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Diarrhea hiv children

Ceri Evans, Jean H Humphrey, Robert Ntozini, Andrew J Prendergast
The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother-infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
David Durand, Carmen A Contreras, Susan Mosquito, Joaquim Ruíz, Thomas G Cleary, Theresa J Ochoa
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute and persistent diarrhea among children, HIV-infected patients, and travelers to developing countries. We have searched for 18 genes-encoding virulence factors associated with aggregative adherence, dispersion, biofilm, toxins, serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) and siderophores, analyzed in 172 well-characterized EAEC strains (aggR(+)) isolated from stool samples of 97 children with diarrhea and 75 healthy controls from a passive surveillance diarrhea cohort study in Peru...
August 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Kevin A Sztam, Enju Liu, Karim P Manji, Roland Kupka, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie W Fawzi, Ronald J Bosch, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors, including maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), for diarrhea in Tanzanian children exposed to HIV during the first 2 years of life. STUDY DESIGN: Using generalized estimating equations, we analyzed data from a cohort of 2387 Tanzanian children exposed to HIV from age 6 weeks to 2 years, as well as data from their mothers, to determine risk factors for diarrhea in children. Mothers recorded diarrhea in a diary and reported results at visits scheduled every four weeks...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Melissa Van Arsdall, Ikram Haque, Yuying Liu, J Marc Rhoads
Twenty years ago, there was profound, international interest in developing oral human, bovine, or chicken egg-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) for the prevention and nutritional treatment of childhood malnutrition and gastrointestinal disease, including acute diarrhea and necrotizing enterocolitis. Although such Ig products were shown to be effective, with both nutritional and antidiarrheal benefits, interest waned because of their cost and because of the perceived risk of bovine serum encephalitis (BSE). BSE is no longer considered a barrier to use of oral Ig, because the WHO has declared the United States to be BSE-free since the early 2000s...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Hebatalla M Aldeyarbi, Nadia M T Abu El-Ezz, Panagiotis Karanis
The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries...
July 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michelle J Groome, Elizabeth R Zell, Fatima Solomon, Susan Nzenze, Umesh D Parashar, Alane Izu, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in African settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevalence is yet to be established. We evaluated trends in all-cause diarrheal hospitalizations in Soweto, Johannesburg, before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into South Africa's national immunization program in August 2009. METHODS: Hospitalizations in children <5 years of age with a diagnosis of diarrhea, defined byInternational Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revisioncodes A00-A05, A06...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Elizabeth R Wolf, Sara Beste, Emily Barr, Jenna Wallace, Elizabeth J McFarland, Mark J Abzug, Juliana Darrow, Ann Melvin
BACKGROUND: International adoption of HIV-infected children is becoming increasingly common. Their health has not yet been described. METHODS: HIV-infected international adoptees or refugees in foster care aged 0-20 years followed at Seattle Children's Hospital or Children's Hospital Colorado between January 1, 2004 and May 31, 2013 were included. Parameters were collected through retrospective chart review of baseline (first 6 months at study site) and annual follow-up visits...
April 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Zahra Movahedi, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Nasrin Keshavarz Valian, Farah Sabouni, Amitis Ramezani, Abbas Bahador, Setareh Mamishi
Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Marit G Tellevik, Sabrina J Moyo, Bjørn Blomberg, Torunn Hjøllo, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland, Kurt Hanevik
BACKGROUND: Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an unmatched case-control study among children < 2 years of age in Dar es Salaam, recruited from August 2010 to July 2011...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Samuel Kariuki, Robert S Onsare
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease causes severe bacteremic illness among adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and especially among children <5 years of age coinfected with HIV or malaria, or who are compromised by sickle cell disease or severe malnutrition. The incidence of iNTS disease in children ranges from 166 to 568 cases per 100,000 persons per year. METHODS: We review the epidemiology of iNTS disease and genomics of strains causing invasive illness in Kenya...
November 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Scott C Olson, Sherilyn Smith, Scott J Weissman, Matthew P Kronman
BACKGROUND: Although long treatment courses of outpatient antimicrobials are often used in pediatric patients, few data exist regarding the frequency of adverse events (AEs) associated with these medications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients seen in the Infectious Diseases clinic at a tertiary referral children's hospital from August 1, 2009 to August 1, 2011. We included patients who received ≥14 days of oral or intravenous antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal medications...
June 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
P B Pavlinac, D M Denno, G C John-Stewart, F M Onchiri, J M Naulikha, E A Odundo, C E Hulseberg, B O Singa, L E Manhart, J L Walson
BACKGROUND: Shigella is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend antibiotics for children in non cholera-endemic areas only in the presence of dysentery, a proxy for suspected Shigella infection. METHODS: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the syndromic diagnosis of Shigella-associated diarrhea, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting to 1 of 3 Western Kenya hospitals between November 2011 and July 2014 with acute diarrhea...
