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Bing Hu, Lingyu Han, Zhiming Gao, Ke Zhang, Saphwan Al-Assaf, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Glyn O Phillips, Jixin Yang, Yapeng Fang
Effects of temperature and solvent condition on phase separation-induced molecular fractionation of gum arabic/hyaluronan (GA/HA) mixed solutions were investigated. Two gum arabic samples (EM10 and STD) with different molecular weights and polydispersity indices were used. Phase diagrams, including cloud and binodal curves, were established by visual observation and GPC-RI methods. The molecular parameters of control and fractionated GA, from upper and bottom phases, were measured by GPC-MALLS. Fractionation of GA increased the content of arabinogalactan-protein complex (AGP) from ca...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tamily Cristina Lemos, Laura Lúcia Cogo, Adriane Cheschin Maestri, Milena Hadad, Keite da Silva Nogueira
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections can be fatal, and timely identification of the etiologic agent is important for treatment. METHODOLOGY: An alternative method, consisting of direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood culture bottles using the automated VITEK 2® system, was assessed. RESULTS: All 37 of the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) identifications and 57.1% of the 28 Gram-positive cocci (GPC) identifications matched those obtained with standard methods...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Shaoqiong Liu, Robert Ono, Chuan Yang, Shujun Gao, Jordan Tan, James L Hedrick, Yi Yan Yang
To exploit tumor and intracellular microenvironments, pH-responsive diblock copolymers of PEG and catechol-functionalized polycarbonate with acid-labile acetal bond as the linker are synthesized to prepare micellar nanoparticles that shed the shell at acidic tumor tissues and inside cancer cells, hence accelerating drug release at the target. The pH-dependent cleavage of the shell is demonstrated at pH 5.0 and 6.5 using GPC and 1H NMR. Bortezomib (BTZ, an anticancer drug containing a phenylboronic acid group) is conjugated to the polymers through formation of pH-responsive boronate ester bond between boronic acid and cetachol in the polymers...
May 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xin Huang, Chengqi Fan, Huanhuan Zhu, Wenjun Le, Shaobin Cui, Xin Chen, Wei Li, Fulei Zhang, Yong Huang, Donglu Sh, Zheng Cui, Chengwei Shao, Bingdi Chen
Introduction: Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis with high mortality, due to the lack of effective early diagnostic and prognostic tools. Materials and methods: In order to target and diagnose PC, we developed a dual-modal imaging probe using Glypican-1 (GPC-1) antibody conjugated with Gd-Au nanoclusters (NCs; Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1). GPC-1 is a type of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, which is often highly expressed in PC. The probe was successfully prepared with a hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 13...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Niraj Kumar Srivastava, Shikha Sharma, Rajkumar Sharma, Neeraj Sinha, Sudhir Kumar Mandal, Deepak Sharma
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose major characteristics persistent joint inflammation that results in joint destruction and failure of the function. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat is an autoimmune disease model and in many ways shares features with RA. The CIA is associated with systemic manifestations, including alterations in the metabolism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics has been successfully applied to the perchloric acid extract of the joint tissue of CIA rat and control rat for the analysis of aqueous metabolites...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Manjili Hamidreza Kheiri, Niusha Alimohammadi, Hossein Danafar
Statins are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, their inhibitory action on HMG-CoA reductase also results in the depletion of intermediate biosynthetic products, which importantly contribute to cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the individual commercially available statins on investigational breast cancer. Thus, in this study, biodegradable polymeric micelles as carrier of statins were prepared using biodegradable copolymers (PCL-PEG-PCL)...
May 9, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Tianwen Song, Shanshan Li, Wande Ding, Haoshuai Li, Mutai Bao, Yang Li
An investigation was carried out to study the performance of a combined expanded granular sludge bed reactor-aerobic biofilm reactor (EGSB-ABR) biosystem and key microorganisms involved in this bioprocess. When the concentration of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was 500 mg/L, the maximum removal rate of HPAM reached 64.36%, among which the contribution of the EGSB reactor was 24.35%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis showed that macromolecular HPAM was degraded into oligomer with lower molecular weight...
