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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708853/a-method-to-reduce-heat-strain-while-clad-in-encapsulating-outerwear
#1
Dennis Grahn, Megha Makam, H Craig Heller
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) increases the risk of heat related maladies. A means to enhance heat dissipation capacity of individuals clad in PPE would be of benefit. The glabrous skin regions of the hands, face, and feet are portals for direct heat transfer between the body core and the external environment. The effects of PPE outerwear and palmar glabrous skin cooling on heat storage were assessed. Subjects engaged in fixed load treadmill exercise in a thermoneutral environment (Ta = 20 - 24ºC) or rested in a hot environment (45 ± 0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673428/ice-slurry-ingestion-and-physiological-strain-during-exercise-in-non-compensable-heat-stress
#2
Jason Ng, Jonathan E Wingo, Phillip A Bishop, Jason C Casey, Elizabeth K Aldrich
INTRODUCTION: Precooling with ice slurry ingestion attenuates the increase in rectal temperature (Tre) during subsequent running and cycling. It remains unclear how this cooling method affects physiological strain during work while wearing protective garments. This study investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion on physiological strain during work in hot conditions while wearing firefighter protective clothing. METHODS: In three counterbalanced trials, eight men (mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 2 yr, height = 179...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658098/efficacy-of-a-proactive-health-and-safety-risk-management-system-in-the-fire-service
#3
Gerald S Poplin, Stephanie Griffin, Keshia Pollack Porter, Joshua Mallett, Chengcheng Hu, Virginia Day-Nash, Jefferey L Burgess
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the efficacy of a fire department proactive risk management program aimed at reducing firefighter injuries and their associated costs. METHODS: Injury data were collected for the intervention fire department and a contemporary control department. Workers' compensation claim frequency and costs were analyzed for the intervention fire department only. Total, exercise, patient transport, and fireground operations injury rates were calculated for both fire departments...
April 16, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548770/comparison-of-sports-drink-versus-oral-rehydration-solution-during-exercise-in-the-heat
#4
Michael W Schleh, Charles L Dumke
INTRODUCTION: This study compared 2 commercially available beverages, an oral rehydration solution (ORS; 60.9 mM Na+ ; 3.4% carbohydrate) and a sports drink (SDS; 18.4 mM Na+; 5.9% carbohydrate), on hydration and metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. METHODS: Ten male subjects completed two 90-min exercise trials (39ºC, 30%) of walking at 50% VO2max followed by a 30-min rest period in the heat while wearing wildland firefighter personal protective clothing...
March 14, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409650/influence-of-work-clothing-on-physiological-responses-and-performance-during-treadmill-exercise-and-the-wildland-firefighter-pack-test
#5
Devin B Phillips, Cameron M Ehnes, Bradley G Welch, Lauren N Lee, Irina Simin, Stewart R Petersen
This study investigated physiological responses and performance during three separate exercise challenges (Parts I, II, and III) with wildland firefighting work clothing ensemble (boots and coveralls) and a 20.4 kg backpack in four conditions: U-EX (no pack, exercise clothing); L-EX (pack, exercise clothing); U-W (no pack, work clothing); and, L-W (pack and work clothing). Part I consisted of randomly-ordered graded exercise tests, on separate days, in U-EX, L-EX and L-W conditions. Part II consisted of randomly-ordered bouts of sub-maximal treadmill exercise in the four conditions...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409645/reflections-on-work-as-done-wad-and-work-as-imagined-wai-in-an-emergency-response-organization-a-study-on-firefighters-training-exercises
#6
Paulo Victor R de Carvalho, Angela W Righi, Gilbert J Huber, Caio de F Lemos, Alessandro Jatoba, José Orlando Gomes
Emergency response organizations need to be resilient to cope with escalating events resulting from dynamic, unexpected, or complex situations. In Brazil, the Firefighter Corps are military hierarchal organizations with a culture based on fixed structures, well defined norms and procedures. These push against innovations which are necessary to be resilient. This research describes how firefighter captains in the 30-35-year age range managed an emergency response escalation in light of standard operating procedures (SOPs) during a training exercise...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239981/effect-of-practice-on-performance-and-pacing-strategies-during-an-exercise-circuit-involving-load-carriage
#7
Catriona A Burdon, Joonhee Park, Kyoko Tagami, Herbert Groeller, John A Sampson
Burdon, CA, Park, J, Tagami, K, Groeller, H, and Sampson, JA. Effect of practice on performance and pacing strategies during an exercise circuit involving load carriage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 700-707, 2018-Pacing is critical for athletic endeavors, and the strategies used by athletes are often modified after practice. The importance of practice when completing occupational assessments has been established; however, the effect of load carriage and discrete subtask activities on strategies to modulate physical exertion to complete a work task simulation is currently unknown...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236997/impact-of-fire-suit-ensembles-on-firefighter-pah-exposures-as-assessed-by-skin-deposition-and-urinary-biomarkers
#8
Håkan Wingfors, Jenny Rattfelt Nyholm, Roger Magnusson, Cecilia Hammar Wijkmark
Over the past 10 years, a number of safety measures for reducing firefighters' exposure to combustion particles have been introduced in Sweden. The most important measure was the reduction in the time firefighters wear suits and handle contaminated equipment after turn-outs involving smoke diving. This study was divided into two parts, those being to investigate the level of protection obtained by multiple garment layers and to assess exposure during a standardized smoke diving exercise. First, realistic work protection factors (WPFs) were calculated by comparing air concentrations of the full suite of gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) inside and outside structural ensembles, including jacket and thick base layer, during a tough fire extinguishing exercise using wood as the fuel...
