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promoter enhancer

Dandan Song, Qian Li, Xiong Lu, Yanshan Li, Yan Li, Yuanzhe Wang, Faming Gao
A novel electrochemical biosensor was designed for sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides based on three-dimensional porous bimetallic alloy architecture with ultrathin nanowires (PdCo NWs, PdCu NWs, PdNi NWs) and monolayer MoS2 nanosheet (m-MoS2 ). The bimetallic alloy NWs/m-MoS2 nanomaterials were used as a sensing platform for electrochemical analysis of omethoate, a representative organophosphate pesticide, via acetylcholinesterase inhibition pathway. We demonstrated that all three bimetallic alloy NWs enhanced electrochemical responses of enzymatic biosensor, benefited from bimetallic synergistic action and porous structure...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rindert Missiaen, Massimiliano Mazzone, Gabriele Bergers
Tumor angiogenesis and escape of immunosurveillance are two cancer hallmarks that are tightly linked and reciprocally regulated by paracrine signaling cues of cell constituents from both compartments. Formation and remodeling of new blood vessels in tumors is abnormal and facilitates immune evasion. In turn, immune cells in the tumor, specifically in context with an acidic and hypoxic environment, can promote neovascularization. Immunotherapy has emerged as a major therapeutic modality in cancer but is often hampered by the low influx of activated cytotoxic T-cells...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Xin Zhang, Jane E Hartung, Andrey V Bortsov, Seungtae Kim, Sandra C O'Buckley, Julia Kozlowski, Andrea G Nackley
Functional pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorder, are associated with enhanced catecholamine tone and decreased levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines). Consistent with clinical syndromes, our lab has shown that sustained 14-day delivery of the COMT inhibitor OR486 in rodents results in pain at multiple body sites and pain-related volitional behaviors. The onset of COMT-dependent functional pain is mediated by peripheral β2 - and β3 -adrenergic receptors (β2 - and β3 ARs) through the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
June 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yan Chen, Jude Juventus Aweya, Wanwei Sun, Xiaoyuan Wei, Yi Gong, Hongyu Ma, Yueling Zhang, Xiaobo Wen, Shengkang Li
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) identified to play key roles in host innate immunity. However, relatively little is known about other types of Toll-like receptors in Scylla paramamosain, although a Toll-like receptor (SpToll1) has recently been cloned. In this study, we cloned and characterized another novel Toll-like receptor 2 (SpToll2) from S. paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of SpToll2 is 3391 bp with a 2646 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 881 amino acids, and predicted to contain six extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
John Wood, Margaret Chui Ling Tse, Xiuying Yang, Daniel Brobst, Zhixue Liu, Brian Pak Shing Pang, Wing Suen Chan, Aung Moe Zaw, Billy K C Chow, Keqiang Ye, Chi Wai Lee, Chi Bun Chan
BACKGROUND: 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is a small molecular weight compound that mimics the functions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The current study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of 7,8-DHF-induced body weight regulation. METHODS: Obese female C57/BL6 (20-week-old) mice that have been fed with high fat diet for 13 weeks were treated with 7,8-DHF for 9 weeks. Various biochemical and molecular analyses were performed to examine the signal transduction pathway, metabolite content, and mitochondrial mass in the animals...
June 20, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Abel Ebeh Ezeoha, Henry Chukwuemeka Uro-Chukwu, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, Jonathan Igboji
BACKGROUND: There is need to strengthen institutions and mechanisms that can more systematically promote interactions between researchers, policy-makers and other stakeholders who can influence the uptake of research findings. In this article, we report the outcome of a two-way secondment model between Ebonyi State University (EBSU) and Ebonyi State Ministry of Health (ESMoH) in Nigeria as an innovative collaborative strategy to promote capacity enhancement for evidence-to-policy-to-action...
