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ribosome inactivating protein

Ka-Yee Au, Wei-Wei Shi, Shuai Qian, Zhong Zuo, Pang-Chui Shaw
To improve the pharmacological properties of maize ribosome-inactivating protein (maize RIP) for targeting HIV-infected cells, the previously engineered TAT-fused active form of maize RIP (MOD) was further engineered for cysteine-directed PEGylation. In this work, two potential antigenic sites, namely Lys-78 and Lys-264, were identified. They were mutated to cysteine residue and conjugated with PEG5k or PEG20k. The resultant PEG derivatives of MOD variants were examined for ribosome-inactivating activity, circulating half-life and immunogenicity...
October 17, 2016: Toxins
Wei-Wei Shi, Yun-Sang Tang, See-Yuen Sze, Zhen-Ning Zhu, Kam-Bo Wong, Pang-Chui Shaw
Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), containing a catalytic A chain and a lectin-like B chain. It inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the N-glycosidic bond at α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA, which thereby prevents the binding of elongation factors to the GTPase activation center of the ribosome. Here, we present the 1.6 Å crystal structure of Ricin A chain (RTA) complexed to the C-terminal peptide of the ribosomal stalk protein P2, which plays a crucial role in specific recognition of elongation factors and recruitment of eukaryote-specific RIPs to the ribosomes...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
Ikuhiko Nakase, Kosuke Noguchi, Ikuo Fujii, Shiroh Futaki
Extracellular vesicles (EVs, exosomes) are approximately 30- to 200-nm-long vesicles that have received increased attention due to their role in cell-to-cell communication. Although EVs are highly anticipated to be a next-generation intracellular delivery tool because of their pharmaceutical advantages, including non-immunogenicity, their cellular uptake efficacy is low because of the repulsion of EVs and negatively charged cell membranes and size limitations in endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate a methodology for achieving enhanced cellular EV uptake using arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to induce active macropinocytosis...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hai-Bo Li, Ruo-Xi Wang, Hai-Bo Jiang, En-Dong Zhang, Jie-Qiong Tan, Hui-Zhuo Xu, Rong-Rong Zhou, Xiao-Bo Xia
Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are important for mitochondrial-encoded protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. In addition to their roles in mitoribosome assembly, several mitochondrial ribosome proteins are also implicated in cellular processes like cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MRPL10 regulates cyclin B1/Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) activity and mitochondrial protein synthesis in mammalian cells. In Drosophila, inactivation of mRpL10 (the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian MRPL10) in eyes results in abnormal eye development...
October 11, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Patricia M Legler, Jaimee R Compton, Martha L Hale, George P Anderson, Mark A Olson, Charles B Millard, Ellen R Goldman
Ricin is an A-B ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) toxin composed of an A-chain subunit (RTA) that contains a catalytic N-glycosidase and a B-chain (RTB) lectin domain that binds cell surface glycans. Ricin exploits retrograde transport to enter into the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum, and then dislocates into the cytoplasm where it can reach its substrate, the ribosomal RNA. A subset of isolated antibodies (Abs) raised against the RTA subunit protect against ricin intoxication, and RTA-based vaccine immunogens have been shown to provide long-lasting protective immunity against the holotoxin...
September 23, 2016: MAbs
Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah, Akter Mst Yeasmin, Atsuki Kaneko, Naoki Koike, Mashu Terasawa, Takaya Totsuka, Takashi Ushimaru
Autophagic degradation of ribosomes is promoted by nutrient starvation and inactivation of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Here we show that selective autophagic degradation of ribosomes (called ribophagy) after TORC1 inactivation requires the specific autophagy receptor Atg11. Rim15 protein kinase upregulated ribophagy, while it downregulated non-selective degradation of ribosomes.
