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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524695/new-probe-of-departures-from-general-relativity-using-minkowski-functionals
#1
Wenjuan Fang, Baojiu Li, Gong-Bo Zhao
The morphological properties of the large scale structure of the Universe can be fully described by four Minkowski functionals (MFs), which provide important complementary information to other statistical observables such as the widely used 2-point statistics in configuration and Fourier spaces. In this work, for the first time, we present the differences in the morphology of the large scale structure caused by modifications to general relativity (to address the cosmic acceleration problem), by measuring the MFs from N-body simulations of modified gravity and general relativity...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524080/cereus-sinensis-polysaccharide-and-its-immunomodulatory-properties-in-human-monocytic-cells
#2
Junwen Wu, Xuefei Zhou, Min Zhang, Yun Yao, Juanjuan Han, Kehai Liu
In this study, the extraction conditions of the crude polysaccharide from Cereus sinensis were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimum extraction conditions were: a ratio of raw material to water volume of 1:80 (g/mL); an extraction temperature of 72 °C; and an extraction time of 3 h. Then, a purified polysaccharide named Cereus sinensis polysaccharide-1 (CSP-1) was obtained from the crude polysaccharide by the Diethylaminoethyl cellulose-52 (DEAE-52) cellulose chromatography column and Sephadex G-100 column...
May 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521701/unexpected-effects-of-acetylcholine-precursors-on-pilocarpine-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#3
Minwoo Lee, Bo Young Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) and Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) are both acetylcholine precursors and are considered to act as pro-cholinergic nootropic agents. Acetylcholine precursors have also recently found frequent use in the neurology clinic. Stroke and many types of dementia have been shown to respond favorably after treatment with these agents, not only in terms of cognitive dysfunction but also behavioral and psychological symptoms. The primary mechanisms of Acetylcholine precursors are the following: 1) Acetylcholine precursors themselves are used in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and 2) byproducts like glycerophosphate have protective functions for neuronal phospholipids...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518076/facile-preparation-of-ultrafine-aluminum-hydroxide-particles-with-or-without-mesoporous-mcm-41-in-ambient-environments
#4
Viktor Dubovoy, Ravi Subramanyam, Michael Stranick, Laurence Du-Thumm, Long Pan
An aqueous suspension of nanogibbsite was synthesized via the titration of aluminum aqua acid [Al(H2O)6](3+) with L-arginine to pH 4.6. Since the hydrolysis of aqueous aluminum salts is known to produce a wide array of products with a wide range of size distributions, a variety of state-of-the-art instruments (i.e., (27)Al/(1)H NMR, FTIR, ICP-OES, TEM-EDX, XPS, XRD, and BET) were used to characterize the synthesis products and identification of byproducts. The product, which was comprised of nanoparticles (10-30 nm), was isolated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column technique...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513332/a-fit-for-purpose-method-to-monitor-16-eu-pahs-in-food-results-of-five-years-official-food-control-in-two-italian-regions
#5
Carmela Lestingi, Tamara Tavoloni, Valentina Bardeggia, Monia Perugini, Arianna Piersanti
A gas-chromatographic single quadrupole analytical method for the analysis of the sixteen priority EU polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food is presented in this paper. The method fulfils the request of Regulation EU 836/2011 for an analytical procedure to be used for official control of PAHs in food, in EU member states. The sample preparation involves a Pressurised Liquid Extraction (PLE) with an in-cell clean-up step followed by a lipid removal using SPE on a styrene divinylbenzene stationary phase (SDVB) and a final gel permeation chromatography (GPC) step...
May 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512696/synthesis-characterization-electrochemical-and-surface-morphologies-of-polyazomethines-containing-silane-and-phosphazene-units
#6
Kevser Temizkan, İsmet Kaya
Polyazomethines containing silane and phosphazene groups were synthesized via elimination reactions of dihydroxy compounds containing imine bonding with phosphazane and silane dichloride. The structures of monomers and polymers containing phosphazane and silane groups were supported by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis techniques. Electrochemical properties of the prepared Schiff bases and polymers were given by cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis. Thermal properties of synthesized monomers and polymers were determined by TG-DTA and TG-DTA, DMA and DSC techniques, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508428/characterization-and-quantitation-of-pvp-content-in-a-silicone-hydrogel-contact-lens-produced-by-dual-phase-polymerization-processing
#7
Andrew J Hoteling, William F Nichols, Patricia S Harmon, Shawn M Conlon, Ivan M Nuñez, Joseph Hoff, Orlando M Cabarcos, Robert B Steffen, Daniel J Hook
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been incorporated over the years into numerous hydrogel contact lenses as both a primary matrix component and an internal wetting agent to increase lens wettability. In this study, complementary analytical techniques were used to characterize the PVP wetting agent component of senofilcon A and samfilcon A contact lenses, both in terms of chemical composition and amount present. Photo-differential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and high-resolution/accurate mass (HR/AM) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques confirmed dual phase reaction and curing of the samfilcon A silicone hydrogel material...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504183/enzymic-degradation-of-hydroxyethyl-cellulose-and-analysis-of-the-substitution-pattern-along-the-polysaccharide-chain
#8
Yongfu Diao, Mingwei Song, Yulin Zhang, Lin-Ying Shi, Yusan Lv, Rong Ran
The enzymatic degradation behavior of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) samples with different molar substitutions (MS) values was investigated. The changes in the molecular structure of HEC treated with enzymatic approach in comparison to the native HEC were studied through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques and kinetics of degradation was studied by viscometry. The cleavage of HEC chains could be observed from FTIR and kinetics results...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499354/patient-and-care-characteristics-of-self-referrals-treated-by-the-general-practitioner-cooperative-at-emergency-care-access-points-in-the-netherlands
#9
Martijn Rutten, Fieke Vrielink, Marleen Smits, Paul Giesen
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, out-of-hours primary care is provided in general practitioner-cooperatives (GPCs). These are increasingly located on site and in collaboration with emergency departments of hospitals (ED). At such sites, also called emergency-care-access-points (ECAP), the GPC is generally responsible for the triage and treatment of self-referrals who used to attend the ED. To evaluate the effects and safety of this novel organisation, we studied the characteristics and the quality of care given by GPCs to self-referrals at ECAPs...