October 22, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Elizabeth M Everson, Jonah D Hocum, Grant D Trobridge
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that foamy viral (FV) vectors are a promising alternative to gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors and insulators can improve FV vector safety. However, in a previous analysis of insulator effects on FV vector safety, strong viral promoters were used to elicit genotoxic events. Here we developed and analyzed the efficacy and safety of a high-titer, clinically relevant FV vector driven by the housekeeping promoter elongation factor-1α and insulated with an enhancer blocking A1 insulator (FV-EGW-A1)...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
Sara König, Anja Worrich, Thomas Banitz, Florian Centler, Hauke Harms, Matthias Kästner, Anja Miltner, Lukas Y Wick, Martin Thullner, Karin Frank
Terrestrial microbial ecosystems are exposed to many types of disturbances varying in their spatial and temporal characteristics. The ability to cope with these disturbances is crucial for maintaining microbial ecosystem functions, especially if disturbances recur regularly. Thus, understanding microbial ecosystem dynamics under recurrent disturbances and identifying drivers of functional stability and thresholds for functional collapse is important. Using a spatially explicit ecological model of bacterial growth, dispersal, and substrate consumption, we simulated spatially heterogeneous recurrent disturbances and investigated the dynamic response of pollutant biodegradation - exemplarily for an important ecosystem function...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei Liu, Lin Zhu, Junwei Han, Fen Jiao, Wenqing Qin
Sulfidation is a widely used technology to improve the floatability of oxidized metal minerals or to stabilize the heavy metals in various wastes. The sulfidation mechanism of ZnO with pyrite was detailedly studied by thermodynamic calculation and roasting experiments. The sulfidation behaviors, phase transformations, microscopic morphology and surface properties were investigated by TG-DSC, ICP, XRD, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. The results indicate that the nature of the sulfidation is the reaction of ZnO with the gaseous sulfur generated by the decomposition of pyrite...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tomoyuki Murakami, Jiwon Kim, Yi Li, Glenn Edward Green, Ariella Shikanov, Akira Ono
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) are stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs, the major sites for HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells. Although FRCs regulate T cell survival, proliferation, and migration, whether they play any role in HIV-1 spread has not been studied. Here, we show that FRCs enhance HIV-1 spread via trans-infection in which FRCs capture HIV-1 and facilitate infection of T cells that come into contact with FRCs. FRCs mediate trans-infection in both two- and three-dimensional culture systems and in a manner dependent on the virus producer cells...
June 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Qi-An Han, Kaifeng Li, Xiuping Dong, Yongkang Luo, Beiwei Zhu
This work was designed to separate and purify the saponin from Thelenota ananas with the highest anti-cholesterol ability using multiple chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses, and to systematically investigate the effect of the Thelenota ananas saponin on cholesterol metabolism in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced macrophage foam cells. Desulfated holothurin A (desHA), which was finally identified as the targeted saponin with the highest activity in decreasing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), markedly inhibited the formation of foam cells derived from macrophages based on Oil Red O staining...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui Han, Shanzhi Gu, Yujiao Zhang, Anqi Luo, Xin Jing, Lin Zhao, Xinhan Zhao, Lingxiao Zhang
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) with its cognate receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) plays important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms and mediators for autocrine CCL2 and CCL2-CCR2 axis remain elusive in breast cancer. Here we examined the levels of CCL2 in 4 breast cancer cell lines along with 57 human breast cancer specimens and found them significantly increased with presence of 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells, while anti-estrogen treatment weakened this enhancement...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Omotooke A Arojo, Xinxing Ouyang, Dou Liu, Ting Meng, Susan M Kaech, Joao P Pereira, Bing Su
Recirculation of naive T cells between secondary lymphoid organs to receive survival cues and scan for signs of infection or other pathologic conditions is important for immune homeostasis and effective immune responses. Although the mechanisms that specifically guide the entry of naive T cells into secondary lymphoid organs are well studied, the mechanisms that keep them from fluxing into inappropriate or undesirable compartments, such as healthy tissues or bone marrow, are less well understood. In this study, we report an unexpected finding that under steady state, bone marrow homing of naive T cells is actively suppressed by mTORC2 signaling...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Hailong Pei, Wentao Hu, Ziyang Guo, Huaiyuan Chen, Ji Ma, Weidong Mao, Bingyan Li, Aiqing Wang, Jianmei Wan, Jian Zhang, Jing Nie, Guangming Zhou, Tom K Hei
