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Lipin Dev Mundur Sahadevan, Chandra Shekhar Misra, V Thankamani
Lignin is a major component of all plants, the degradation of which remains a major challenge to date owing to its recalcitrant nature. Several classes of fungi have been studied to carry out this process to some extent, but overall the process remains inefficient. We have isolated a novel alkalophilic dimorphic lignin-degrading Deuteromycete from soil, identified as "uncultured" and coded as MVI.2011. Supernatant from 12-h culture of MVI.2011 in optimized mineral medium containing lignin pH 9.0 was analysed for Lignin Peroxidase, Manganese Peroxidase and Laccase...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
Sachin S Surwase, Neha M Munot, Bhaskar B Idage, Susheela B Idage
Gemcitabine is used as a first-line drug for treating many solid tumours. However, it suffers from a major drawback of strong side effects and short plasma half-life because of degradation by enzyme when administered intravenously. Polyesters and copolyesters are the most widely used and preferred class of biodegradable polymer. In the present work, efforts have been made to prepare poly(ethylene glycol) monomethoxy ether-poly(L-lactide) (mPEG-PLLA), a biodegradable amphiphilic copolymer with a view to improve the entrapment and tuned release of hydrophilic drug gemcitabine...
March 21, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Wen Zhu, Liangcai Zhang, Yongming Chen, Ke Zhang
An ultraviolet (UV)-cleavable bottlebrush polymer is synthesized using the "grafting-onto" strategy by combining living radical polymerization and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). In this approach, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization is used to prepare a poly(methylacrylate) backbone with azide side groups, while atom transfer radical polymerization is employed to prepare polystyrene (PS) side chains end-functionalized with o-nitrobenzyl (UV-cleavable) propargyl groups...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Yunxia Qian, Hongmei Liu, Haijian Tan, Qingmin Yang, Shuchen Zhang, Lingui Han, Xuegang Yi, Li Huo, Hongchi Zhao, Yonggang Wu, Libin Bai, Xinwu Ba
A potential real-time imaging water-soluble fluorescent polymer (P3) is facilely prepared via one-pot method. For P3, tetraphenylethene unit serves as the fluorescent unit, poly(acryloyl ethylene diamine) (a kind of polyelectrolyte) with specific degree of polymerization acts as water-soluble part. (1) H-NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and confocal laser scanning microscopy are undertaken to characterize the structure and property of P3. The results of wash-free cellular imaging show that the signal-to-noise ratio is high as the concentration of P3 is 50 μg mL(-1) ...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Shunjie Liu, Xun Zhao, Hongchen Guo, Yusheng Qin, Xianhong Wang, Fosong Wang
Due to the axial group initiation in traditional (salen)CoX/quaternary ammonium catalyst system, it is difficult to construct single active center propagating polycarbonates for copolymerization of CO2 /epoxides. Here a redox-responsive poly(vinyl cyclohexene carbonate) (PVCHC) with detachable disulfide-bond backbone is synthesized in a controllable manner using (salen)CoTFA/[bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium, [PPN]TFA binary catalyst, where the axial group initiation is depressed by judiciously choosing 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid as starter...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Tanushri Chatterji, Suruchi Singh, Manodeep Sen, Ajai Kumar Singh, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Deepak Kumar Singh, Janmejai Kumar Srivastava, Alka Singh, Rajendra Nath Srivastava, Raja Roy
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an essential bio-fluid of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a vital role in the protection of CNS and performing neuronal function regulation. The chemical composition of CSF varies during onset of meningitis, neurodegenerative disorders (positive controls) and in traumatic cases (negative controls). METHODS: The study design was broadly categorized into meningitis cases, negative controls and positive controls. Further differentiation among the three groups was carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA)...
