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intracellular metabolism

Shazia Shah, Arshia, Nida Siraj Kazmi, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Nida Dastagir, Tariq Ahmed, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Shakil Ahmed, Abeer Raza, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is defined as the response of immune system cells to damaged or injured tissues The major symptoms of inflammation include increased blood flow, cellular influx, edema, elevated cellular metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilation. This normally protective mechanism against harmful agents when this normal mechanism becomes dysregulated that can cause serious illnesses including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, sepsis, and chronic pulmonary inflammation ...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Yoko Miura
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of epithelial cells located between the neural retina and the choroid, plays a significant role in the maintenance of retinal function. Its in vivo imaging is still technically challenging in human eye. With the mouse eye, there is a possibility to look into the RPE through the sclera using two-photon microscopy (TPM). TPM is a two photon-excited nonlinear fluorescence microscopy that enables the observation of deep tissues up to several hundred micrometers. Since the simultaneous absorption of two photons occurs only at the focal plane, spatial resolution of the TPM is quite high, such that pinhole as used in a confocal microscope is not necessary...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jian Li, Mengyang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Wei Wang, Lifeng Han, Qian Chen, Jingya Ruan, Shaoshi Wen, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang
Objective: Mangiferin (MGF) is a natural xanthone, with regulation effect on lipid metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We purposed after oral administration, MGF is converted to its active metabolite(s), which contributes to the effects on lipid metabolism. Methods: KK-Ay mice were used to validate the effects of MGF on lipid metabolic disorders. Liver biochemical indices and gene expressions were determined. MGF metabolites were isolated from MGF administrated rat urine. Mechanism studies were carried out using HepG2 cells treated by MGF and its metabolite with or without inhibitors or small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
David Clemmons
The IGF binding protein family contains six members that share significant structural homology. Their principal function is to regulate the actions of IGF-I and IGF-II. These proteins are present in plasma and extracellular fluids and regulate access of both IGF-I and II to the type I IGF receptor. Additionally they have functions that are independent of their ability to bind IGFs. Each protein is regulated independently of IGF-I and IGF-II and this provides an important mechanism by which other hormones and physiologic variables can regulate IGF actions indirectly...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Khuloud Bajbouj, Jasmin Shafarin, Mawieh Hamad
Mounting evidence suggest that iron overload enhances cancer growth and metastasis; hence, iron chelation is being increasingly used as part of the treatment regimen in patients with cancer. Now whether iron chelation depletes intracellular iron and/or disrupts intracellular iron homeostasis is yet to be fully addressed. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells treated with increasing concentrations of the iron chelator deferoxamine were assessed for intracellular iron status, the expression of key proteins involved in iron metabolism, cell viability, growth potential, and apoptosis at different time points following treatment...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Claudia Cavallini, Chiara Zannini, Elena Olivi, Riccardo Tassinari, Valentina Taglioli, Martina Rossi, Paola Poggi, Alexandros Chatgilialoglu, Giuliana Simonazzi, Francesco Alviano, Laura Bonsi, Carlo Ventura
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an effective tool in regenerative medicine notably for their intrinsic plentiful paracrine activity rather than differentiating properties. The hMSC secretome includes a wide spectrum of regulatory and trophic factors, encompassing several naked molecules as well as different kinds of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among EVs, exosomes represent an intriguing population, able to shuttle proteins, transcription factors, and genetic materials, with a relevant role in cell-to-cell communication, modulating biological responses in recipient cells...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
Igor Pottosin, Isaac Zepeda-Jazo, Jayakumar Bose, Sergey Shabala
Oxidative stress signaling is essential for plant adaptation to hostile environments. Previous studies revealed the essentiality of hydroxyl radicals (HO•)-induced activation of massive K⁺ efflux and a smaller Ca2+ influx as an important component of plant adaptation to a broad range of abiotic stresses. Such activation would modify membrane potential making it more negative. Contrary to these expectations, here, we provide experimental evidence that HO• induces a strong depolarization, from -130 to -70 mV, which could only be explained by a substantial HO•-induced efflux of intracellular anions...
