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Outer membrane vesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920125/structures-of-human-mitofusin-1-provide-insight-into-mitochondrial-tethering
#1
Yuanbo Qi, Liming Yan, Caiting Yu, Xiangyang Guo, Xin Zhou, Xiaoyu Hu, Xiaofang Huang, Zihe Rao, Zhiyong Lou, Junjie Hu
Mitochondria undergo fusion and fission. The merging of outer mitochondrial membranes requires mitofusin (MFN), a dynamin-like GTPase. How exactly MFN mediates membrane fusion is poorly understood. Here, we determined crystal structures of a minimal GTPase domain (MGD) of human MFN1, including the predicted GTPase and the distal part of the C-terminal tail (CT). The structures revealed that a helix bundle (HB) formed by three helices extending from the GTPase and one extending from the CT closely attaches to the GTPase domain, resembling the configuration of bacterial dynamin-like protein...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911359/directed-protein-packaging-within-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-design-production-and-purification
#2
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Scott A Walper
An increasing interest in applying synthetic biology techniques to program outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are leading to some very interesting and unique applications for OMV where traditional nanoparticles are proving too difficult to synthesize. To date, all Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to produce OMV demonstrating packaging of a variety of cargo that includes small molecules, peptides, proteins and genetic material. Based on their diverse cargo, OMV are implicated in many biological processes ranging from cell-cell communication to gene transfer and delivery of virulence factors depending upon which bacteria are producing the OMV...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905535/bordetella-pertussis-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-confers-equal-efficacy-in-mice-with-milder-inflammatory-responses-compared-to-a-whole-cell-vaccine
#3
René H M Raeven, Jolanda Brummelman, Jeroen L A Pennings, Larissa van der Maas, Wichard Tilstra, Kina Helm, Elly van Riet, Wim Jiskoot, Cécile A C M van Els, Wanda G H Han, Gideon F A Kersten, Bernard Metz
The demand for improved pertussis vaccines is urgent due to the resurgence of whooping cough. A deeper understanding of the mode of action of pertussis vaccines is required to achieve this improvement. The vaccine-induced effects of a candidate outer membrane vesicle vaccine (omvPV) and a classical protective but reactogenic whole cell vaccine (wPV) were comprehensively compared in mice. The comparison revealed essential qualitative and quantitative differences with respect to immunogenicity and adverse effects for these vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890399/a-partially-purified-outer-membrane-protein-virb9-1-for-low-cost-nanovaccines-against-anaplasma-marginale
#4
Liang Zhao, Antonino S Cavallaro, David Wibowo, Bing Zhang, Jun Zhang, Neena Mitter, Chengzhong Yu, Chun-Xia Zhao, Anton P J Middelberg
Anaplasma marginale is a devastating tick-borne pathogen causing anaplasmosis in cattle and results in significant economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide. Currently, there is no widely accepted vaccine against A. marginale. New generation subunit vaccines against A. marginale, which are much safer, more efficient and cost-effective, are in great need. The A. marginale outer membrane protein VirB9-1 is a promising antigen for vaccination. We previously have shown that soluble recombinant VirB9-1 protein can be expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and induce a high level of humoral and cellular immunity in mice...
November 24, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887986/isolation-of-bacterial-compartments-to-track-movement-of-protein-synthesis-factors
#5
Hanchao Zhao, Susan Martinis
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) comprise an enzyme family that generates and maintains pools of aminoacylated tRNAs, which serve as essential substrates for protein synthesis. Many protein synthesis factors, including tRNA and AARS also have non-canonical functions. Particularly in mammalian cells, alternate functions of AARSs have been associated with re-distribution in the cell to sites that are removed from translation. Sub-fractionation methods for E. coli were designed and optimized to carefully investigate re-localization of bacterial AARSs and tRNA that might aid in conferring alternate activities...