May 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yuka Suzuki, Shu Ichihara, Tomonori Kawasaki, Hiroyuki Yanai, Satoshi Kitagawa, Yoshie Shimoyama, Shigeo Nakamura, Masato Nakaguro
Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma (SN-GPC) is an uncommon mesenchymal tumor with myoid differentiation. Recently, mutations in exon 3 of the gene coding for β-catenin (CTNNB1) and its nuclear expression were discovered in SN-GPC. β-catenin protein is a key regulatory molecule of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of β-catenin target proteins is not well characterized in SN-GPC. We examined three SN-GPCs by immunohistochemistry and CTNNB1 mutation analysis. All cases expressed nuclear β-catenin...
May 7, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Fatima Amanat, James Duehr, Lisa Oestereich, Kathryn M Hastie, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Florian Krammer
Arenaviruses pose a major public health threat and cause numerous infections in humans each year. Although most viruses belonging to this family do not cause disease in humans, some arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus and Machupo virus, are the etiological agents of lethal hemorrhagic fevers. The absence of a currently licensed vaccine and the highly pathogenic nature of these viruses both make the necessity of developing viable vaccines and therapeutics all the more urgent. Arenaviruses have a single glycoprotein on the surface of virions, the glycoprotein complex (GPC), and this protein can be used as a target for vaccine development...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Ashwin Dapkekar, Paresh Deshpande, Manoj D Oak, Kishore M Paknikar, Jyutika M Rajwade
Ferti-fortification of wheat with zinc, an essential micronutrient is one of the strategies for combating 'hidden hunger' in a large proportion of people all over the world. During fertilization, application of large quantities of micronutrients often results in nutrient wastage and subsequent environmental pollution. Here, we report zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) for ferti-fortification of durum wheat in field-scale experiments. The efficacy of Zn-CNP was assessed vis-à-vis conventionally applied ZnSO4 (0...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yazan Al Thaher, Silvia Latanza, Stefano Perni, Polina Prokopovich
Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition is a versatile technique that has been employed in numerous industrial applications i.e. biomaterials, drug delivery and electronics to confer peculiar properties to the system. When LbL is employed for drug delivery, the active molecule is sandwiched between layers of polyelectrolytes and the release is controlled by the diffusion of the drug through the layers and the possible hydrolysis of the coating (delamination). Poly-beta-amino-esters (PBAEs) are a class of hydrolysable polyelectrolytes that have been widely used in DNA delivery and for LbL on medical devices...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nadia M El-Wahab, Hebat-Allah G Rashed, Wafaa T El-Sherif, Sohair K Sayed, Mohamed O Abd-Elmalek, Abeer Refaiy, Hussein Fakhry, Abeer A Mokhtar
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest liver cancer; its incidence and prevalence are continuously increased. Glypican3 (GPC3), melanoma antigen-1, 3 genes (MAGE1 and 3) are tumor markers used in HCC. We evaluated their role in HCC detection and assessed their relation to tumor parameters. Three groups, HCC group, liver cirrhosis group and a control group were studied. AFP, GPC3, and MAGE1 and 3 mRNA were determined in all study subjects. Tissue GPC3 was examined in patients with HCC only. Serum AFP and GPC3 were elevated in HCC group compared to other groups (P < 0...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Xiayun Zhang, Zhongduo Yang, Dengmin Xie, Donglei Liu, Zhenbin Chen, Ke Li, Zhizhong Li, Brandon Tichnell, Zhen Liu
The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method was adopted here to prepare a series of thermo-sensitive copolymers, poly (N,N-diethyl- acrylamide-b-N-vinylpyrrolidone). Their structures, molecular weight distribution and temperature sensitivity performances were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance (1 HNMR), the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. It has been identified that the synthesis reaction of the block copolymer was living polymerization...
2018: Designed Monomers and Polymers
Yifei Fan, Huatang Cao, Frank van Mastrigt, Yutao Pei, Francesco Picchioni
Cu0 -mediated living radical polymerization (Cu0 -mediated LRP) was employed in this research for the synthesis of starch-g-polyacrylamide (St-g-PAM). The use of a controlled radical grafting technique is necessary, as compared to the traditional free-radical polymerization methods, in order to obtain a well-defined structure of the final product. This is in turn essential for studying the relationship between such structure and the end-properties. Waxy potato starch-based water-soluble macroinitiator was first synthesized by esterification with 2-bromopropionyl bromide in the mixture of dimethylacetamide and lithium chloride...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiufeng Jin, Bo Feng, Zhibin Xu, Xiaoli Fan, Jing Liu, Qin Liu, Ping Zhu, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: The content of grain protein (GPC) in cereals is an important part of total protein in human food. Exploring and utilizing new GPC genes is one of the most effective approaches for wheat quality breeding. RESULTS: Three homoeologues of TaAAP6(-3A, 3B, 3D)were cloned by homology cloning from OsAAP6.Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaAAP6homoeologues were preferentially expressed in developing grains, and TaAAP6-3B may play a major role in regulating GPC in wheat...
