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ribosome inactivating protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314656/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-inhibition-attenuates-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-hypertrophic-heart
#1
Lei-Lei Ma, Xin Ma, Fei-Juan Kong, Jun-Jie Guo, Hong-Tao Shi, Jian-Bing Zhu, Yun-Zeng Zou, Jun-Bo Ge
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy aggravated myocardial infarction and is causally related to autophagy dysfunction and increased oxidative stress. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) involved in the regulation of autophagy as well as oxidative/nitrative stress. Here, we demonstrated that rapamycin ameliorates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury by rescuing the defective cytoprotective mechanisms in hypertrophic heart. Our results showed that chronic rapamycin treatment markedly reduced the phosphorylated mTOR and ribosomal protein S6 expression, but not Akt in both normal and aortic-banded mice...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311276/species-specific-interactions-of-arr-with-rplk-mediate-stringent-response-in-bacteria
#2
Priyanka Agrawal, Rajagopal Varada, Shivjee Sah, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Umesh Varshney
Bacteria respond to stressful growth conditions through a conserved phenomenon of 'stringent response' mediated by synthesis of stress alarmones, ppGpp or pppGpp [referred to as (p)ppGpp]. The (p)ppGpp synthesis is known to occur by ribosome associated RelA. In addition, a dual function protein SpoT (with both the synthetase and hydrolase activities) maintains (p)ppGpp homeostasis. The presence of (p)ppGpp is also known to contribute to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Mycobacterium smegmatis possesses Arr, which inactivates rifampicin by its ADP-ribosylation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284258/ph-sensitive-coiled-coil-peptide-crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid-nanogels-synthesis-and-targeted-intracellular-protein-delivery-to-cd44-positive-cancer-cells
#3
Lingling Ding, Yu Jiang, Jian Zhang, Harm-Anton Klok, Zhiyuan Zhong
The clinical translation of protein drugs that act intracellularly is limited by the absence of safe and efficient intracellular protein delivery vehicles. Here, pH-sensitive coiled-coil peptide-crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanogels (HA-cNGs) were designed and investigated for targeted intracellular protein delivery to CD44 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells. HA-cNGs were obtained with a small size of 176 nm from an equivalent mixture of hyaluronic acid conjugates with GY(EIAALEK)3GC (E3) and GY(KIAALKE)3GC (K3) peptides, respectively, at pH 7...
December 29, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249019/acrolein-toxicity-at-advanced-age-present-and-future
#4
REVIEW
Kazuei Igarashi, Takeshi Uemura, Keiko Kashiwagi
It is thought that tissue damage at advanced age is mainly caused by ROS (reactive oxygen species, O2-, H2O2, and ·OH). However, it was found that acrolein (CH2=CH-CHO) is more toxic than ROS, and is mainly produced from spermine (SPM), one of the polyamines, rather than from unsaturated fatty acids. Significant amounts of SPM are present normally as SPM-ribosome complexes, and contribute to protein synthesis. However, SPM was released from ribosomes due to the degradation of ribosomal RNA by ·OH or the binding of Ca2+ to ribosomes, and acrolein was produced from free SPM by polyamine oxidases, particularly by SPM oxidase...
December 16, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205603/selective-profiling-of-saponins-from-gypsophila-trichotoma-wend-by-hilic-separation-and-hrms-detection
#5
Reneta Gevrenova, Ventzislav Bardarov, Krum Bardarov, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Max Henry
INTRODUCTION: Roots of Gypsophila trichotoma Wend. (Caryophyllaceae) are rich sources of glucuronide oleanane-type triterpenoid carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCABs). These saponins have been reported to possess synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with type I ribosome-inactivating protein saporin. OBJECTIVE: To develop ultra high-performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionisation/high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/HRMS) acquisition strategy for the recognition of Gypsophila GOTCAB saponins...