March 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Linlin Yang, Jun Zhao, Xinling Yu, Ruilong Zhang, Guangmei Han, Renyong Liu, Zhengjie Liu, Tingting Zhao, Ming-Yong Han, Zhongping Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key signaling molecule in the cytoprotection, vascular mediation and neurotransmission of living organisms. In-depth understanding of its production, trafficking, and transformation in cells is very important in the way H2S mediates cellular signal transductions and organism functions; it also motivates the development of H2S probes and imaging technologies. A fundamental challenge, however, is how to engineer probes with sensitivity and cellular penetrability that allow detection of spontaneous production of H2S in the entire cell space and live animals...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Alex B Addinsall, Craig R Wright, Sof Andrikopoulos, Chris van der Poel, Nicole Stupka
Chronic metabolic stress leads to cellular dysfunction, characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The ER is gaining recognition as a key organelle in integrating cellular stress responses. ER homeostasis is tightly regulated by a complex antioxidant system, which includes the seven ER-resident selenoproteins - 15 kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins S, N, K, M and T...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Keith G Avin, Julian A Vallejo, Neal X Chen, Kun Wang, Chad D Touchberry, Marco Brotto, Sarah L Dallas, Sharon M Moe, Michael J Wacker
Skeletal muscle dysfunction accompanies the clinical disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. In both disorders fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, becomes chronically elevated. FGF23 has been shown to play a direct role in cardiac muscle dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether FGF23 signaling can also directly induce skeletal muscle dysfunction. We found expression of potential FGF23 receptors ( Fgfr1-4) and α-Klotho in muscles of two animal models (CD-1 and Cy/+ rat, a naturally occurring rat model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder) as well as C2 C12 myoblasts and myotubes...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Elide Formentin, Cristina Sudiro, Giorgio Perin, Samantha Riccadonna, Elisabetta Barizza, Elena Baldoni, Enrico Lavezzo, Piergiorgio Stevanato, Gian Attilio Sacchi, Paolo Fontana, Stefano Toppo, Tomas Morosinotto, Michela Zottini, Fiorella Lo Schiavo
Salinity tolerance has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its agricultural importance. Several features, such as the regulation of ionic transporters and metabolic adjustments, have been identified as salt tolerance hallmarks. Nevertheless, due to the complexity of the trait, the results achieved to date have met with limited success in improving the salt tolerance of rice plants when tested in the field, thus suggesting that a better understanding of the tolerance mechanisms is still required...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Liping Huang, Surapun Tepaamorndech, Catherine P Kirschke, John W Newman, William R Keyes, Theresa L Pedersen, Jureeporn Dumnil
ZnT7 (Slc30a7) is a widely expressed zinc transporter involved in sequestration of zinc into the Golgi apparatus and vesicular compartments. Znt7-knockout (KO) mice are mildly zinc deficient and lean. Despite their lean phenotype, adult male Znt7-KO mice are prone to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat partitioning from adipose to non-adipose tissues causes insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice. Here, we used biological and biochemical methods including fatty acid and oxylipin profiling, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis to identify the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Denis Warshan, Anton Liaimer, Eric Pederson, Sea-Yong Kim, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, Bjørn Altermark, Katharina Pawlowski, Philip D Weyman, Christopher L Dupont, Ulla Rasmussen
The cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc comprise free-living strains but also facultative plant-symbionts. Symbiotic strains can enter into symbiosis with taxonomically diverse range of host plants. Little is known about genomic changes associated with evolutionary transition of Nostoc from free-living to plant symbiont. Here we compared the genomes derived from eleven symbiotic Nostoc strains isolated from different host plants and infer phylogenetic relationships between strains. Phylogenetic reconstructions of 89 Nostocales showed that symbiotic Nostoc strains with a broad host range, entering epiphytic and intracellular or extracellular endophytic interactions, form a monophyletic clade indicating a common evolutionary history...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Chen Xiong, Yan-Zhao Wu, Yu Zhang, Zi-Xiao Wu, Xue-Yan Chen, Ping Jiang, Hui-Cai Guo, Ke-Rang Xie, Ke-Xin Wang, Su-Wen Su
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and broad-spectrum anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent, but dose-dependent cardiotoxic side effects limit its clinical application. This toxicity is closely associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) radical during DOX metabolism. The present study investigated the effects of Berberine (Ber) on DOX-induced acute cardiac injury in a rat model and analysed its mechanism in cardiomyocytes in vitro . Serum creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in the DOX group compared with the control group...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Shao-Chiang Lai, Cody A Phelps, Aleena M Short, Sucharita M Dutta, David Mu
We have discovered an unexpected connection between a critical lung development and cancer gene termed thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 also known as NKX2-1) and cholesterol metabolism. Our published work implicates that TTF-1 positively regulates miR-33a which is known to repress ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) and thus its cholesterol efflux activity. We set out to demonstrate that a higher TTF-1 expression would presumably inhibit cholesterol efflux and consequently raise intracellular cholesterol level...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Chenke Xu, Wei Wang, Jin Zhong, Fan Lei, Naihan Xu, Yaou Zhang, Weidong Xie
Canagliflozin (CAN) regulates intracellular glucose metabolism by targeting sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) and intracellular glucose metabolism affects inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that CAN might exert anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory effects and action mechanisms of CAN were assayed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells and NIH mice. Results showed that CAN significantly inhibited the production and release of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the LPS-induced RAW264...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
María M Adeva-Andany, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Mónica Seco-Filgueira, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo
Mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-coA, NADH and FADH2 . Acyl-coA synthetases catalyze the binding of fatty acids to coenzyme A to form fatty acyl-coA thioesters, the first step in the intracellular metabolism of fatty acids. l-carnitine system facilitates the transport of fatty acyl-coA esters across the mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 transfers acyl groups from coenzyme A to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase exchanges acyl-carnitine esters that enter the mitochondria, by free l-carnitine...
March 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
Diana Fang, Eduardo N Maldonado
Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Catabolism of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH and FADH2 that enter the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force that maintains mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and is utilized to generate ATP...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Dong Liu, Zhengjiao Yang, Ping Wang, Huanqing Niu, Wei Zhuang, Yong Chen, Jinglan Wu, Chenjie Zhu, Hanjie Ying, Pingkai Ouyang
Microbial production of butanol by solventogenic Clostridium has long been complicated with the formation of acetone as an unwanted product, which causes poor product yields and creates a most important problem concerning substrate transformation. Intensive attempts concentrate on carbon conversion pathways to eliminate acetone, but have actually achieved little so far. Here, we believe microbial product distribution can largely depend on how the cell plays its energetic cofactors in central metabolism, and demonstrate that by introducing a synthetic 2,3-butanediol synthesis pathway in Clostridium acetobutylicum as an NADH-compensating module to readjust the reducing power at a systems level, the production of acetone can be selectively and efficiently eliminated (<0...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Xin Li, James A Imlay
Escherichia coli is a model organism that has been exploited to reveal key details of hydrogen peroxide stress: the biomolecules that H2 O2 most rapidly damages and the defensive tactics that organisms use to fend it off. Much less clear is the amount of exogenous H2 O2 that is sufficient to injure the bacterium and/or to trigger its stress response. To fill this gap, we need to study the behavior of cells when they are exposed to defined amounts of H2 O2 on an hours-long time scale. Such experiments are difficult because bacteria rapidly consume H2 O2 that is added to test cultures...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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