April 23, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Pengfei Zhang, Dong Chen, Nanqing Chen, Kuan Huang, Duanjian Tao, Meijun Li, Sheng Dai
The emission of SO2 from the burning of fossil fuel has resulted in a severe atmospheric pollution. The development of efficient strategies for not only capturing but also utilizing SO2 is highly welcome. Herein, we report a simple, mild and versatile method to explore atmospheric SO2 toward the synthesis of porous polymers. Inspired by the chemistry of sulfonamide, contorted or bulky monomers with multi amine groups were cross-linked by SO2 molecules, in the presence of Et3N and I2. The sulfonamide polymers possess specific surface areas up to 211 m2 g-1...
April 23, 2018: ChemSusChem
Arul Prakash Francis, Sneha Gurudevan, A Jayakrishnan
Polymannose (PM) having a weight-average molar mass (Mw ) of 30-53 kDa was synthesized by the polycondensation of mannose using phosphorous acid as the catalyst and characterized by various techniques such as NMR, IR, GPC and polarimetry. 2D NMR results confirmed the presence of (1→ 6)-linked α-D-mannose residues as backbone with O-3 and O-2 substituted linear or branched chains in PM. Amphotericin B (AmB) was conjugated to periodate-oxidized PM through Schiff's linkages at 20 wt% concentration. The AmB-PM conjugates were highly soluble in phosphate buffered saline (180-250 mg/mL), exhibited negligible hemolytic potential to human erythrocytes even at a concentration of 200 μg /mL (equivalent to ~ 40 μg/mL AmB) and were non-toxic to human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells even at a concentration of 250 μg/mL (equivalent to ~ 50 μg/mL AmB)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Alessio Ceccarini, Andrea Corti, Francesca Erba, Francesca Modugno, Jacopo La Nasa, Sabrina Bianchi, Valter Castelvetro
The environmental pollution by plastic debris directly dispersed in or eventually reaching marine habitats is raising increasing concern not only for the vulnerability of marine species to ingestion and entanglement by macroscopic debris, but also for the potential hazards from smaller fragments down to a few micrometer size, often referred to as "microplastics". A novel procedure for the selective quantitative and qualitative determination of organic solvent soluble microplastics and microplastics degradation products (<2mm) in shoreline sediments was adopted to evaluate their concentration and distribution over the different sectors of a Tuscany (Italy) beach...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Pingping Qiu, Weibin Qiu, Junbo Ren, Zhili Lin, Zeyu Wang, Jia-Xian Wang, Qiang Kan, Jiao-Qing Pan
Originating from the investigation of condensed matter states, the concept of quantum Hall effect and quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) has recently been expanded to other field of physics and engineering, e.g., photonics and phononics, giving rise to strikingly unconventional edge modes immune to scattering. Here, we present the plasmonic analog of QSHE in graphene plasmonic crystal (GPC) in mid-infrared frequencies. The band inversion occurs when deforming the honeycomb lattice GPCs, which further leads to the topological band gaps and pseudospin features of the edge states...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Tim Leschinger, Karsten Engel, Gert Peter Brüggemann, Viktoria Dederer, Wolfram Friedrich Neiss, Max Joseph Scheyerer, Lars Peter Müller, Kilian Wegmann
Adjacent vertebral body fracture is described as a risk after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. It may be true that this phenomenon is caused precisely because of the frequently used polymethylmethacrylate cement (PMMA), which shows a higher level of stiffness than bone material and may ultimately lead to shifting stress levels within the entire spine. The goal of the present study was to evaluate and compare the pressure distribution in the endplate of human vertebrae after kyphoplasty with PMMA and aluminum-free glass-polyalkenoate cement (gpc)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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