March 14, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Manuel Schütze, Luiz C F Romanelli, Daniela V Rosa, Anna B F Carneiro-Proietti, Rodrigo Nicolato, Marco A Romano-Silva, Michael Brammer, Débora M de Miranda
The Human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of HTLV-associated myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is the result of demyelination and cell death in the spinal cord and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by a virus-induced inflammatory response. In this study, we applied Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) to evaluate brain metabolism in a group of 47 patients infected with HTLV-1, and 18 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups according to their neurological symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
M C Hamoudi-Ben Yelles, V Tran Tan, F Danede, J F Willart, J Siepmann
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the addition of small amounts of hydrophilic polymers (Poloxamer 188 and PEO 200kDa) to PLGA-based implants loaded with prilocaine. Special emphasis was placed on the importance of the type of preparation technique: direct compression of milled drug-polymer powder blends versus compression of drug loaded microparticles (prepared by spray-drying). The implants were thoroughly characterized before and upon exposure to phosphate buffer pH7.4, e.g. using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, DSC and GPC...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Liangliang An, Guanhua Wang, Hongyu Jia, Cuiyun Liu, Wenjie Sui, Chuanling Si
The heterogeneity of lignin chemical structure and molecular weight results in the lignin inhomogeneous properties which also covers the antioxidant performance. In order to evaluate the effects of lignin heterogeneity on its antioxidant activity, four lignin fractions from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin were classified by sequential organic solvent extraction and further evaluated by DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power analysis. The characterization including FTIR, (1)H NMR and GPC showed that the fractionation process could effectively separate lignin fractions with distinctly different molecular weight and weaken the heterogeneity of unfractionated lignin...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Monique G P van der Wijst, Amanda Y van Tilburg, Marcel H J Ruiters, Marianne G Rots
Like the nucleus, mitochondria contain their own DNA and recent reports provide accumulating evidence that also the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is subjective to DNA methylation. This evidence includes the demonstration of mitochondria-localised DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, and the detection of mtDNA methylation as well as hydroxymethylation. Importantly, differential mtDNA methylation has been linked to aging and diseases, including cancer and diabetes. However, functionality of mtDNA methylation has not been demonstrated...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
Linxi Yang, Quan Sophia He, Peter Havard, Kenneth Corscadden, Chunbao Charles Xu, Xuan Wang
Co-liquefaction of spent coffee grounds (SCG) with paper filter (PF), corn stalk (CS) and white pine bark (WPB) respectively, was examined in subcritical water for bio-crude oil production. The optimum reaction temperature was 250°C, and the mixing biomass ratio was 1:1. SCG and CS was identified to be the best feedstock combination with a significant positive synergetic effect in the co-liquefaction process with 5% NaOH as a catalyst. The yield of bio-crude oil was increased by 20.9% compared to the mass averaged yield from two feedstocks, and the oil quality was also improved in terms of viscosity and relative molecular mass...
February 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Antje Freytag, Markus Krause, Thomas Lehmann, Sven Schulz, Florian Wolf, Janine Biermann, Jürgen Wasem, Jochen Gensichen
OBJECTIVE: For most patients with depression, GPs are the first and long-term medical providers. GP-centered health care (GPc-HC) programs target patients with chronic diseases. What are the effects of GPc-HC on primary care depression management? METHOD: An observational retrospective case-control study was conducted using health insurance claims data of patients with depressive disorder from July 2011 to December 2012. RESULTS: From 40,298 patients insured with the largest health plan in Central Germany participating in the GPc-HC program (intervention group, IG), we observed 4645 patients with depression over 18months: 72...