December 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223186/willingness-of-firefighting-program-students-to-work-in-disasters-turkey
#9
Edip Kaya, Hakan Altintas
Introduction Firefighting is an important profession during disasters. Firefighters are on duty for many vital functions, including fire extinguishing, search and rescue work, and evacuation of disaster victims to a safe zone. In case of a disaster situation, it is vital to have willing personnel to work in disasters. In the literature, type of disaster, individual demographic factors, family factors, and workplace factors have been identified as factors that influence health care personnel's willingness to work during a disaster...
February 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114230/the-effects-of-simulated-wildland-firefighting-tasks-on-core-temperature-and-cognitive-function-under-very-hot-conditions
#10
F Michael Williams-Bell, Brad Aisbett, Bernadette A Murphy, Brianna Larsen
Background: The severity of wildland fires is increasing due to continually hotter and drier summers. Firefighters are required to make life altering decisions on the fireground, which requires analytical thinking, problem solving, and situational awareness. This study aimed to determine the effects of very hot (45°C; HOT) conditions on cognitive function following periods of simulated wildfire suppression work when compared to a temperate environment (18°C; CON). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters intermittently performed a simulated fireground task for 3 h in both the CON and HOT environments, with cognitive function tests (paired associates learning and spatial span) assessed at baseline (cog 1) and during the final 20-min of each hour (cog 2, 3, and 4)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045708/association-between-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-dna-damage-in-human-volunteers-during-fire-extinction-exercises
#11
Maria Helena Guerra Andersen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Per Axel Clausen, Julie Elbæk Pedersen, Mille Løhr, Ali Kermanizadeh, Steffen Loft, Niels Ebbehøj, Åse Marie Hansen, Peter Bøgh Pedersen, Ismo Kalevi Koponen, Eva-Carina Nørskov, Peter Møller, Ulla Vogel
This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood with electrical cords and mattresses. The personal exposure was measured as dermal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976263/physiological-and-perceptual-strain-of-firefighters-during-graded-exercise-to-exhaustion-at-40-and-10-%C3%A2-c
#12
Erna von Heimburg, Mariann Sandsund, Tone Pedersen Rangul, Randi Eidsmo Reinertsen
PURPOSE: To study whether perceptual identification should be included as a measure to evaluate physiological stress. METHODS: Physiological variables oxygen uptake (VO2 ), ventilation, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rectal temperature (Trec ) and mean skin temperature, and perceptual variables rate of perceived exertion, thermal sensation and time to exhaustion, were measured at submaximal and maximal intensities during graded exercise on a treadmill to exhaustion in 12 firefighters wearing protective clothing and extra mass at 40 and 10 °C...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912742/perception-action-and-cognition-of-football-referees-in-extreme-temperatures-impact-on-decision-performance
#13
Nadia Gaoua, Rita F de Oliveira, Steve Hunter
Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906347/exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-with-firefighting-contained-breathing-apparatus
#14
Leigh M Seccombe, Lachlan Buddle, John D Brannan, Matthew J Peters, Claude S Farah
PURPOSE: Protective self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) used for firefighting delivers decompressed (cold) dehumidified air that may enhance the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in those susceptible. We investigated the effect of SCBA during exercise on airway caliber in people with asthma and healthy controls. METHODS: Two exercise challenges (EC) designed to elicit EIB were performed on separate days within 1 wk. The initial challenge was breathing room air (ECRA) with workload titrated to elicit >60% estimated maximum voluntary ventilation...
