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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474590/epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-in-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses
#1
REVIEW
Aashima Dabas, Dheeraj Shah, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Rakesh Lodha
CONTEXT: Cryptosporidium spp. is a zoonotic infection, now being recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. However, there still exist significant knowledge gaps in its estimated global burden, epidemiology, diagnosis and management. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A semi-systematic search was performed across PubMed to select studies on epidemiological burden of cryptosporidium diarrhea using the following keywords- ['crytosporidiosis' OR 'cryptosporidium'] AND ['diarrhea' OR 'diarrhoea']...
April 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459013/coccidian-intestinal-parasites-among-immunocompetent-children-presenting-with-diarrhea-are-we-missing-them
#2
Praveen Kumar, Omvati Vats, Dinesh Kumar, Sarman Singh
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is an important cause of both morbidity and mortality among children in India. Coccidian parasitic infections are an important cause of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, but their investigations are rarely sought by the treating physicians in seemingly immunocompetent children. This study was aimed to find the incidence rate of coccidian parasites in all children presented with diarrhoea, irrespective of their immune status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2015 and May 2016, all fecal samples from children aged between 0 and 15 years presenting with diarrhoea, irrespective of their immune status, were examined using conventional wet mount and modified acid-fast staining...
January 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431108/investments-in-children-s-health-and-the-kenyan-cash-transfer-for-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-evidence-from-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-scheme
#3
Carolyn Huang, Kavita Singh, Sudhanshu Handa, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death-pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria-are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions-all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. We examine whether Kenya's largest social protection impacts children's incidence of upper respiratory illness...
April 18, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367879/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-isolated-in-kawasaki-japan
#4
Akiko Kubomura, Takako Misaki, Sachiko Homma, Chiaki Matsuo, Nobuhiko Okabe
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an enteric pathogen, causes persistent diarrhea in children, HIV-infected individuals, and travelers in economically developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of EAEC infection is not well understood. The aim of this study is to characterize EAEC in Japan. During 2012-2014, we identified 40 EAEC strains carrying the aggR gene at the Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Japan. We characterized these strains using O:H-antigen typing, polymerase chain reaction (for pCVD432, astA, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and four aggregative adherence fimbriae genes), HEp-2 cell adherence, clump formation, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031190/risk-factors-for-death-in-children-during-inpatient-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Maren Jh Rytter, Esther Babirekere-Iriso, Hanifa Namusoke, Vibeke B Christensen, Kim F Michaelsen, Christian Ritz, Charlotte G Mortensen, Ezekiel Mupere, Henrik Friis
BACKGROUND: Children who receive in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition often have high mortality rates, and the reasons are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We assessed risk factors for death in children who were treated for malnutrition in a hospital. DESIGN: In a prospective observational study of 120 children who were receiving in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition in Uganda with therapeutic formulas F-75 and F-100, we collected data on symptoms, clinical findings, plasma markers of refeeding syndrome (electrolytes and phosphate), and acute phase reactants, and recorded the nutritional therapy given in hospital...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#6
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#7
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779831/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2014
#8
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375613/hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-zimbabwe-insights-into-health-outcomes-in-the-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#9
Ceri Evans, Jean H Humphrey, Robert Ntozini, Andrew J Prendergast
The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother-infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307104/pic-gene-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-and-its-association-with-diarrhea-in-peruvian-children
#10
David Durand, Carmen A Contreras, Susan Mosquito, Joaquim Ruíz, Thomas G Cleary, Theresa J Ochoa
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute and persistent diarrhea among children, HIV-infected patients, and travelers to developing countries. We have searched for 18 genes-encoding virulence factors associated with aggregative adherence, dispersion, biofilm, toxins, serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) and siderophores, analyzed in 172 well-characterized EAEC strains (aggR(+)) isolated from stool samples of 97 children with diarrhea and 75 healthy controls from a passive surveillance diarrhea cohort study in Peru...