May 12, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499202/novel-dual-ves-phospholipid-self-assembled-liposomes-with-an-extremely-high-drug-loading-efficiency
#10
Yongpeng Hou, Chen Yao, Longbing Ling, Yawei Du, Ruiyu He, Muhammad Ismail, Ying Zhang, Zhenglin Fu, Xinsong Li
Vitamin E succinate (VES), a unique selective anti-cancer drug, has attracted much attention for its ability to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. Importantly, it has been reported that VES is largely non-toxic to normal cells. However, poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability extensively restricted its clinical utility. In this report, dual VES phospholipid conjugate (di-VES-GPC) prodrug based liposomes were prepared in order to develop an efficient delivery system for VES. Di-VES-GPC was first synthesized by conjugating VES with l-α-glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) using N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a coupling agent...
May 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492745/cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-root-canal-sealers-using-an-in-vitro-experimental-model-with-roots
#11
Ligia Teixeira, Fernanda Gonçalves Basso, Josimeri Hebling, Carlos Alberto de Souza Costa, Graziela Garrido Mori, Yara Teresinha Corrêa Silva-Sousa, Camila Fávero de Oliveira
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal sealers under conditions closely resembling a clinical reality. A primary human fibroblast cell line was seeded in 24-well acrylic plates with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% serum fetal bovine (SFB) and incubated for 24 h. Root canals from premolars were filled and individually attached to nylon devices to be stabilized in the wells with the already seeded cells. Specimens were divided into groups as follows: Control: gutta-percha cones (GPC); AH Plus+GPC; Sealapex+GPC; MTA Fillapex+GPC and Endofill+GPC...
March 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482520/synthesis-of-lipid-based-amphiphilic-block-copolymer-and-its-evaluation-as-nano-drug-carrier
#12
Muhammad Arshad, Rehan A Pradhan, Aman Ullah
In current study, we report the synthesis and characterization of renewable fatty acid-based block copolymer. The block copolymer was synthesized via RAFT polymerization under microwave irradiations. Firstly, the homopolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) was prepared and used as a macro-CTA to copolymerize with modified stearic acid monomer (SAM). The characterization of copolymer p-DMA-b-SAM was done by (1)H NMR, ATR-FTIR and GPC. The block copolymer was allowed to self-assemble and the entrapment of carbamazepine (CBZ) into hydrophobic core of polymeric micelles was investigated in aqueous media...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482283/using-a-combined-hydrolysis-factor-to-balance-enzymatic-saccharification-and-the-structural-characteristics-of-lignin-during-pretreatment-of-hybrid-poplar-with-a-fully-recyclable-solid-acid
#13
Hairui Ji, Yanliang Song, Xu Zhang, Tianwei Tan
In this study, a new pretreatment strategy for lignocellulosic was developed using a fully recyclable solid acid, Toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH). A combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) as a pretreatment severity was used to balance enzymatic saccharification and the structural characteristics of lignin. The results from degradation of carbohydrates, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and characterization of lignin by FT-IR, (31)P NMR, GPC, 2D-HSQC NMR indicated that a CHF of approximately 3.90 was the optimal pretreatment severity to facilitate enzymatic saccharification and the potential serviceability of lignin...