November 22, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882863/porphyromonas-gingivalis-suppresses-adaptive-immunity-in-periodontitis-atherosclerosis-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ingar Olsen, Martin A Taubman, Sim K Singhrao
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, has been found to associate with remote body organ inflammatory pathologies, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although P. gingivalis has a plethora of virulence factors, much of its pathogenicity is surprisingly related to the overall immunosuppression of the host. This review focuses on P. gingivalis aiding suppression of the host's adaptive immune system involving manipulation of cellular immunological responses, specifically T cells and B cells in periodontitis and related conditions...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858524/the-fhab-fhac-two-partner-secretion-system-is-involved-in-adhesion-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-abh12o-a2-strain
#7
A Pérez, M Merino, S Rumbo-Feal, L Álvarez-Fraga, J A Vallejo, A Beceiro, E J Ohneck, J Mateos, P Fernández-Puente, L A Actis, M Poza, G Bou
Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that shows an extraordinary capacity to stay in the hospital environment. Adherence of the bacteria to eukaryotic cells or to abiotic surfaces is the first step for establishing an infection. The A. baumannii strain AbH12O-A2 showed an exceptional ability to adhere to A549 epithelial cells. The AbFhaB/FhaC two-partner secretion (TPS) system involved in adhesion was discovered after the screening of the recently determined A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain genome (CP009534...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849050/employing-escherichia-coli-derived-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-an-antigen-delivery-platform-elicits-protective-immunity-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection
#8
Weiwei Huang, Shijie Wang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Xu Yang, Kui Li, Pengyan Sun, Cunbao Liu, Wenjia Sun, Hongmei Bai, Xiaojie Chu, Yang Li, Yanbing Ma
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs)...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844088/interaction-between-charged-nanoparticles-and-vesicles-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#9
Linying Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Xiaowei Zhao, Zheng Mao, Na Liu, Youyu Zhang, Qing Huo Liu
An enhanced understanding of the interactions between charged nanoparticles (CNPs) and a curved vesicle membrane may have important implications for the design of nanocarrier agents and drug delivery systems. In this work, coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations of the CNPs with vesicles were performed to evaluate the effects of hydrophobicity, surface charge density and distribution on the curved vesicle membrane. The simulations reveal that there exist four distinct modes (insertion, repulsion, adhesion, and penetration) in the CNP-vesicle interaction...
November 15, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834207/polymorphic-regulation-of-outer-membrane-lipid-a-composition
#10
Russell E Bishop
The importance of the polymorphic-phase behavior of lipid A structural variations in determining their endotoxic activities has been recognized previously, but any potential role for lipid A polymorphism in controlling outer membrane structure and function has been largely ignored until now. In a recent article in mBio [7(5):e01532-16, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01532-16], Katherine E. Bonnington and Meta J. Kuehn of Duke University's Department of Biochemistry make a compelling case for considering how the molecular shapes of the various lipid A structural subtypes found in the outer membrane contribute to the process of outer membrane vesicle (OMV) formation...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826542/characterization-of-innate-immune-responses-of-human-endothelial-cells-induced-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-their-derived-outer-membrane-vesicles
#11
Meng-Hsuan Ho, Zhong-Mao Guo, Julio Chunga, J Shawn Goodwin, Hua Xie
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the blood vessels, is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Involvement of Porphyromonas gingivalis in atherosclerosis is supported by observations from epidemiological, clinical, immunological, and molecular studies. Previously we reported that P. gingivalis vesicles have a much higher invasive efficiency than their originating cells. Here, we further compare the role of P. gingivalis cells and their vesicles in expression of chemoattractant proteins including CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8, and adhesive molecules such as E-selectin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824343/membrane-vesicles-in-sea-water-heterogeneous-dna-content-and-implications-for-viral-abundance-estimates
#12
Steven J Biller, Lauren D McDaniel, Mya Breitbart, Everett Rogers, John H Paul, Sallie W Chisholm
Diverse microbes release membrane-bound extracellular vesicles from their outer surfaces into the surrounding environment. Vesicles are found in numerous habitats including the oceans, where they likely have a variety of functional roles in microbial ecosystems. Extracellular vesicles are known to contain a range of biomolecules including DNA, but the frequency with which DNA is packaged in vesicles is unknown. Here, we examine the quantity and distribution of DNA associated with vesicles released from five different bacteria...