September 23, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
In Hye Baik, Guk-Heui Jo, Daekwan Seo, Min Ji Ko, Chi Heum Cho, Min Goo Lee, Yun-Han Lee
Ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9), a component of the 60S subunit for protein synthesis, is upregulated in human colorectal cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether RPL9 gained extraribosomal function during tumorigenesis and whether targeting of RPL9 with small interfering (si) RNA could alter the course of colorectal cancer progression. Our results showed that siRNA knockdown of RPL9 suppresses colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth and long-term colony formation through an increase in sub-G1 cell population and a strong induction of apoptotic cell death...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
S Liu, N R Tackmann, J Yang, Y Zhang
Inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is frequently found in colorectal cancer. Loss of APC function results in deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway causing overexpression of the c-MYC oncogene. In lymphoma, both p19ARF and ribosomal proteins RPL11 and RPL5 respond to c-MYC activation to induce p53. Their role in c-MYC-driven colorectal carcinogenesis is unclear, as p19ARF deletion does not accelerate APC loss-triggered intestinal tumorigenesis. To determine the contribution of the ribosomal protein (RP)-murine double minute 2 (MDM2)-p53 pathway to APC loss-induced tumorigenesis, we crossed mice bearing MDM2(C305F) mutation, which disrupts RPL11- and RPL5-MDM2 binding, with Apc(min/+) mice, which are prone to intestinal tumor formation...
September 12, 2016: Oncogene
Neelam Dabas Sen, Fujun Zhou, Michael S Harris, Nicholas T Ingolia, Alan G Hinnebusch
DEAD-box RNA helicases eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) and Ded1 promote translation by resolving mRNA secondary structures that impede preinitiation complex (PIC) attachment to mRNA or scanning. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) is a cofactor for eIF4A but also might function independently of eIF4A. Ribosome profiling of mutants lacking eIF4B or with impaired eIF4A or Ded1 activity revealed that eliminating eIF4B reduces the relative translational efficiencies of many more genes than does inactivation of eIF4A, despite comparable reductions in bulk translation, and few genes display unusually strong requirements for both factors...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Thierry Delaveau, Dimitri Davoine, Ariane Jolly, Antoine Vallot, Jérôme O Rouvière, Athenaïs Gerber, Sandra Brochet, Marion Plessis, Roxane Roquigny, Jawad Merhej, Thibaut Leger, Camille Garcia, Gaëlle Lelandais, Elodie Laine, Benoit Palancade, Frédéric Devaux, Mathilde Garcia
The discovery of novel specific ribosome-associated factors challenges the assumption that translation relies on standardized molecular machinery. In this work, we demonstrate that Tma108, an uncharacterized translation machinery-associated factor in yeast, defines a subpopulation of cellular ribosomes specifically involved in the translation of less than 200 mRNAs encoding proteins with ATP or Zinc binding domains. Using ribonucleoparticle dissociation experiments we established that Tma108 directly interacts with the nascent protein chain...
October 14, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Sonja Hombach, Markus Kretz
One of the long-standing principles of molecular biology is that DNA acts as a template for transcription of messenger RNAs, which serve as blueprints for protein translation. A rapidly growing number of exceptions to this rule have been reported over the past decades: they include long known classes of RNAs involved in translation such as transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs, small nuclear RNAs involved in splicing events, and small nucleolar RNAs mainly involved in the modification of other small RNAs, such as ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sakihito Kitajima, Kenji Miura, Wataru Aoki, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Toki Taira, Ryuta Murakami, Shunsuke Aburaya
The cytoplasm of laticifers, which are plant cells specialized for rubber production and defense against microbes and herbivores, is a latex. Although laticifers share common functions, the protein constituents of latexes are highly variable among plant species and even among organs. In this study, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Euphorbia tirucalli's (Euphorbiaceae) latex were conducted to determine the molecular basis of the laticifer's functions in this plant. The hybrid de novo assembly of Illumina mRNA-seq and expressed sequence tags obtained by Sanger's sequencing revealed 26,447 unigenes...