April 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468879/regulation-of-tacaribe-mammarenavirus-translation-positive-5-and-negative-3-elements-and-role-of-key-cellular-factors
#14
Sabrina Foscaldi, Alejandra D'Antuono, María Gabriela Noval, Gonzalo de Prat Gay, Luis Scolaro, Nora Lopez
Mammarenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bisegmented negative-stranded RNA genome that encodes the nucleocapsid protein (NP), the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC), the RNA polymerase (L), and a RING matrix protein (Z). Viral proteins are synthesized from subgenomic messenger RNAs bearing a capped 5' untranslated region (UTR), and lacking 3' poly(A) tail. We analyzed the translation strategy of Tacaribe virus (TCRV), a prototype of the New World mammarenaviruses. A virus-like transcript that carries a reporter gene in place of the NP open-reading frame as well as transcripts bearing modified 5' and/or 3' UTRs were evaluated in a cell-based translation assay...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465086/dual-7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin-conjugated-phospholipid-prodrug-assembled-liposomes-with-in-vitro-anticancer-effects
#15
Yawei Du, Wei Zhang, Ruiyu He, Muhammad Ismail, Longbing Ling, Chen Yao, Zhenglin Fu, Xinsong Li
7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), as a highly active topoisomerase I inhibitor, is 200-2000-fold more cytotoxic than irinotecan (CPT-11) commercially available as Camptosar®. However, poor solubility and low stability extensively restricted its clinical utility. In this report, dual SN38 phospholipid conjugate (Di-SN38-PC) prodrug based liposomes were developed in order to compact these drawbacks. Di-SN38-PC prodrug was first synthesized by inhomogeneous conjugation of two SN38-20-O-succinic acid molecules with L-α-glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC)...
April 22, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458211/synthesis-of-vegetable-oil-based-polymer-by-terpolymerization-of-epoxidized-soybean-oil-propylene-oxide-and-carbon-dioxide
#16
Farra Wahida Shaarani, Jordi J Bou
Although carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known as one of the major green-house gases, it is also an economical C1 resource. Thus, CO2 has been regarded as an appealing starting material for the synthesis of polymers, like polycarbonates by the reaction with epoxides. Herein the reaction between natural epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), propylene oxide (PO) and CO2 under high pressure (4.0MPa) with the presence of Co-Zn double metal cyanide (Co-Zn DMC) catalyst was studied. Temperature and reaction time were varied accordingly and the products obtained were characterized by FTIR, GPC and (1)H NMR...
April 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447548/preparation-of-wormlike-polymeric-nanoparticles-coated-with-silica-for-delivery-of-methotrexate-and-evaluation-of-anticancer-activity-against-mcf7-cells
#17
Farhad Gharebaghi, Naser Dalali, Ebrahim Ahmadi, Hossein Danafar
Methotrexate is one of the most effective drugs that is commonly used in the treatment of cancer. However, its application is limited due to low solubility, high toxicity and rapid metabolism. Therefore, in the present study, worm-like polymeric nanoparticles as carrier of methotrexate were prepared using biodegradable copolymers (mPEG-PCL). The impact of nanoparticles' geometry on the loading, delivery and drug's anti-cancer activity was investigated. The di-block copolymer mPEG-PCL was being synthesized by a ring opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone in the presence of mPEG as the initiator and Sn(oct)2 as the catalyst...
April 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432433/glypican-3-mrna-expression-level-in-wilms-tumor-correlation-with-histological-type-stage-and-outcome
#18
Md Nahidul Wari, Archana George Vallonthaiel, Aijaz Ahmed, Deepali Saxena, Venkateswaran K Iyer, Sandeep R Mathur, Sandeep Agarwala, Sameer Bakhshi, V Srinivas, P Chattopadhyaya, Arundhati Sharma, S Datta Gupta, Amit Dinda
PURPOSE: To correlate expression of Glypican-3 in Wilms tumor with histopathology, stage, and outcome. METHODS: Glypican-3 mRNA expression by real-time PCR on tumor and normal germline samples from 75 fresh nephrectomies for Wilms tumor with fold change after normalization against GAPDH was compared. Survival analysis for event-free and overall survival (EFS, OS) with 2-year follow-up for Glypican-3 overexpression (>1.5 times) and clinicopathological parameters was performed...
June 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431025/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-live-human-sperm
#19
S Reynolds, S J Calvert, M N Paley, A A Pacey
STUDY QUESTION: Can 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) be used to obtain information about the molecules and metabolites in live human spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: Percoll-based density gradient centrifugation (DGC) followed by a further two washing steps, yielded enough sperm with minimal contamination (<0.01%) from seminal fluid to permit effective MRS which detected significant differences (p < 0.05) in the choline/glycerophosphocholine, lipid and lactate regions of the 1H MRS spectrum between sperm in the pellet and those from the 40/80% interface...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426184/alterations-in-mandibular-morphology-associated-with-glypican-1-and-glypican-3-gene-mutations
#20
M Mian, S Ranjitkar, G C Townsend, P J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Glypican 1 (GPC1) and glypican 3 (GPC3) are bone co-regulators that act downstream in many of the signalling pathways associated with craniosynostosis. Morphometric data from GPC-knockout mice were analysed to determine whether elimination of GPC1 and GPC3 genes would alter mandibular morphology. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: The murine model included five male and five female mandibles in each of GPC1-knockout, GPC1/GPC3-knockout and wild-type (control) groups...
April 20, 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
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