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brain heart evaluation

Pablo A Cortes, Francisco Bozinovic, Pierre U Blier
Mammalian torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate, generally followed by a reduction in body temperature. During arousal from torpor, both metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly returns to resting levels. Metabolic rate reduction experienced by torpid animals is triggered by active suppression of mitochondrial respiration, which is rapidly reversed during rewarming process. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to electron transport system (complexes I, III and IV) in six tissues of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans)...
March 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Sarang Kim, Mitchell McMaster, Susan Torres, Kay L Cox, Nicola Lautenschlager, George W Rebok, Dimity Pond, Catherine D'Este, Ian McRae, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
INTRODUCTION: It has been estimated that a 10%-25% reduction in seven key risk factors could potentially prevent 1.1-3.0 million Alzheimer's disease cases globally. In addition, as dementia is preceded by more subtle cognitive deficits which have substantial social and economic impact, effective preventative interventions would likely have more extensive benefits. The current study evaluates in primary care a multidomain risk-reduction intervention targeting adults with high risk of developing dementia...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
L Bua, E Tibaldi, L Falcioni, M Lauriola, L De Angelis, F Gnudi, M Manservigi, F Manservisi, I Manzoli, I Menghetti, R Montella, S Panzacchi, D Sgargi, V Strollo, A Vornoli, D Mandrioli, F Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Research
J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
INTRODUCTION: Aortic stenosis is a common condition among older adults that can be associated with dangerous outcomes, due to both the disease itself and its influence on other conditions. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an evidence-based summary of the current emergency department (ED) evaluation and management of aortic stenosis. DISCUSSION: Aortic stenosis refers to significant narrowing of the aortic valve and can be caused by calcific disease, congenital causes, or rheumatic valvular disease...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nadav Willner, Yair Goldberg, Elad Schiff, Zahava Vadasz
AIMS: Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) is expressed on platelets and T-cells and known to be involved in inflammation. The aims of this study include comparing Sema4D and N terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) serum levels in heart failure (HF) patients to a control group, evaluating the correlation between Sema4D and NT-proBNP levels, and assessing Sema4D serum levels in HF patients during acute exacerbation and remission. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients diagnosed with HF (based on echocardiographic findings, positive NT-proBNP levels, and normal C-reactive protein) and 11 healthy controls (declaring no chronic diseases or medications) comprised the study population...
March 10, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Nadav Yayon, Amir Dudai, Nora Vrieler, Oren Amsalem, Michael London, Hermona Soreq
Three-dimensional structures in biological systems are routinely evaluated using large image stacks acquired from fluorescence microscopy; however, analysis of such data is muddled by variability in the signal across and between samples. Here, we present Intensify3D: a user-guided normalization algorithm tailored for overcoming common heterogeneities in large image stacks. We demonstrate the use of Intensify3D for analyzing cholinergic interneurons of adult murine brains in 2-Photon and Light-Sheet fluorescence microscopy, as well as of mammary gland and heart tissues...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heather Campbell, Rathinaswamy B Govindan, Srinivas Kota, Tareq Al-Shargabi, Marina Metzler, Nickie Andescavage, Taeun Chang, Gilbert Vezina, Adre du Plessis, An N Massaro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and evidence of autonomic dysfunction have aberrant physiological responses to care events that could contribute to evolving brain injury. STUDY DESIGN: Continuous tracings of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), cerebral near infrared spectroscopy, and video electroencephalogram data were recorded from newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who were treated with hypothermia...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Muthu Dharmasena, Xiuping Jiang
This study was to optimize the detection methods for Clostridium difficile from the animal manure-based composts. Both autoclaved and unautoclaved dairy composts were inoculated with a 12-h old suspension of a non-toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43593) and then plated on selected agar for vegetative cells and endospores. Six types of enrichment broths supplemented with taurocholate and L-cysteine were assessed for detecting a low level of artificially inoculated C. difficile (ca. 5 spores/g) from dairy composts...