August 18, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chenjing Shang, Pierre Rougé, Els J M Van Damme
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stefan Schwarz, Jianzhong Shen, Kristina Kadlec, Yang Wang, Geovana Brenner Michael, Andrea T Feßler, Birte Vester
Lincosamides, streptogramins, phenicols, and pleuromutilins (LSPPs) represent four structurally different classes of antimicrobial agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to particular sites on the 50S ribosomal subunit of the ribosomes. Members of all four classes are used for different purposes in human and veterinary medicine in various countries worldwide. Bacteria have developed ways and means to escape the inhibitory effects of LSPP antimicrobial agents by enzymatic inactivation, active export, or modification of the target sites of the agents...
August 22, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Corey Fyfe, Trudy H Grossman, Kathy Kerstein, Joyce Sutcliffe
Macrolide resistance mechanisms can be target-based with a change in a 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) residue or a mutation in ribosomal protein L4 or L22 affecting the ribosome's interaction with the antibiotic. Alternatively, mono- or dimethylation of A2058 in domain V of the 23S rRNA by an acquired rRNA methyltransferase, the product of an erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) gene, can interfere with antibiotic binding. Acquired genes encoding efflux pumps, most predominantly mef(A) + msr(D) in pneumococci/streptococci and msr(A/B) in staphylococci, also mediate resistance...
October 3, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Ali Moghadam, Ali Niazi, Alireza Afsharifar, Seyed Mohsen Taghavi
In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system...
2016: PloS One
Elio Pizzo, Antimo Di Maro
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes ( that possess N-glycosilase activity that irreversibly inhibits protein synthesis. RIPs have been found in plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria; their biological role is still under investigation, even if it has been recognized their role in plant defence against predators and viruses. Nevertheless, several studies on these toxins have been performed to evaluate their applicability in the biomedical field making RIPs selectively toxic towards target cells...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Mayank Thakur, Katy Haussmann, Nicole Niesler, Cheenu Bhargava, Cornelia Görick, Hendrik Fuchs, Alexander Weng
Triterpenoidal saponins are synthesized in the roots of Saponaria officinalis L. The same plant is also a source for the toxin Saporin, which is a ribosome-inactivating protein. Triterpenoidal saponins are known to increase the cytotoxicity of Saporin by modulating its intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated if the combinatorial effects elicited by purified saponins and Saporin can be applied to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the immunotoxin Saporin-Rituximab. First, saponins were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography...
July 8, 2016: Planta Medica
B S Gnanesh Kumar, Avadhesha Surolia
The bark of Sambucus nigra contains a complex mixture of glycoproteins that are characterized as chimeric lectins known as type II ribosome inactivating proteins and holo lectins. These type II ribosome inactivating proteins possess RNA N-glycosidase activity in subunit A and lectin activity associated with subunit B exhibiting distinct sugar specificities to NeuAc(α2-6)-Gal/GalNAc and Gal/GalNAc. In the present study we have determined the N-glycosylation pattern of type II ribosome inactivating protein specific to NeuAc(α2-6)-Gal/GalNAc (Sambucus nigra agglutinin I) by subjecting it to digestion with multiple proteases...
July 6, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Tzi Bun Ng, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Jack Ho Wong, Yau Sang Chan, Xiuli Dan, Wenliang Pan, Hexiang Wang, Suzhen Guan, Ki Chan, Xiuyun Ye, Fang Liu, Lixin Xia, Wai Yee Chan
Fungi comprise organisms like molds, yeasts and mushrooms. They have been used as food or medicine for a long time. A large number of fungal proteins or peptides with diverse biological activities are considered as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticancer agents. They encompass proteases, ribosome inactivating proteins, defensins, hemolysins, lectins, laccases, ribonucleases, immunomodulatory proteins, and polysaccharopeptides. The target of the present review is to update the status of the various bioactivities of these fungal proteins and peptides and discuss their therapeutic potential...
August 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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