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intracellular metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550150/cellulose-synthesis-and-cell-expansion-are-regulated-by-different-mechanisms-in-growing-arabidopsis-hypocotyls
#1
Alexander A Ivakov, Anna Flis, Federico Apelt, Maximilian Fuenfgeld, Ulrike Scherer, Mark Stitt, Friedrich Kragler, Kris Vissenberg, Staffan Persson, Dmitry Suslov
Plant growth is sustained by two complementary processes - biomass biosynthesis and cell expansion. The cell wall is crucial to both as it forms the majority of biomass, while its extensibility limits cell expansion. Cellulose is a major component of the cell wall and cellulose synthesis is pivotal to plant cell growth and its regulation is poorly understood. Using periodic diurnal variation in Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl growth, we found that cellulose synthesis and cell expansion can be uncoupled and are regulated by different mechanisms...
May 26, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549828/deficiency-of-long-isoforms-of-nfe2l1-sensitizes-min6-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-arsenite-induced-cytotoxicity
#2
Qi Cui, Jingqi Fu, Yuxin Hu, Yongfang Li, Bei Yang, Lu Li, Jing Sun, Chengjie Chen, Guifan Sun, Yuanyuan Xu, Qiang Zhang, Jingbo Pi
Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inorganic arsenic exposure is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease of growing prevalence. Pancreatic β-cells were targeted and damaged by oxidative stress induced by arsenite. We previously showed that nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2)-deficient pancreatic β-cells were vulnerable to cell damage induced by oxidative stressors including arsenite, due to a muted antioxidant response. Like nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2), NFE2L1 also belongs to the cap 'n' collar (CNC) basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family, and regulates antioxidant response element (ARE) related genes...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549747/increased-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-accelerates-diet-related-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice-under-chronic-stress
#3
Yanna Lei, Guang Yang, Lina Hu, Limei Piao, Aiko Inoue, Haiying Jiang, Takeshi Sasaki, Guangxian Zhao, Maimaiti Yisireyili, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Kyosuke Takeshita, Kenji Okumura, Masafumi Kuzuya, Xian Wu Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Given that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) regulates several intracellular signaling pathways associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) metabolism, we investigated the role of DPP4 in stress-related vascular senescence and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet were randomly assigned to one of non-stress and immobilized stress groups for 12weeks...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549333/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-camp-pka-pathway-mediated-zn-induced-hepatic-lipolysis
#4
Yu-Feng Song, Christer Hogstrand, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo
The present study was performed to determine the effect of Zn exposure influencing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Zn-induced hepatic lipolysis in a fish species of significance for aquaculture, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We found that waterborne Zn exposure evoked ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), and activated cAMP/PKA pathway, and up-regulated hepatic lipolysis. The increase in ER stress and lipolysis were associated with activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549213/binding-of-copper-and-cisplatin-to-atox1-is-mediated-by-glutathione-through-the-formation-of-metal-sulfur-clusters
#5
Nataliya V Dolgova, Corey Yu, John P Cvitkovic, Miroslav Hodak, Kurt Nienaber, Kelly Lynn Summers, Julien Cotelesage, Jerzy Bernholc, George A Kaminski, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George, Oleg Y Dmitriev
Copper is an essential nutrient required for many biological processes involved in primary metabolism, but free cop-per is toxic due to its ability to catalyze formation of free radicals. To prevent toxic effects, in the cell copper is bound to proteins and low molecular weight compounds, such as glutathione, at all times. The widely used chemotherapy agent cisplatin is known to bind to copper-transporting proteins, including copper chaperone Atox1. Cisplatin interac-tions with Atox1 and other copper transporters are linked to cancer resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy...
May 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548388/epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-how-have-quantitative-mathematical-models-helped-improve-our-understanding
#6
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Satyendra C Tripathi, Jason A Somarelli, Samir M Hanash, Herbert Levine
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of cells to reversibly alter their phenotypes in response to signals, presents a significant clinical challenge to treating solid tumors. Tumor cells utilize phenotypic plasticity to evade therapies, metastasize, and colonize distant organs. As a result, phenotypic plasticity can accelerate tumor progression. A well-studied example of phenotypic plasticity is the bidirectional conversions among epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype(s). These conversions can alter a repertoire of cellular traits associated with multiple hallmarks of cancer, such as metabolism, immune-evasion, invasion and metastasis...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548029/digital-assays-part-ii-digital-protein-and-cell-assays
#7
Amar S Basu
A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays...