March 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
Yuncheng Du, Dongping Du
Cardiac potassium (K+) channel plays an important role in cardiac electrical signaling. Mathematical models have been widely used to investigate the effects of K+ channels on cardiac functions. However, the model of K+ channel involves parametric uncertainties, which can be induced by fitting the model's parameters that best capture experimental data. Since the prediction of cardiac functions are highly parameter-dependent, it is critical to quantify the influence of parametric uncertainty on the model responses to provide the more reliable predictions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jingfen Han, Xia Wang, Lixia Liu, Dongxue Li, Suyaola Suyaola, Tianyue Wang, Huricha Baigude
A cationic group has been quantitatively and selectively introduced into C6 position of each glucose units of Curdlan by "Click Chemistry" successfully. The resulting cationic Curdlan-Imidazole-lysine polymers (Cur-6-100Lys) exhibit excellent water solubility. Structure of the Cur-6-100Lys complexes was verified by FTIR and NMR spectroscopic measurements, and analysis of Cur-6-100Lys by GPC, DLS and SEM revealed that they have stoichiometric, nanosized spheroidal structures. Cytotoxicity measurement, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and EGFP-pDNA transfection have been carried out respectively...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Baki Hazer, Özlem A Kalaycı
Autoxidation of poly unsaturated fatty acids makes negative effect on foods. In this work, this negative effect was turned to a great advantage using autoxidized soybean oil as a macroperoxide nanocomposite initiator containing silver nano particles in free radical polymerization of vinyl monomers. The synthesis of soybean oil macro peroxide was carried out by exposing soybean oil to air oxygen with the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at room temperature. Autoxidized soybean oil macroperoxide containing silver nanoparticles (Agsbox) successfully initiated the free radical polymerization of styrene in order to obtain Polystyrene (PS)-g-soybean oil graft copolymer containing Ag NPs...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Chaohui Zheng, Hongzhi Gao, Da-Peng Yang, Minghuan Liu, Hongwei Cheng, Yun-Long Wu, Xian Jun Loh
The synthesis of a multiblock poly(ether ester urethane)s comprising poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(propylene glycol) segments is described. We found that this polymer possessed a critical thermo-gelation concentration of 4wt%. Molecular characterization of the polymer was performed in terms of molecular weight determination, chemical composition elucidation and functional group determination using GPC, NMR, and FTIR. We carried out in vitro paclitaxel and doxorubicin release studies and demonstrated that sustained therapeutic release of about 2weeks can be obtained with this system...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yanjun Liu, Qin Zhang, Yongli Guo, Junyi Liu, Jie Xu, Zhaojie Li, Jingfeng Wang, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was successfully synthesized by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TL IM)-catalyzed esterification of glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) and n-3 PUFA-rich fatty acids in a solvent-free system. Effects of reaction temperature, enzyme loading and substrate mole ratio on the yield of LPC and incorporation of n-3 PUFA were evaluated. The acyl-specificities of five enzymes were tested for direct esterification of n-3 PUFA, and Lipozyme TL IM was found to be more effective than others for production of LPC with n-3 PUFA...
July 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Aitziber Iturmendi, Uwe Monkowius, Ian Teasdale
Oxidation responsive polymers with triggered degradation pathways have been prepared via attachment of self-immolative moieties onto a hydrolytically unstable polyphosphazene backbone. After controlled main-chain growth, postpolymerization functionalization allows the preparation of hydrolytically stable poly(organo)phosphazenes decorated with a phenylboronic ester caging group. In oxidative environments, triggered cleavage of the caging group is followed by self-immolation, exposing the unstable glycine-substituted polyphosphazene which subsequently undergoes to backbone degradation to low-molecular weight molecules...
February 21, 2017: ACS Macro Letters
Longbing Ling, Chen Yao, Yawei Du, Muhammad Ismail, Ruiyu He, Yongpeng Hou, Ying Zhang, Xinsong Li
AIM: A novel amphiphilic prodrug dual podophyllotoxin (PPT) succinate glycerophosphorylcholine (Di-PPT-GPC) assembled liposomes was developed to improve efficiency of PPT. MATERIALS & METHODS: Di-PPT-GPC liposomes were prepared by thin film technique and characterized by dynamic light scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. RESULTS: In vitro release studies showed that Di-PPT-GPC liposomes could significantly release PPT in weakly acidic environment but had good stability under biological conditions...
March 2017: Nanomedicine
Changquan Zhang, Shengjie Chen, Xinyu Ren, Yan Lu, Derui Liu, Xiuling Cai, Qianfeng Li, Jiping Gao, Qiaoquan Liu
OsGBSSI, encoded by the Waxy (Wx) gene, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of amylose chains. Transgenic rice lines with various GBSSI activities were previously developed via site-directed mutagenesis of the Wx gene in the glutinous cultivar Guanglingxiangnuo (GLXN). In this study, grain morphology, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties were investigated in four transgenic lines with modified OsGBSSI activity and differences in amylose content. A milky opaque appearance was observed in low- and non-amylose rice grains due to air spaces in the starch granules...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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