The dynamic interchange between monomeric globular actin (G-actin) and polymeric filamentous actin filaments (F-actin) is fundamental and essential to many cellular processes including cytokinesis and maintenance of genomic stability. Here we report that the long non-coding RNA LNC CRYBG3 directly binds G-actin to inhibit its polymerization and formation of contractile rings, resulting in M-Phase cell arrest. Knockdown of LNC CRYBG3 in tumor cells enhanced their malignant phenotypes. Nucleotide sequence 228-237 of the full-length LNC CRYBG3 and the ser14 domain of beta-actin are essential for their interaction, and mutation of either of these sites abrogated binding of LNC CRYBG3 to G-actin...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Research
Xiongbing Lu, Lingxing Duan, Jian Zhang, Zhihua Zeng, Renrui Kuang
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. UBC patients at muscle invasive stage have poor clinical outcome, due to high propensity for metastasis. Non-tumor activated fibroblasts, named α-SMA+Fs, is similar to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) which could express α-SMA. However, whether α-SMA+Fs patients could induce UBC cell invasion is unclear. Herein, we found that characterization of primary α-SMA+Fs separated from PBOO (partial bladder outlet obstruction) rats was fell in between normal fibroblasts (α-SMA-Fs) and CAFs...
June 22, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Britney N Lizama, Amy M Palubinsky, Vineeth A Raveendran, Annah M Moore, Joel D Federspiel, Simona G Codreanu, Daniel C Liebler, BethAnn McLaughlin
C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP, STUB1 ) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic E3-ubiquitin ligase. CHIP-deficient mice exhibit cardiovascular stress and motor dysfunction prior to premature death. This phenotype is more consistent with animal models in which master regulators of autophagy are affected rather than with the mild phenotype of classic E3-ubiquitin ligase mutants. The cellular and biochemical events that contribute to neurodegeneration and premature aging in CHIP KO models remain poorly understood...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aparna Shinde, Sarah Libring, Aktan Alpsoy, Ammara Abdullah, James A Schaber, Luis Solorio, Michael K Wendt
Both epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are linked to metastasis via their ability to increase invasiveness and enhance tumor-initiating capacity. Growth factors, cytokines and chemotherapies present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) are capable of inducing EMT, but the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in this process remains poorly understood. Here, a novel tessellated three-dimensional (3D) polymer scaffolding is used to produce a fibrillar fibronectin matrix that induces a EMT-like event that includes phosphorylation of STAT3 and requires expression of β1 integrin...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Yuhong Lu, Yanfeng Liu, Sebastian Oeck, Peter M Glazer
The development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) specific for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) with activating mutations has led to a new paradigm in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop resistance. Hypoxia is a key micro-environmental stress in solid tumors that is associated with poor prognosis due, in part, to acquired resistance to conventional therapy. This study, documents that long-term, moderate hypoxia promotes resistance to the EGFR TKI, gefitinib, in the NSCLC cell line, HCC827, which harbors an activating EGFR mutation...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
(no author information available yet)
Duplication of an AR enhancer occurs in most patients with CRPC and promotes disease progression.
June 22, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Weili Zheng, Yi Lu, Siyu Tian, Fengge Ma, Yijuan Wei, Shuangshuang Xu, Yong Li
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors. FXR plays critical roles in maintaining many metabolic pathways, including bile acid regulation and glucose and lipid homeostasis, and forms a heterodimeric complex with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Despite the important roles of the FXR/RXR heterodimerization in human physiology, the molecular basis underlying the FXR/RXR interaction is still uncertain in the absence of a complex structure. Here, we report the heterodimeric structure of FXR and RXR in the presence of an FXR agonist (WAY-362450), RXR agonist (9-cis retinoic acid), and a peptide derived from steroid receptor coactivator (SRC2), revealing both unique and conserved modes for FXR heterodimerization...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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