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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644970/overexpression-of-populus%C3%A3-canescens-isoprene-synthase-gene-in-camelina-sativa-leads-to-alterations-in-its-growth-and-metabolism
#1
Lorenzo Rossi, Monica Borghi, Jinfen Yang, De-Yu Xie
Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a hemiterpene molecule. It has been estimated that the plant kingdom emits 500-750 million tons of isoprene in the environment, half of which results from tropical broadleaf trees and the remainder from shrubs. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is an emerging bioenergy plant for biodiesel. In this study, we characterized isoprene formation following a diurnal/nocturnal cycle in wild-type Camelina plants. To understand the potential effects of isoprene emission on this herbaceous plant, a gray poplar Populus×canescens isoprene synthase gene (PcISPS) was overexpressed in Camelina...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644842/investigation-of-discriminant-metabolites-in-tamoxifen-resistant-and-choline-kinase-alpha-downregulated-breast-cancer-cells-using-1h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#2
Hoe Suk Kim, Lianji Tian, Hyeonjin Kim, Woo Kyung Moon
Metabolites linked to changes in choline kinase-α (CK-α) expression and drug resistance, which contribute to survival and autophagy mechanisms, are attractive targets for breast cancer therapies. We previously reported that autophagy played a causative role in driving tamoxifen (TAM) resistance of breast cancer cells (BCCs) and was also promoted by CK-α knockdown, resulting in the survival of TAM-resistant BCCs. There is no comparative study yet about the metabolites resulting from BCCs with TAM-resistance and CK-α knockdown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644754/expression-of-enzymes-related-to-glucose-metabolism-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-prognosis
#3
Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Efthimios Sivridis, Stella Arelaki, Michael I Koukourakis
Purpose/Aim: Cancer cells are addicted to glycolytic anaerobic pathways, in presence or in absence of a functional Krebs' cycle (phenomenon Warburg). This metabolic predilection relies on both extracellular (impaired vascularization and oxygenation) and intracellular (oncogenic activation of genes) causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression and prognostic relevance of enzymes involved in the glucose absorption and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) expression, MCT1 and MCT2, pentose pathway (Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase G6PD), glycogene synthesis (glycogene synthase GYS1), glycolysis (Hexokinase HXKII, phosphofructokinase PFK1, fructose biphosphate aldolase), fate of pyruvate (pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH, phosphorylated pPDH, PDH kinase PDK1, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5 and LDH1) and key Kreb's cycle enzymes (citrate synthase CSynth and isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH)...
June 23, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642969/diverse-metabolic-effects-of-o-glcnacylation-in-the-pancreas-but-limited-effects-in-insulin-sensitive-organs-in-mice
#4
Shogo Ida, Katsutaro Morino, Osamu Sekine, Natsuko Ohashi, Shinji Kume, Tokuhiro Chano, Kanako Iwasaki, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: O-GlcNAcylation is characterised by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and serves in sensing intracellular nutrients by modulating various cellular processes. Although it has been speculated that O-GlcNAcylation is associated with glucose metabolism, its exact role in whole body glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether loss of O-GlcNAcylation globally and in specific organs affected glucose metabolism in mammals under physiological conditions...
June 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642760/interleukin-6-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-its-possible-importance-for-immunoregulation-and-as-a-therapeutic-target
#5
REVIEW
Tor Henrik Anderson Tvedt, Elisabeth Ersvaer, Anders Aune Tveita, Øystein Bruserud
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of treatment-related mortality mainly caused by infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD is characterized by severe immune dysregulation and impaired regeneration of different tissues, i.e., epithelial barriers and the liver. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine influences the risk of GVHD. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that previously has been associated with pro-inflammatory effects. However, more recent evidence from various autoimmune diseases (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642194/breaking-fat-the-regulation-and-mechanisms-of-lipophagy
#6
REVIEW
Ryan J Schulze, Aishwarya Sathyanarayan, Douglas G Mashek
Lipophagy is defined as the autophagic degradation of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs). While the field of lipophagy research is relatively young, an expansion of research in this area over the past several years has greatly advanced our understanding of lipophagy. Since its original characterization in fasted liver, the contribution of lipophagy is now recognized in various organisms, cell types, metabolic states and disease models. Moreover, recent studies provide exciting new insights into the underlying mechanisms of lipophagy induction as well as the consequences of lipophagy on cell metabolism and signaling...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642134/mitochondrial-potassium-channels-in-cell-death
#7
Vanessa Checchetto, Michele Azzolini, Roberta Peruzzo, Paola Capitanio, Luigi Leanza
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in several processes from bioenergetics to cell death. In the latest years, ion channels are arising as new possible targets in controlling several cellular functions. The discovery that several plasma membrane located ion channels have intracellular counterparts, has now implemented this consideration and the number of studies enforcing the understanding of their role in different metabolic pathways. In this review, we will discuss the recent updates in the field, focusing our attention on the involvement of potassium channels during mitochondrial mediated apoptotic cell death...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641986/novel-spectrophotometric-technique-for-rapid-determination-of-extractable-pha-using-sudan-black-dye