May 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546951/common-chemotherapeutic-agents-modulate-fatty-acid-distribution-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-colorectal-cancer-cells
#8
Amir Mehdizadeh, Morteza Bonyadi, Masoud Darabi, Reza Rahbarghazi, Soheila Montazersaheb, Kobra Velaei, Maghsood Shaaker, Mohammad-Hossein Somi
Introduction: Cancer cells are critically correlated with lipid molecules, particularly fatty acids, as structural blocks for membrane building, energy sources, and related signaling molecules. Therefore, cancer progression is in direct correlation with fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of common chemotherapeutic agents on the lipid metabolism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, with a focus on alterations in cellular fatty acid contents...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545553/pigment-fingerprint-profile-during-extractive-fermentation-with-monascus-anka-gim-3-592
#9
Kan Shi, Rui Tang, Tao Huang, Lu Wang, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Traditional submerged fermentation mainly accumulates intracellular orange pigments with absorption maxima at 470 nm, whereas extractive fermentation of Monascus spp. with Triton X-100 can promote the export of intracellular pigments to extracellular broth, mainly obtaining extracellular yellow pigments with absorption maxima at approximately 410 nm. In this study, a strain of Monascus (M. anka GIM 3.592) that produces high yields of pigments was employed to investigate the differences in pigment fingerprint profiles between submerged and extractive fermentations...
May 25, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545104/pkng-senses-amino-acid-availability-to-control-metabolism-and-virulence-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Barbara Rieck, Giulia Degiacomi, Michael Zimmermann, Alessandro Cascioferro, Francesca Boldrin, Natalie R Lazar-Adler, Andrew R Bottrill, Fabien le Chevalier, Wafa Frigui, Marco Bellinzoni, María-Natalia Lisa, Pedro M Alzari, Liem Nguyen, Roland Brosch, Uwe Sauer, Riccardo Manganelli, Helen M O'Hare
Sensing and response to changes in nutrient availability are essential for the lifestyle of environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Serine/threonine protein kinase G (PknG) is required for virulence of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its putative substrate GarA regulates the tricarboxylic acid cycle in M. tuberculosis and other Actinobacteria by protein-protein binding. We sought to understand the stimuli that lead to phosphorylation of GarA, and the roles of this regulatory system in pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544771/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-host-epithelial-cells-infected-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#11
Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Jiaqi Fu, Yanhua Liu, Mei Wu, Kaiwen Yu, Xiaoyun Liu
Systems-level analyses have the capability to offer new insight into host-pathogen interactions on the molecular level. Using Salmonella infection of host epithelial cells as a model system, we previously analyzed intracellular bacterial proteome as a window into pathogens' adaptations to their host environment (Infect. Immun. 2015; J. Proteome Res. 2017). Herein we extended our efforts to quantitatively examine protein expression of host cells during infection. In total, we identified more than 5,000 proteins with 194 differentially regulated proteins upon bacterial infection...
May 25, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544603/metabolic-reprogramming-of-macrophages-exposed-to-silk-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-and-silica-nanoparticles
#12
Raquel Saborano, Thidarat Wongpinyochit, John D Totten, Blair F Johnston, F Philipp Seib, Iola F Duarte
Monitoring macrophage metabolism in response to nanoparticle exposure provides new insights into biological outcomes, such as inflammation or toxicity, and supports the design of tailored nanomedicines. This paper describes the metabolic signature of macrophages exposed to nanoparticles ranging in diameter from 100 to 125 nm and made from silk, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or silica. Nanoparticles of this size and type are currently at various stages of preclinical and clinical development for drug delivery applications...
May 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543688/glycated-human-albumin-alters-mitochondrial-respiration-in-preadipocyte-3t3-l1-cells
#13
Pascal Baret, Fanny Le Sage, Cynthia Planesse, Olivier Meilhac, Anne Devin, Emmanuel Bourdon, Philippe Rondeau
Diabetes and obesity are strongly associated with increased levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These two molecular phenomena affect the physiology of adipose tissue, a biological driver of the metabolic syndrome, leading to an inflammatory profile and insulin resistance, which could contribute to obesity/diabetes-associated complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we investigated the impact of AGEs on mitochondrial bioenergetics in murine preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1) and cellular redox homeostasis...