July 12, 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Noris Pavia-Ruz, Magdel Rossouw, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Torsak Bunupuradah, Mathew Taylor, Rong Yang, Heather Sevinsky, Mark Krystal, Max Lataillade, Daniel Seekins, Sophie Biguenet
BACKGROUND: AI266-922 was an open-label, dose-ranging study that assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of efavirenz (EFV) in children (3 months to 6 years). METHODS: Antiretroviral-naïve and antiretroviral-experienced HIV-1-infected children received once-daily EFV as oral solution or capsule sprinkle plus didanosine and emtricitabine (FTC). Pharmacokinetic analyses were undertaken at week 2 and repeated at weeks 10 and 18 after an EFV dose change or switch from oral solution to capsule sprinkle...
December 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Harry Poka, Trevor Duke
Diarrhoea is one of the commonest reasons children require health care in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Acute watery diarrhoea is the commonest form, and is due to viruses. Oral rehydration solution, zinc and continued breastfeeding are highly effective treatments that can be delivered in homes and health facilities. Antibiotics are not useful in acute watery diarrhoea--they make it worse. Deaths from acute watery diarrhoea should be rare if basic curative services are available. Persistent diarrhoea (lasting longer than 14 days) is commonly associated with other co-morbidities, including malnutrition, anaemia, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection, parasite (such as Giardia) or worm infections and environmental enteropathy...
September 2013: Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal
Nora M McCormick, Nan Li, David Sando, Aisa Muya, Karim P Manji, Rodrick Kisenge, Christopher Duggan, Guerino Chalamilla, Wafaie W Fawzi, Donna Spiegelman
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for loss to follow-up (LTFU) in an HIV-infected pediatric population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2004 and 2011. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of 6236 HIV-infected children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6236 pediatric patients enrolled in care and treatment in Dar es Salaam from October 2004 to September 2011. LTFU was defined as missing a clinic visit for >90 days for patients on ART and for >180 days for patients in care and monitoring...
November 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jérémie Ngezahayo, François Havyarimana, Léonard Hari, Caroline Stévigny, Pierre Duez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Infectious diseases represent a serious and worldwide public health problem. They lead to high mortality, especially in non-developed countries. In Burundi, the most frequent infectious diseases are skin and respiratory (mainly in children) infections, diarrhea, added to malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Local population used mostly traditional herbal medicines, sometimes animal and mineral substances, to fight against these plagues. OBJECTIVES: To survey in different markets and herbal shops in Bujumbura city, medicinal plants sold to treat microbial infections, with particular emphasis on the different practices of traditional healers (THs) regarding plant parts used, methods of preparation and administration, dosage and treatment duration...
September 15, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Christine M McDonald, Karim P Manji, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Donna Spiegelman, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
BACKGROUND: Although various micronutrient regimens have been shown to prevent and treat common infectious diseases in children, the effects of daily multivitamin (MV) and/or zinc supplementation have not been widely evaluated in young African infants. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether daily supplementation of HIV-unexposed Tanzanian infants with MVs or zinc reduces the risk of infectious morbidity compared with placebo. METHODS: In a 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 2400 infants who were 6 wk of age and born to HIV-negative mothers in a low-malaria setting were randomly assigned to receive daily oral supplementation of MVs (vitamin B complex and vitamins C and E), zinc, zinc + MVs, or placebo for 18 mo...
September 2015: Journal of Nutrition
Sumiti Vinayak, Mattie C Pawlowic, Adam Sateriale, Carrie F Brooks, Caleb J Studstill, Yael Bar-Peled, Michael J Cipriano, Boris Striepen
Recent studies into the global causes of severe diarrhoea in young children have identified the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium as the second most important diarrhoeal pathogen after rotavirus. Diarrhoeal disease is estimated to be responsible for 10.5% of overall child mortality. Cryptosporidium is also an opportunistic pathogen in the contexts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-caused AIDS and organ transplantation. There is no vaccine and only a single approved drug that provides no benefit for those in gravest danger: malnourished children and immunocompromised patients...
July 23, 2015: Nature
David Gathara, Mike English, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Jim Todd, Elizabeth Allen
BACKGROUND: Variability in processes of care and outcomes has been reported widely in high-income settings (at geographic, hospital, physician group and individual physician levels); however, such variability and the factors driving it are rarely examined in low-income settings. METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 22 hospitals (60 case records from each hospital) across Kenya that aimed at evaluating the quality of routine hospital services, we sought to explore variability in four binary inpatient paediatric process indicators...
2015: Implementation Science: IS
Michael Freemark
BACKGROUND: Millions of the world's children suffer from malnutrition, which predisposes to death from diarrhea and a variety of infectious diseases. Mortality rates among infants and toddlers remain staggeringly high, in part because the pathogenesis of acute malnutrition and its complications remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We used metabolomic analysis to characterize the metabolic status of Ugandan children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and to delineate changes in hormones, metabolites, growth factors, and cytokines during nutritional therapy...
March 2015: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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