March 5, 2018: Anaerobe
Eduardo Lattari, Henning Budde, Flávia Paes, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão Neto, José Carlos Appolinario, Antônio Egídio Nardi, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Sérgio Machado
Background: The effects of the aerobic exercise on anxiety symptoms in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) remain unclear. Thus, the investigation of possible changes in EEG frontal asymmetry could contribute to understand the relationship among exercise, brain and anxiety. Objective: To investigate the acute effects of aerobic exercise on the symptoms of anxiety and the chronic effects of aerobic exercise on severity and symptoms related to PD, besides the changes in EEG frontal asymmetry...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Craig A Marquardt, Daniel J Goldman, Bruce N Cuthbert, Shmuel Lissek, Scott R Sponheim
Emotional dysfunction is evident in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet it is unclear what aspects of the disorder most directly relate to aberrant emotional responding. Also, the frequent co-occurrence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) among recently deployed U.S. military personnel complicates efforts to understand the basis for emotional disruption. We studied a cross-sectional sample (enriched for PTSD and mTBI) of 123 U.S. veterans of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. We measured subjective affective evaluations and peripheral psychophysiological responses to images with pleasant, neutral, unpleasant, and combat-related aversive content...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
V G C Ribeiro, V A Mendonça, A L C Souza, S F Fonseca, A C R Camargos, V K S Lage, C D C Neves, J M Santos, L A C Teixeira, E L M Vieira, A L Teixeira Junior, B Mezêncio, J S C Fernandes, H R Leite, J R Poortmans, A C R Lacerda
The aims of this study were 1) to characterize the intensity of the vibration stimulation in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) compared to a control group of healthy women (HW) matched by age and anthropometric parameters, and 2) to investigate the effect of a single session of whole body vibration (WBV) on inflammatory responses. Levels of adipokines, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFr1, sTNFr2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Zhao-Peng Dong, Qian Wang, Zhen-Jie Zhang, Michael J Carr, Dong Li, Wei-Feng Shi
Globally, coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) has been continuously isolated and evidence suggests an association with the development of pancreatitis and type I diabetes. In addition, CV-B4 is also associated with myocarditis and severe central nervous system (CNS) complications, which remain poorly studied and understood. In the present study, we established an Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model of CV-B4 infection and examined whether CV-B4 infection resulted in a predisposition to myocarditis and CNS infection...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Ramneek Kaur, Monika Sodhi, Ankita Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma, Preeti Verma, Shelesh Kumar Swami, Parvesh Kumari, Manishi Mukesh
Selection of reference genes has become an integral step in any real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) based expression studies. The importance of this study stems from the fact that riverine buffaloes are major dairy species of Indian sub-continent and the information generated here will be of great interest to the investigators engaged in functional genomic studies of this important livestock species. In this study, an effort was made to evaluate a panel of 10 candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta- actin (ACTB), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), ribosomal protein S15 (RPS15), ribosomal protein L-4 (RPL4), ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), β2 Microglobulin (β2M) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) across 12 tissues (mammary gland, kidney, spleen, liver, heart, intestine, ovary, lung, muscle, brain, subcutaneous fat and testis) of riverine buffaloes...
2018: PloS One
Masakazu Kotoda, Tadahiko Ishiyama, Kazuha Mitsui, Sohei Hishiyama, Takashi Matsukawa
PURPOSE: Nicorandil has dual properties and acts as a nitric oxide donor and an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channel opener. Considering its pharmacological profile, nicorandil might exert protective effects on the brain as well as on the heart. The purpose of this study was to directly evaluate the effect of nicorandil on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in mice using a transcranial Doppler method. METHODS: Under general anesthesia, the nicorandil groups received a single-bolus intraperitoneal injection of the respective doses of nicorandil (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg), while the control group received vehicle only...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Luis R Cassinotti, María J Guil, Mercedes I Schöller, Mónica P Navarro, Liliana G Bianciotti, Marcelo S Vatta
Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and central endothelins (ETs) are involved in the development of hypertension. Besides the well-known brain structures involved in the regulation of blood pressure like the hypothalamus or locus coeruleus, evidence suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) also modulates cardiovascular function. In the present study, we evaluated the interaction between the endothelinergic and catecholaminergic systems in the OB of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christopher W White, Simon J Messer, Stephen R Large, Jennifer Conway, Daniel H Kim, Demetrios J Kutsogiannis, Jayan Nagendran, Darren H Freed
Cardiac transplantation has become limited by a critical shortage of suitable organs from brain-dead donors. Reports describing the successful clinical transplantation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD) have recently emerged. Hearts from DCD donors suffer significant ischemic injury prior to organ procurement; therefore, the traditional approach to the transplantation of hearts from brain-dead donors is not applicable to the DCD context. Advances in our understanding of ischemic post-conditioning have facilitated the development of DCD heart resuscitation strategies that can be used to minimize ischemia-reperfusion injury at the time of organ procurement...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Introduction: The neural activity in response to ineffective joint actions was explored in the present study. Subjects involved in a cooperative but frustrating task (poor performance as manipulated by an external feedback) were required to cooperate (T1) during an attentional task in a way to synchronize their responses and obtain better outcomes. Methods: We manipulated their strategies by providing false feedbacks (T2) signaling the incapacity to create a synergy, which was reinforced by a general negative evaluation halfway through the game...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Sara Loureiro-Vieira, Vera Marisa Costa, José Alberto Duarte, Margarida Duarte-Araújo, Salomé Gonçalves-Monteiro, Bastos Maria de Lourdes, Félix Carvalho, João Paulo Capela
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line stimulant drug to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Overdiagnosis of ADHD and MPH abuse lead to serious concerns about the possible long-term adverse consequences of MPH in healthy children and adolescents. We aimed to evaluate MPH effects in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 40) using an oral dose scheme (2 daily MPH doses 5 mg/kg in a 5% sucrose solution, 5 h apart, for 7 days) that mimics the therapeutic doses given to human adolescents...
February 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Elizabeth D Ellis, John D Boice, Ashley P Golden, David J Girardi, Sarah S Cohen, Michael T Mumma, Roy E Shore, Richard W Leggett, George D Kerr
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works was the earliest uranium processing facility in the Manhattan Project, beginning in 1942. Even then, concern existed about possible health effects resulting from exposure to radiation and pitchblende dust. This concern was well founded as the facility processed Belgian Congo pitchblende ore that was up to 60% pure uranium with high U content and up to 100 mg of radium per ton. Workers were exposed to external gamma radiation plus internal radiation from inhalation and ingestion of pitchblende dust (uranium, radium, and silica)...
April 2018: Health Physics
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