May 22, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542339/bioenergetic-profile-of-human-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-and-effect-of-metabolic-intervention
#14
Mingming Yang, Amy E Chadwick, Caroline Dart, Tomoko Kamishima, John M Quayle
Bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is critical in cardiovascular health and disease. An acute rise in metabolic demand causes vasodilation in systemic circulation while a chronic shift in bioenergetic profile may lead to vascular diseases. A decrease in intracellular ATP level may trigger physiological responses while dedifferentiation of contractile smooth muscle cells to a proliferative and migratory phenotype is often observed during pathological processes. Although it is now possible to dissect multiple building blocks of bioenergetic components quantitatively, detailed cellular bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is still largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542173/metabolic-and-fitness-determinants-for-in-vitro-growth-and-intestinal-colonization-of-the-bacterial-pathogen-campylobacter-jejuni
#15
Beile Gao, Hanne Vorwerk, Claudia Huber, Maria Lara-Tejero, Juliane Mohr, Andrew L Goodman, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Jorge E Galán, Dirk Hofreuter
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading infectious causes of food-borne illness around the world. Its ability to persistently colonize the intestinal tract of a broad range of hosts, including food-producing animals, is central to its epidemiology since most infections are due to the consumption of contaminated food products. Using a highly saturated transposon insertion library combined with next-generation sequencing and a mouse model of infection, we have carried out a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the fitness determinants for growth in vitro and in vivo of a highly pathogenic strain of C...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540740/the-incomplete-glutathione-puzzle-just-guessing-at-numbers-and-figures
#16
Marcel Deponte
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione metabolism is comparable to a jigsaw puzzle with too many pieces. It supposably comprises (i) the reduction of disulfides, hydroperoxides, sulfenic acids and nitrosothiols, (ii) the detoxification of aldehydes, xenobiotics and heavy metals, and (iii) the synthesis of eicosanoids, steroids and iron-sulfur clusters. Furthermore, glutathione affects oxidative protein folding and redox signaling. Here, I review the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways with an emphasis on quantitative data...
May 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540373/in-vitro-cellular-behaviors-and-toxicity-assays-of-small-sized-fluorescent-silicon-nanoparticles
#17
Zhaohui Cao, Fei Peng, Zhilin Hu, Binbin Chu, Yiling Zhong, Yuanyuan Su, Sudan He, Yao He
Extensive investigations have been carried out for evaluating the toxicology of various nanomaterials (e.g., carbon- and metal-based nanomaterials), which offer invaluable information for assessing the feasibility of nanomaterial-based wide-ranging applications. In recent years, sufficient efforts have been made to develop fluorescent small-sized silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) as a novel optical material simultaneously featuring strong fluorescence and ultrahigh photostability, providing high promise for a myriad of biological, biomedical and electronic applications...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540258/horizontally-acquired-biosynthesis-genes-boost-coxiella-burnetii-s-physiology
#18
Abraham S Moses, Jess A Millar, Matteo Bonazzi, Paul A Beare, Rahul Raghavan
Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of acute Q fever and chronic endocarditis, has a unique biphasic life cycle, which includes a metabolically active intracellular form that occupies a large lysosome-derived acidic vacuole. C. burnetii is the only bacterium known to thrive within such an hostile intracellular niche, and this ability is fundamental to its pathogenicity; however, very little is known about genes that facilitate Coxiella's intracellular growth. Recent studies indicate that C. burnetii evolved from a tick-associated ancestor and that the metabolic capabilities of C...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540163/dissecting-the-role-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-human-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Jin Li, Liping Zhong, Fengzhong Wang, Haibo Zhu
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), known as a sensor and a master of cellular energy balance, integrates various regulatory signals including anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes. Accompanying the application of genetic methods and a plethora of AMPK agonists, rapid progress has identified AMPK as an attractive therapeutic target for several human diseases, such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative disease. The role of AMPK in metabolic and energetic modulation both at the intracellular and whole body levels has been reviewed elsewhere...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539641/revealing-the-insoluble-metasecretome-of-lignocellulose-degrading-microbial-communities
#20
Anna M Alessi, Susannah M Bird, Joseph P Bennett, Nicola C Oates, Yi Li, Adam A Dowle, Igor Polikarpov, J Peter W Young, Simon J McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce
Microbial communities metabolize plant biomass using secreted enzymes; however, identifying extracellular proteins tightly bound to insoluble lignocellulose in these microbiomes presents a challenge, as the rigorous extraction required to elute these proteins also lyses the microbes associated with the plant biomass releasing intracellular proteins that contaminate the metasecretome. Here we describe a technique for targeting the extracellular proteome, which was used to compare the metasecretome and meta-surface-proteome of two lignocellulose-degrading communities grown on wheat straw and rice straw...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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