February 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878694/physiological-responses-to-firefighting-in-extreme-temperatures-do-not-compare-to-firefighting-in-temperate-conditions
#15
Stephanie Windisch, Wolfgang Seiberl, Daniel Hahn, Ansgar Schwirtz
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine physiological responses to two different simulated firefighting exercises: a firefighting exercise with flashovers, smoke, poor visibility and extreme temperatures (300°) in a burning container and a standard firefighting exercise in temperate conditions. Furthermore, a second purpose of the study was to find out if the contribution of strength and endurance capacities to firefighting performance changes when the demands of the firefighting exercise change. Methods: Sixteen professional firefighters performed a maximum treadmill test, strength testing, a standard simulated firefighting exercise (SFE) without heat and flashovers and a firefighting exercise with a simulation of the flashover phenomenon in a burning container (FOT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877717/cardiovascular-health-effects-following-exposure-of-human-volunteers-during-fire-extinction-exercises
#16
Maria Helena Guerra Andersen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Peter Bøgh Pedersen, Steffen Loft, Åse Marie Hansen, Ismo Kalevi Koponen, Julie Elbæk Pedersen, Niels Ebbehøj, Eva-Carina Nørskov, Per Axel Clausen, Anne Helene Garde, Ulla Vogel, Peter Møller
BACKGROUND: Firefighters have increased risk of cardiovascular disease and of sudden death from coronary heart disease on duty while suppressing fires. This study investigated the effect of firefighting activities, using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), on biomarkers of cardiovascular effects in young conscripts training to become firefighters. METHODS: Healthy conscripts (n = 43) who participated in a rescue educational course for firefighting were enrolled in the study...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689475/comparisons-between-shikoro-type-helmet-with-no-hood-and-typical-fire-protective-helmets-with-hood-in-a-hot-and-humid-environment
#17
Yoon Jeong Baek, Dahee Jung, Su-Young Son, Joo-Young Lee
The purpose of this study was to evaluate physiological and subjective responses while wearing the Shikoro-type helmet for firefighters when compared to typical helmets. Eight firefighters conducted a 30-min exercise at a 5 km h-1 in three helmet conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C with 70%RH. The results showed that no significant differences in rectal, mean skin temperature and physiological strain index among the three conditions were found during exercise and recovery. Skin temperatures on the cheek, ear and neck during exercise were significantly lower for the Shikoro-type condition (p < 0...
March 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652921/comparison-of-facet-joint-degeneration-in-firefighters-and-hospital-office-workers
#18
Dong Hyun Kim, Yon Soo An, Hyung Doo Kim, Kyoung Sook Jeong, Yeon-Soon Ahn, Kun-Hyung Kim, Youngki Kim, Han-Soo Song, Chul-Gab Lee, Young-Jun Kwon, Jin-Ha Yoon
BACKGROUND: There are few published studies on the relationship between occupational lumbar load and facet joint degeneration (FJD). This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effect of physical lumbar load on FJD by comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of firefighters (FFs) and hospital office workers (HOWs). METHODS: We randomly sampled 341 male FFs and 80 male HOWs by age stratification. A questionnaire and clinical examination, including MRI of the lumbar spine (T12-S1), were conducted...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650351/changes-in-health-and-fitness-in-firefighter-recruits-an-observational-cohort-study
#19
David J Cornell, Stacy L Gnacinski, Barbara B Meyer, Kyle T Ebersole
PURPOSE: To observe longitudinal changes in health and fitness among firefighter recruits. METHODS: Body composition, aerobic capacity, muscular power, muscular strength, and muscular endurance measures were longitudinally collected among 27 male firefighter recruits (mean ± SD, age = 29.9 ± 4.1 yr; height, 179.8 ± 4.6 cm; body mass, 87.2 ± 9.7 kg) at the beginning (W1) and end (W14) of their firefighter training academy, as well as at the end of their probationary period (W38)...
November 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609218/lung-function-measures-following-simulated-wildland-firefighter-exposures
#20
Matthew D Ferguson, Erin O Semmens, Emily Weiler, Joe Domitrovich, Mary French, Christopher Migliaccio, Charles Palmer, Charles Dumke, Tony Ward
Across the world, biomass smoke is a major source of air pollution and is linked with a variety of adverse health effects. This is particularly true in the western U.S. where wood smoke from wildland forest fires are a significant source of PM2.5. Wildland firefighters are impacted as they experience elevated PM2.5 concentrations over extended periods of time, often occurring during physical exertion. Various epidemiological studies have investigated wood smoke impacts on human health, including occupational field exposures experienced by wildland firefighters...
September 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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