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Outer membrane vesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103440/carbon-nanotubes-mediate-fusion-of-lipid-vesicles
#1
Ramachandra Moorthy Bhaskara, Stephanie M Linker, Martin Vögele, Juergen Koefinger, Gerhard Hummer
The fusion of lipid membranes is opposed by high energetic barriers. In living organisms, complex protein machineries carry out this biologically essential process. Here we show that membrane-spanning carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can trigger spontaneous fusion of small lipid vesicles. In coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we find that a CNT bridging between two vesicles locally perturbs their lipid structure. Their outer leaflets merge as the CNT pulls lipids out of the membranes, creating an hourglass-shaped fusion intermediate with still intact inner leaflets...
January 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076814/gsmtx4-mechanism-of-inhibiting-mechanosensitive-ion-channels
#2
Radhakrishnan Gnanasambandam, Chiranjib Ghatak, Anthony Yasmann, Kazuhisa Nishizawa, Frederick Sachs, Alexey S Ladokhin, Sergei I Sukharev, Thomas M Suchyna
GsMTx4 is a spider venom peptide that inhibits cationic mechanosensitive channels (MSCs). It has six lysine residues that have been proposed to affect membrane binding. We synthesized six analogs with single lysine-to-glutamate substitutions and tested them against Piezo1 channels in outside-out patches and independently measured lipid binding. Four analogs had ∼20% lower efficacy than the wild-type (WT) peptide. The equilibrium constants calculated from the rates of inhibition and washout did not correlate with the changes in inhibition...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068479/secretable-small-rnas-via-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-periodontal-pathogens
#3
J-W Choi, S-C Kim, S-H Hong, H-J Lee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. However, bacterial RNAs comparable in size to eukaryotic miRNAs (18-22 nucleotides) have received little attention. Recently, a novel class of small RNAs similar in size to miRNAs (miRNA-size, small RNAs or msRNAs) have also been found in several bacteria. Like miRNAs, msRNAs are approximately 15 to 25 nucleotides in length, and their precursors are predicted to form a hairpin loop secondary structure. Here, we identified msRNAs in the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062565/the-biology-of-ciliary-dynamics
#4
Kuo-Shun Hsu, Jen-Zen Chuang, Ching-Hwa Sung
The cilium is an evolutionally conserved apical membrane protrusion that senses and transduces diverse signals to regulate a wide range of cellular activities. The cilium is dynamic in length, structure, and protein composition. Dysregulation of ciliary dynamics has been linked with ciliopathies and other human diseases. The cilium undergoes cell-cycle-dependent assembly and disassembly, with ciliary resorption linked with G1-S transition and cell-fate choice. In the resting cell, the cilium remains sensitive to environmental cues for remodeling during tissue homeostasis and repair...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060409/immunization-of-mice
#5
Tomás Maira-Litrán
The selection of an appropriate immunization strategy depends largely on the properties of an antigen, including its nature, purity, solubility, and availability. This unit describes the critical steps in the production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against soluble molecules (such as proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, or hapten-conjugate vaccines), complex antigens (such as whole pathogens or outer membrane vesicles), and antigens embedded in or eluted from gel matrix following electrophoresis...
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058411/spontaneous-formation-of-nanometer-scale-tubular-vesicles-in-aqueous-mixtures-of-lipid-and-block-copolymer-amphiphiles
#6
Seng Koon Lim, Andrew S W Wong, Hans-Peter M de Hoog, Padmini Rangamani, Atul N Parikh, Madhavan Nallani, Sara Sandin, Bo Liedberg
Many common amphiphiles self-assemble in water to produce heterogeneous populations of discrete and symmetric but polydisperse and multilamellar vesicles isolating the encapsulated aqueous core from the surrounding bulk. But when mixtures of amphiphiles of vastly different elastic properties co-assemble, their non-uniform molecular organization can stabilize lower symmetries and produce novel shapes. Here, using high resolution electron cryomicroscopy and tomography, we identify the spontaneous formation of a membrane morphology consisting of unilamellar tubular vesicles in dilute aqueous solutions of binary mixtures of two different amphiphiles of vastly different origins...