December 4, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202361/a-novel-adenine-releasing-assay-for-ribosome-inactivating-proteins
#6
Alexander Weng
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxic enzymes that are mostly biosynthesized by plants. RIPs are N-glycosidases that cleave an essential adenine molecule from the 28S rRNA. This is followed by the irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis leading to cell death. By fusing RIPs to cancer cell specific targeting ligands RIPs have been utilized for targeted anti-tumor therapy. The anti-tumoral efficiency of such conjugates depends significantly on the N-glycosidase activity of the RIP domain. Different methods have been developed in order to determine the N-glycosidase activity of RIPs and RIP domain containing anti-tumor toxins...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196290/evolution-and-diversity-of-inherited-spiroplasma-in-myrmica-ants
#7
Matthew J Ballinger, Logan D Moore, Steve J Perlman
Microbial partners play an important role in the biology and ecology of animals. In insects, maternally-transmitted symbionts are especially common and can have host effects ranging from reproductive manipulation to nutrient provisioning and defense against natural enemies. In this study, we report a genus-wide association of Myrmica ants with the inherited bacterial symbiont, Spiroplasma We screen Myrmica ants collected from the wild, including the invasive European fire ant, Myrmica rubra, and find an extraordinarily high prevalence of this symbiont - 8 of 9 species, 42 of 43 colonies, and 250 of 276 individual workers were harboring Spiroplasma - only one host species was uninfected...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182545/detection-of-abrin-holotoxin-using-novel-monoclonal-antibodies
#8
Xiaohua He, Stephanie Patfield, Luisa W Cheng, Larry H Stanker, Reuven Rasooly, Thomas A McKeon, Yuzhu Zhang, David L Brandon
Abrin, a member of the ribosome-inactivating protein family, is produced by the Abrus precatorius plant. Having the potential to pose a severe threat to both human and animal health, abrin is classified as a Select Agent by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. However, an immunoassay that is specific for intact abrin holotoxin has not yet been reported. In this study, seven new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), designated as Abrin-1 through Abrin-7 have been developed. Isotyping analyses indicate these mAbs have IgG1, IgG2a, or IgG2b heavy-chains and kappa light-chains...
November 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166821/the-ribosomal-dna-metaphase-loop-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-gets-condensed-upon-heat-stress-in-a-cdc14-independent-torc1-dependent-manner
#9
Emiliano Matos-Perdomo, Félix Machín
Chromosome morphology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is only visible at the microscopic level in the ribosomal DNA array (rDNA). The rDNA has been thus used as a model to characterize condensation and segregation of sister chromatids in mitosis. It has been established that the metaphase structure ("loop") depends, among others, on the condensin complex; whereas its segregation also depends on that complex, the Polo-like kinase Cdc5 and the cell cycle master phosphatase Cdc14. In addition, Cdc14 also drives rDNA hypercondensation in telophase...
November 23, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156375/downregulation-of-the-protein-synthesis-machinery-is-a-major-regulatory-event-during-early-adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stromal-cells
#10
Bruna H Marcon, Fabíola B Holetz, Guillermo Eastman, Ana Carolina Origa-Alves, Mariana Andrea Amorós, Alessandra Melo de Aguiar, Carmen K Rebelatto, Paulo R S Brofman, Jose Sotelo-Silveira, Bruno Dallagiovanna
Commitment of adult stem cells involves the activation of specific gene networks regulated from transcription to protein synthesis. Here, we used ribosome profiling to identify mRNAs regulated at the translational level, through both differential association to polysomes and modulation of their translational rates. We observed that translational regulation during the differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs, also known as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells), a subset of which are stem cells, to adipocytes was a major regulatory event...
November 1, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154940/ebulin-rp-a-novel-member-of-the-ebulin-gene-family-with-low-cytotoxicity-as-a-result-of-deficient-sugar-binding-domains
#11
Rosario Iglesias, J Miguel Ferreras, Antimo Di Maro, Lucía Citores
BACKGROUND: Sambucus ebulus is a rich source of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and RIP-related lectins generated from multiple genes. These proteins differ in their structure, enzymatic activity and sugar binding specificity. METHODS: We have purified and characterized ebulin-RP from S. ebulus leaves and determined the amino acid sequence by cDNA cloning. Cytotoxicity was studied in a variety of cancer cells and a comparative study of the ability of ebulin-RP to bind sugars using "in vitro" and "in silico" approaches was performed...
November 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133924/bio-detoxification-of-ricin-in-castor-bean-ricinus-communis-l-seeds
#12
Natália L Sousa, Glaucia B Cabral, Pabline M Vieira, Aisy B Baldoni, Francisco J L Aragão
Ricin is a highly toxic ribosome-inactivating lectin occurring in the seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). Castor bean grows throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions and is a very important crop due to its high seed content of ricinoleic acid, an unusual fatty acid, which has several industrial applications. However, due to the presence of the toxin, castor bean can cause death after the exposure of animals to low doses of ricin through skin contact, injection, inhalation or oral routes. Aiming to generate a detoxified genotype, we explored the RNAi concept in order to silence the ricin coding genes in the endosperm of castor bean seeds...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107534/m-6-a-facilitates-eif4f-independent-mrna-translation
#13
Ryan A Coots, Xiao-Min Liu, Yuanhui Mao, Leiming Dong, Jun Zhou, Ji Wan, Xingqian Zhang, Shu-Bing Qian
