translational modification. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), one of the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lysine deacylases, catalyzes the removal of fatty acylation from K-Ras4a...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239659/characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-paclitaxel-a-review
#19
Renata Carolina Alves, Richard Perosa Fernandes, Josimar O Eloy, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Marlus Chorilli
Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid pseudoalkaloid, isolated from Taxus brevifolia, and is largely used as an antitumoral drug. The formulation of paclitaxel known as Taxol® employs a mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated ethanol, due the low drug water solubility. However, Taxol® causes some unwanted side effects due to the presence of Cremophor EL and ethanol in the formulation. Based on this, there is a need for the development of drug delivery systems to enhance the solubility, permeability and stability of paclitaxel and to promote a controlled and targeted delivery for better therapeutic effect and reduced side effects...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239475/the-production-of-hydrolysates-from-industrially-defatted-rice-bran-and-its-surface-image-changes-during-extraction
#20
Geerada Kaewjumpol, Maria J Oruna-Concha, Keshavan Niranjan, Supawan Thawornchinsombut
BACKGROUND: This research employed mild-subcritical alkaline water extraction (SAW) technique to overcome the difficulty of active compounds extractability from an industrially defatted rice bran (IDRB). Mild-SAW (pH 9.5, 130 °C, 120 min) treatment, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (Protease G6) were applied to produce rice bran hydrolysate (RBH). Response surface methodology was used to identify proteolysis conditions for maximizing protein content and ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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