January 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050585/dataset-of-the-proteome-of-purified-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-the-human-pathogen-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomintans
#7
Thomas Kieselbach, Jan Oscarsson
The Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen, which is linked to aggressive forms of periodontitis and can be associated with endocarditis. The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of this species contain effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and leukotoxin (LtxA), which they can deliver into human host cells. The OMVs can also activate innate immunity through NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This dataset provides a proteome of highly purified OMVs from A...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036315/evaluation-of-the-immunogenic-property-of-nt-h-influenzae-protein-d-with-neisseria-meningitidis-omv-in-balb-c
#8
Ava Behrouzi, Saeid Bouzari, Seyed Davar Siadat, Mana Oloomi, Mehdi Davari, Hoora Mazaheri
INTRODUCTION: Identifying ideal non typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) vaccine candidates has not been easy due to extensive sequence and antigenic variation among gene products interacting with the immune system. Protein D (PD) is a highly conserved 42 kDa surface lipoprotein available in all H. influenzae, including NTHi. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the gene encoding PD was cloned from H. influenzae and expressed in Escheriachia coli TOPO10 cell in pBAD vector...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035602/proteomic-characterization-of-the-outer-membrane-vesicle-of-the-halophilic-marine-bacterium-novosphingobium-pentaromativorans-us6-1
#9
Sung Ho Yun, Sang-Yeop Lee, Chi-Won Choi, Hayoung Lee, Hyun-Joo Ro, Sangmi Jun, Yong Min Kwon, Kae Kyoung Kwon, Sang-Jin Kim, Gun-Hwa Kim, Seung Il Kim
Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1 is a Gram-negative halophilic marine bacterium able to utilize several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. In this study, using transmission electron microscopy, we confirmed that N. pentaromativorans US6-1 produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). N. pentaromativorans OMVs (hereafter OMVNovo) are spherical in shape, and the average diameter of OMVNovo is 25-70 nm. Proteomic analysis revealed that outer membrane proteins and periplasmic proteins of N...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031283/diversification-of-the-alpb-outer-membrane-protein-of-helicobacter-pylori-affects-biofilm-formation-and-cellular-adhesion
#10
Hideo Yonezawa, Takako Osaki, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Tomoko Hanawa, Satoshi Kurata, Cynthia Zaman, Fuhito Hojo, Shigeru Kamiya
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in humans and forms biofilms on human gastric mucosal epithelium as well as on in vitro abiotic surfaces. Bacterial biofilm is critical not only for environmental survival but also for successful infection. We previously demonstrated that strain TK1402, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with duodenal and gastric ulcers, has a high biofilm forming ability in vitro relative to other strains. In addition, we showed that outer membrane vesicles (OMV) play an important role in biofilm formation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026009/transcriptomic-profiling-of-platelet-senescence-and-platelet-extracellular-vesicles
#11
Annika Pienimaeki-Roemer, Tatiana Konovalova, Melina M Musri, Alexander Sigruener, Alfred Boettcher, Gunter Meister, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Platelets (PLTs) are derived from megakaryocytes during PLT shedding. Senescent or activated PLTs are expanded in vascular and neurological diseases and release PLT extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs). A systematic analysis of regular messenger RNA (mRNA) and small RNA composition in PLTs and PL-EVs during in vitro PLT senescence has not yet been published. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We isolated PLTs, total PL-EVs, and PL-EV subsets on Days 0 and 5 from human stored donor platelet concentrates...
January 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024958/outer-membrane-vesicles-harboring-modified-lipid-a-moiety-augment-the-efficacy-of-an-influenza-vaccine-exhibiting-reduced-endotoxicity-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Tae-Young Lee, Chang-Ung Kim, Eun-Hye Bae, Sang-Hwan Seo, Dae Gwin Jeong, Sun-Woo Yoon, Kyu-Tae Chang, Young Sang Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Doo-Jin Kim
Influenza is an acute respiratory disease and a major health problem worldwide. Since mucosal immunity plays a critical role in protection against influenza virus infection, mucosal immunization is considered a promising vaccination route. However, except for live-attenuated vaccines, there are no effective killed or recombinant mucosal influenza vaccines to date. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized vesicles produced by gram-negative bacteria, and contain various bacterial components capable of stimulating the immune system of the host...