#8
Mauricio A Porras, Marcelo A Villar, María A Cubitto
Classical techniques employed to determine the amount of extractable poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) from cells, are laborious and destructive. Sudan black staining is commonly used in the laboratory to investigate the presence of intracellular PHA. The aim of the present study was to develop a low-cost alternative technique to achieve a quick determination of extractable intracellular PHA. This methodology employs a basic laboratory spectroscopy equipment and Sudan black dye for spectra determination. The correlation between the content of PHA in cell samples taken directly from the culture flask and its spectra was determined using partial least square regression analysis and simple linear regression analysis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641925/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-sialic-acid-production-after-oral-administration-of-n-acetylmannosamine-mannac-to-subjects-with-gne-myopathy
#9
Xin Xu, Amy Q Wang, Lea L Latham, Frank Celeste, Carla Ciccone, May Christine Malicdan, Barry Goldspiel, Pramod Terse, James Cradock, Nora Yang, Selwyn Yorke, John C McKew, William A Gahl, Marjan Huizing, Nuria Carrillo
GNE myopathy is a rare, autosomal recessive, inborn error of sialic acid metabolism, caused by mutations in GNE, the gene encoding UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. The disease manifests as an adult-onset myopathy characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. There is no medical therapy available for this debilitating disease. Hyposialylation of muscle glycoproteins likely contributes to the pathophysiology of this disease. N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc), an uncharged monosaccharide and the first committed precursor in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway, is a therapeutic candidate that prevents muscle weakness in the mouse model of GNE myopathy...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641473/co-targeting-intracellular-ph-and-essential-amino-acid-uptake-cooperates-to-induce-cell-death-of-t-all-ll-cells
#10
Véronique Imbert, Marielle Nebout, Didier Mary, Hitoshi Endou, Michael F Wempe, Claudiu T Supuran, Jean-Yves Winum, Jean-François Peyron
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to optimize their growth and proliferation in the host microenvironment. For this purpose, they enhance the uptake of extracellular nutrients and deal with the metabolic waste products through the overexpression of numerous membrane proteins including amino-acid transporters (LAT1) and acid-base regulating enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Here we describe the anti-tumoral effects of a new class of CAXII inhibitors, the glycosyl coumarins on T-ALL/LL cells. These effects appeared to be mediated through inhibition of mTOR/Akt pathway and c-myc downregulation...
June 22, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641207/ros-and-calcium-signaling-mediated-pathways-involved-in-stress-responses-of-the-marine-microalgae-dunaliella-salina-to-enhanced-uv-b-radiation
#11
Xinxin Zhang, Xuexi Tang, Ming Wang, Wei Zhang, Bin Zhou, You Wang
UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m(-2) per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#12
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640219/topical-application-of-trisodium-ascorbyl-6-palmitate-2-phosphate-actively-supplies-ascorbate-to-skin-cells-in-an-ascorbate-transporter-independent-manner
#13
Shuichi Shibuya, Ikuyo Sakaguchi, Shintaro Ito, Eiko Kato, Kenji Watanabe, Naotaka Izuo, Takahiko Shimizu
Ascorbic acid (AA) possesses multiple beneficial functions, such as regulating collagen biosynthesis and redox balance in the skin. AA derivatives have been developed to overcome this compound's high fragility and to assist with AA supplementation to the skin. However, how AA derivatives are transferred into cells and converted to AA in the skin remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that AA treatment failed to increase the cellular AA level in the presence of AA transporter inhibitors, indicating an AA transporter-dependent action...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639351/titanium-released-from-dental-implant-enhances-pre-osteoblast-adhesion-by-ros-modulating-crucial-intracellular-pathways
#14
M C Rossi, Fjb Bezerra, R A Silva, B P Crulhas, Cjc Fernandes, A S Nascimento, V A Pedrosa, P Padilha, W F Zambuzzi
It is important to understand the cellular and molecular events that occur at the cell-material interface of implants used for bone repair. The mechanisms involved in the initial stages of osteoblast interactions with the surface of the implant material must be decisive for cell fating surrounding them. In order to address this issue, we decided to investigate if conditioned medium for dental implants was able to modulate murine pre-osteoblast metabolism. First, we determined the concentration of titanium (Ti)-containing conditioned medium and found that it was 2-fold increased (p<0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639310/high-resolution-31-p-echo-planar-spectroscopic-imaging-in-vivo-at-7t
#15
Andreas Korzowski, Peter Bachert
PURPOSE: Conventional (31) P chemical shift imaging is time-consuming and yields only limited spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate feasibility of (31) P echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) in vivo at 7T. METHODS: A 3D (31) P EPSI sequence with trapezoidal-shaped gradient pulses was implemented on a 7T MR scanner. To increase spectral width with reduced demand on gradient performance, a multishot approach was chosen. Acquisition weighting and (31) P-{(1) H} double resonance for nuclear Overhauser signal enhancement were applied to increase sensitivity...