In eukaryotic cells, protein synthesis typically begins with the binding of eIF4F to the 7-methylguanylate (m(7)G) cap found on the 5' end of the majority of mRNAs. Surprisingly, overall translational output remains robust under eIF4F inhibition. The broad spectrum of eIF4F-resistant translatomes is incompatible with cap-independent translation mediated by internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). Here, we report that N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) facilitates mRNA translation that is resistant to eIF4F inactivation...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107333/granzyme-b-disrupts-central-metabolism-and-protein-synthesis-in-bacteria-to-promote-an-immune-cell-death-program
#14
Farokh Dotiwala, Sumit Sen Santara, Andres Ariel Binker-Cosen, Bo Li, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Judy Lieberman
Human cytotoxic lymphocytes kill intracellular microbes. The cytotoxic granule granzyme proteases released by cytotoxic lymphocytes trigger oxidative bacterial death by disrupting electron transport, generating superoxide anion and inactivating bacterial oxidative defenses. However, they also cause non-oxidative cell death because anaerobic bacteria are also killed. Here, we use differential proteomics to identify granzyme B substrates in three unrelated bacteria: Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Mycobacteria tuberculosis...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104238/which-plant-proteins-are-involved-in-antiviral-defense-review-on-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-activities-of-selected-plant-proteins-against-viruses
#15
REVIEW
Oskar Musidlak, Robert Nawrot, Anna Goździcka-Józefiak
Plants have evolved a variety of defense mechanisms to tackle virus attack. Endogenous plant proteins can function as virus suppressors. Different types of proteins mediate defense responses against plant viruses. Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are activated upon pathogen infections or in different stress situations and their production is one of many components in plant defense. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) suppress translation by enzymatically damaging ribosomes and they have been found to have antiviral activity...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076988/the-use-of-plant-derived-ribosome-inactivating-proteins-in-immunotoxin-development-past-present-and-future-generations
#16
REVIEW
Aleksander Rust, Lynda J Partridge, Bazbek Davletov, Guillaume M Hautbergue
Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) form a class of toxins that was identified over a century ago. They continue to fascinate scientists and the public due to their very high activity and long-term stability which might find useful applications in the therapeutic killing of unwanted cells but can also be used in acts of terror. We will focus our review on the canonical plant-derived RIPs which display ribosomal RNA N-glycosidase activity and irreversibly inhibit protein synthesis by cleaving the 28S ribosomal RNA of the large 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes...
October 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064680/plant-translation-initiation-complex-eifiso4f-directs-pokeweed-antiviral-protein-to-selectively-depurinate-uncapped-tobacco-etch-virus-rna
#17
Artem V Domashevskiy, Shawn Williams, Christopher Kluge, Shu-Yuan Cheng
Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) that depurinates the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of rRNA, inhibiting protein synthesis. PAP depurinates viral RNA, and in doing so, lowers the infectivity of many plant viruses. The mechanism by which PAP accesses uncapped viral RNA is not known, impeding scientists from developing effective antiviral agents for the prevention of the diseases caused by uncapped RNA viruses. Kinetic rates of PAP interacting with tobacco etch virus (TEV) RNA, in the presence and absence of eIFiso4F, were examined, addressing how the eIF affects selective PAP targeting and depurination of the uncapped viral RNA...
November 1, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057799/a-monoclonal-monoclonal-antibody-based-capture-elisa-for-abrin
#18
Christina C Tam, Luisa W Cheng, Xiaohua He, Paul Merrill, David Hodge, Larry H Stanker
Abrin, one of the most highly potent toxins in the world, is derived from the plant, Abrus precatorius. Because of its high toxicity, it poses potential bioterror risks. Therefore, a need exists for new reagents and technologies that would be able to rapidly detect abrin contamination as well as lead to new therapeutics. We report here a group of abrin-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize abrin A-chain, intact A-B chain toxin, and agglutinin by Western blot. Additionally, these mAbs were evaluated for their ability to serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture) ELISA...
October 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023422/plant-ribosome-inactivating-proteins-progesses-challenges-and-biotechnological-applications-and-a-few-digressions
#19
REVIEW
Maria Serena Fabbrini, Miku Katayama, Ikuhiko Nakase, Riccardo Vago
Plant ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) toxins are EC3.2.2.22 N-glycosidases, found among most plant species encoded as small gene families, distributed in several tissues being endowed with defensive functions against fungal or viral infections. The two main plant RIP classes include type I (monomeric) and type II (dimeric) as the prototype ricin holotoxin from Ricinus communis that is composed of a catalytic active A chain linked via a disulphide bridge to a B-lectin domain that mediates efficient endocytosis in eukaryotic cells...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947655/mechanistic-insights-in-x-chromosome-inactivation
#20
REVIEW
Zhipeng Lu, Ava C Carter, Howard Y Chang
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a critical epigenetic mechanism for balancing gene dosage between XY males and XX females in eutherian mammals. A long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), XIST, and its associated proteins orchestrate this multi-step process, resulting in the inheritable silencing of one of the two X-chromosomes in females. The XIST RNA is large and complex, exemplifying the unique challenges associated with the structural and functional analysis of lncRNAs. Recent technological advances in the analysis of macromolecular structure and interactions have enabled us to systematically dissect the XIST ribonucleoprotein complex, which is larger than the ribosome, and its place of action, the inactive X-chromosome...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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