December 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019693/relaxation-of-dna-supercoiling-leads-to-increased-invasion-of-epithelial-cells-and-protein-secretion-by-campylobacter-jejuni
#13
Eoin Scanlan, Laura Ardill, Matthew V X Whelan, Claire Shortt, Jarlath E Nally, Billy Bourke, Tadhg Ó Cróinín
Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni is a critical step during infection of the intestine by this important human pathogen. In this study we investigated the role played by DNA supercoiling in the regulation of invasion of epithelial cells and the mechanism by which this could be mediated. A significant correlation between more relaxed DNA supercoiling and an increased ability of C. jejuni strains to penetrate human epithelial cells was demonstrated. Directly inducing relaxation of DNA supercoiling in C...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018313/outer-membrane-vesicles-and-soluble-factors-released-by-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-commensal-ecor63-enhance-barrier-function-by-regulating-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#14
Carina-Shianya Alvarez, Josefa Badia, Manel Bosch, Rosa Giménez, Laura Baldomà
The gastrointestinal epithelial layer forms a physical and biochemical barrier that maintains the segregation between host and intestinal microbiota. The integrity of this barrier is critical in maintaining homeostasis in the body and its dysfunction is linked to a variety of illnesses, especially inflammatory bowel disease. Gut microbes, and particularly probiotic bacteria, modulate the barrier integrity by reducing gut permeability and reinforcing tight junctions. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a good colonizer of the human gut with proven therapeutic efficacy in the remission of ulcerative colitis in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013502/fluorescence-and-absorbance-spectroscopy-methods-to-study-membrane-perturbations-by-antimicrobial-host-defense-peptides
#15
Mauricio Arias, Hans J Vogel
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently intensely studied because of their potential as new bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents. The mechanism of action of numerous AMPs involves the permeabilization of bacterial membranes. Several methods have been developed to study peptide-membrane interactions; in particular optical spectroscopy methods are widely used. The intrinsic fluorescence properties of the Trp indole ring in Trp-containing AMPs can be exploited by measuring the fluorescence blue shift and acrylamide-induced fluorescence quenching...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010142/outer-membrane-vesicles-an-attractive-candidate-for-pertussis-vaccines
#16
Daniela F Hozbor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008331/a-meningococcal-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-incorporating-genetically-attenuated-endotoxin-dissociates-inflammation-from-immunogenicity
#17
David J Dowling, Holly Sanders, Wing Ki Cheng, Sweta Joshi, Spencer Brightman, Ilana Bergelson, Carlo Pietrasanta, Simon D van Haren, Sandra van Amsterdam, Jeffrey Fernandez, Germie P J M van den Dobbelsteen, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing Gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB) disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific human in vitro culture systems...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998775/in%C3%A2-vitro-effects-of-the-anti-alzheimer-drug-memantine-on-the-human-erythrocyte-membrane-and-molecular-models
#18
Pablo Zambrano, Mario Suwalsky, Fernando Villena, Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska, Kazimierz Strzalka
Memantine is a NMDA antagonist receptor clinically used for treating Alzheimer's disease. NMDA receptors are present in the human neurons and erythrocyte membranes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of memantine on human erythrocytes. With this purpose, the drug was developed to in vitro interact with human red cells and bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE). The latter represent lipids respectively present in both outer and inner monolayers of the red cell membrane...
December 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991712/targeting-of-tail-anchored-membrane-proteins-to-subcellular-organelles-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#19
Leah R Padgett, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, William J Sullivan
Proper protein localization is essential for critical cellular processes, including vesicle-mediated transport and protein translocation. Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are integrated into organellar membranes via the C-terminus, orienting the N-terminus towards the cytosol. Localization of TA proteins occurs posttranslationally and is governed by the C-terminus, which contains the integral transmembrane domain (TMD) and targeting sequence. Targeting of TA proteins is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the TMD as well as the length and composition of flanking amino acid sequences...
December 19, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973779/concatemers-of-outer-membrane-protein-a-take-detours-in-the-folding-landscape
#20
Kell K Andersen, Brian Vad, Sahar Omer, Daniel E Otzen
Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is the most abundant protein in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. The N-terminal domain forms an eight-stranded membrane-embedded β-barrel that is widely used as a model protein for in vitro folding into the membrane and into surfactant micelles. Under conditions that include a low surfactant concentration, OmpA can form stable higher-order structures by intermolecular association. Other β-barrel membrane proteins also associate to form noncovalently linked trimers in vivo...
December 27, 2016: Biochemistry
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