June 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638075/mycobacterial-heat-shock-protein-65-mediated-metabolic-shift-in-decidualization-of-human-endometrial-stromal-cells
#16
Elavarasan Subramani, Arun Prabhu Rameshbabu, Manivannan Jothiramajayam, Bhuvaneshwaran Subramanian, Debangana Chakravorty, Gunja Bose, Mamata Joshi, Chaitali Datta Ray, Indrani Lodh, Ratna Chattopadhyay, Sudipto Saha, Anita Mukherjee, Santanu Dhara, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Successful implantation is dependent on the appropriate decidualization of endometrial stromal cells for the establishment of pregnancy in women. Mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) is involved in pathogenesis of the genital tuberculosis (GTB), one of the common causes of infertility in emerging countries. Though implantation failure appears to be the major cause, understanding the status of decidualizaiton process in women diagnosed with GTB has not been thoroughly addressed. We, therefore, explored the effect of HSP65 protein on the endometrial cell metabolism during in vitro decidualization...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637825/we-know-more-than-we-can-tell-about-diabetes-and-vascular-disease-the-2016-edwin-bierman-award-lecture
#17
Clay F Semenkovich
The Edwin Bierman Award Lecture is presented in honor of the memory of Edwin L. Bierman, MD, an exemplary scientist, mentor, and leader in the field of diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. The award and lecture recognizes a leading scientist in the field of macrovascular complications and contributing risk factors in diabetes. Clay F. Semenkovich, MD, the Irene E. and Michael M. Karl Professor and Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research at Washington University School of Medicine in St...
July 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637808/dmt-efficiently-inhibits-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-involving-g%C3%AE-q-signaling-pathway
#18
Ting-Ting Zhou, Fei Ma, Xiao-Fan Shi, Xin Xu, Te Du, Xiao-Dan Guo, Gai-Hong Wang, Liang Yu, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Li-Hong Hu, Jing Chen, Xu Shen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease with complicated pathogenesis, and targeting gluconeogenesis inhibition is a promising strategy for anti-diabetic drug discovery. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified as distinct families by heterotrimeric G proteins, primarily including Gαs, Gαi and Gαq. Gαs-coupled GPCRs function potently in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and Gαi-coupled GPCRs exhibit inhibitory effect on adenylyl cyclase and reduce intracellular cAMP level...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636325/challenges-and-hallmarks-of-establishing-alkylacetylphosphonates-as-probes-of-bacterial-1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate-synthase
#19
Sara Sanders, Ryan J Vierling, David Bartee, Alicia A DeColli, Mackenzie J Harrison, Joseph L Aklinski, Andrew T Koppisch, Caren L Freel Meyers
1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase catalyzes the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent formation of DXP from pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. DXP is at a metabolic branch point in bacteria, feeding into the methylerythritol phosphate pathway to indispensable isoprenoids and acting as a precursor for biosynthesis of essential cofactors in central metabolism, pyridoxal phosphate and ThDP, the latter of which is also required for DXP synthase catalysis. DXP synthase follows a unique random sequential mechanism and possesses an unusually large active site...
June 21, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633967/the-effects-of-chronic-faah-inhibition-on-myocardial-lipid-metabolism-in-normotensive-and-doca-salt-hypertensive-rats
#20
Agnieszka Polak, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Barbara Malinowska, Irena Kasacka, Anna Pędzińska-Betiuk, Jolanta Weresa, Adrian Chabowski
AIMS: There is significant evidence that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) takes part in the regulation of the cardiovascular system in hypertension. It is quite well established that hypertension causes several changes in the heart metabolism, but it is still unknown whether the ECS affects this process. Therefore, we investigated the influence of prolonged ECS activation on myocardial lipid metabolism in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats by chronic fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition...
June 17, 2017: Life Sciences
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