August 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245295/maternal-antiretroviral-therapy-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-diarrhea-in-early-childhood
#11
Kevin A Sztam, Enju Liu, Karim P Manji, Roland Kupka, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie W Fawzi, Ronald J Bosch, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors, including maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), for diarrhea in Tanzanian children exposed to HIV during the first 2 years of life. STUDY DESIGN: Using generalized estimating equations, we analyzed data from a cohort of 2387 Tanzanian children exposed to HIV from age 6 weeks to 2 years, as well as data from their mothers, to determine risk factors for diarrhea in children. Mothers recorded diarrhea in a diary and reported results at visits scheduled every four weeks...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184280/is-there-a-role-for-the-enteral-administration-of-serum-derived-immunoglobulins-in-human-gastrointestinal-disease-and-pediatric-critical-care-nutrition
#12
REVIEW
Melissa Van Arsdall, Ikram Haque, Yuying Liu, J Marc Rhoads
Twenty years ago, there was profound, international interest in developing oral human, bovine, or chicken egg-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) for the prevention and nutritional treatment of childhood malnutrition and gastrointestinal disease, including acute diarrhea and necrotizing enterocolitis. Although such Ig products were shown to be effective, with both nutritional and antidiarrheal benefits, interest waned because of their cost and because of the perceived risk of bovine serum encephalitis (BSE). BSE is no longer considered a barrier to use of oral Ig, because the WHO has declared the United States to be BSE-free since the early 2000s...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126869/cryptosporidium-and-cryptosporidiosis-the-african-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Hebatalla M Aldeyarbi, Nadia M T Abu El-Ezz, Panagiotis Karanis
The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries...
July 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059355/temporal-association-of-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-and-reduction-in-all-cause-childhood-diarrheal-hospitalizations-in-south-africa
#14
Michelle J Groome, Elizabeth R Zell, Fatima Solomon, Susan Nzenze, Umesh D Parashar, Alane Izu, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in African settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevalence is yet to be established. We evaluated trends in all-cause diarrheal hospitalizations in Soweto, Johannesburg, before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into South Africa's national immunization program in August 2009. METHODS: Hospitalizations in children <5 years of age with a diagnosis of diarrhea, defined byInternational Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revisioncodes A00-A05, A06...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629872/health-outcomes-of-international-hiv-infected-adoptees-in-the-us
#15
Elizabeth R Wolf, Sara Beste, Emily Barr, Jenna Wallace, Elizabeth J McFarland, Mark J Abzug, Juliana Darrow, Ann Melvin
BACKGROUND: International adoption of HIV-infected children is becoming increasingly common. Their health has not yet been described. METHODS: HIV-infected international adoptees or refugees in foster care aged 0-20 years followed at Seattle Children's Hospital or Children's Hospital Colorado between January 1, 2004 and May 31, 2013 were included. Parameters were collected through retrospective chart review of baseline (first 6 months at study site) and annual follow-up visits...
April 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512710/epidemiology-of-children-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-stage-3-a-referral-hospital-based-study-in-iran
#16
Zahra Movahedi, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Nasrin Keshavarz Valian, Farah Sabouni, Amitis Ramezani, Abbas Bahador, Setareh Mamishi
Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452235/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-hominis-entamoeba-histolytica-and-giardia-lamblia-among-young-children-with-and-without-diarrhea-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#17
Marit G Tellevik, Sabrina J Moyo, Bjørn Blomberg, Torunn Hjøllo, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland, Kurt Hanevik
BACKGROUND: Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an unmatched case-control study among children < 2 years of age in Dar es Salaam, recruited from August 2010 to July 2011...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449947/epidemiology-and-genomics-of-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-infections-in-kenya
#18
REVIEW
Samuel Kariuki, Robert S Onsare
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease causes severe bacteremic illness among adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and especially among children <5 years of age coinfected with HIV or malaria, or who are compromised by sickle cell disease or severe malnutrition. The incidence of iNTS disease in children ranges from 166 to 568 cases per 100,000 persons per year. METHODS: We review the epidemiology of iNTS disease and genomics of strains causing invasive illness in Kenya...
November 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26407410/adverse-events-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-long-term-outpatient-antimicrobials
#19
Scott C Olson, Sherilyn Smith, Scott J Weissman, Matthew P Kronman
BACKGROUND: Although long treatment courses of outpatient antimicrobials are often used in pediatric patients, few data exist regarding the frequency of adverse events (AEs) associated with these medications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients seen in the Infectious Diseases clinic at a tertiary referral children's hospital from August 1, 2009 to August 1, 2011. We included patients who received ≥14 days of oral or intravenous antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal medications...
June 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26407270/failure-of-syndrome-based-diarrhea-management-guidelines-to-detect-shigella-infections-in-kenyan-children
#20
P B Pavlinac, D M Denno, G C John-Stewart, F M Onchiri, J M Naulikha, E A Odundo, C E Hulseberg, B O Singa, L E Manhart, J L Walson
BACKGROUND: Shigella is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend antibiotics for children in non cholera-endemic areas only in the presence of dysentery, a proxy for suspected Shigella infection. METHODS: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the syndromic diagnosis of Shigella-associated diarrhea, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting to 1 of 3 Western Kenya hospitals between November 2011 and July 2014 with acute diarrhea...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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