November 8, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796471/deletion-of-degq-gene-enhances-outer-membrane-vesicle-production-of-shewanella-oneidensis-cells
#13
Yoshihiro Ojima, Thivagaran Mohanadas, Kosei Kitamura, Shota Nunogami, Reiki Yajima, Masahito Taya
Shewanella oneidensis is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that can use a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. In this study, S. oneidensis degQ gene, encoding a putative periplasmic serine protease, was cloned and expressed. The activity of purified DegQ was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, a typical serine protease-specific inhibitor, indicating that DegQ is a serine protease. In-frame deletion and subsequent complementation of the degQ were carried out to examine the effect of envelope stress on the production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)...
October 31, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795394/outer-membrane-vesicle-production-facilitates-lps-remodeling-and-outer-membrane-maintenance-in-salmonella-during-environmental-transitions
#14
Katherine E Bonnington, Meta J Kuehn
: The ability of Gram-negative bacteria to carefully modulate outer membrane (OM) composition is essential to their survival. However, the asymmetric and heterogeneous structure of the Gram-negative OM poses unique challenges to the cell's successful adaption to rapid environmental transitions. Although mechanisms to recycle and degrade OM phospholipid material exist, there is no known mechanism by which to remove unfavorable lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycoforms, except slow dilution through cell growth...
October 18, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795359/immunity-provided-by-an-outer-membrane-vesicle-cholera-vaccine-is-due-to-o-antigen-specific-antibodies-inhibiting-bacterial-motility
#15
Zhu Wang, David W Lazinski, Andrew Camilli
An outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-based cholera vaccine is highly efficacious in preventing intestinal colonization in the suckling mouse model. Immunity from OMVs comes from immunoglobulin (Ig), particularly IgG, in the milk of mucosally immunized dams. Anti-OMV IgG renders Vibrio cholerae immotile, thus they pass through the small intestine without colonizing. However, the importance of motility inhibition for protection, and the mechanism by which motility is inhibited, remain unclear. By using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that IgG inhibits motility by specifically binding to the O-antigen of V...
October 24, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794497/ucp1-a-sophisticated-energy-valve
#16
REVIEW
Martin Klingenberg
This review focuses on the biochemical work of UCP1 starting from the early observation by Ricquier and Kader in 1976. We entered this field in 1980 with the isolation of native UCP1 and then reported the amino acid sequence structure discovering a strong homology to the ADP/ATP carrier. With the isolated native UCP1 we studied structural and functional features, in particular the complex characteristics of nucleotide binding. A strong pH dependence of binding and herein the differences between diphopho- and triphopho-nucleotides were observed, resulting in the identification of residues which control binding site access by their H(+) dissociation...
October 26, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790431/the-role-of-vibrio-cholerae-haemagglutinin-protease-hap-in-extra-intestinal-infection
#17
Amit Ghosh, Hemanta Koley, Amit Pal
INTRODUCTION: Based on the diversity of surface O antigen Vibrio cholerae can be classified into 206 serogroups. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera and extra intestinal infections like, septicemia, wound infection and haemorrhagic reactions. Pathogenic factors of V. cholerae extra-intestinal infection are yet to be explored. AIM: To identify the pathogenic factor associated with V. cholerae extra-intestinal infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out between April, 2007 to October 2007 in National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785542/interaction-of-artepillin-c-with-model-membranes
#18
Wallance Moreira Pazin, Danilo da Silva Olivier, Neus Vilanova, Ana Paula Ramos, Ilja Karina Voets, Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares, Amando Siuiti Ito
Green propolis, a mixture of beeswax and resinous compounds processed by Apis mellifera, displays several pharmacological properties. Artepillin C, the major compound in green propolis, consists of two prenylated groups bound to a phenyl group. Several studies have focused on the therapeutic effects of Artepillin C, but there is no evidence that it interacts with amphiphilic aggregates to mimic cell membranes. We have experimentally and computationally examined the interaction between Artepillin C and model membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) because phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most abundant phospholipids in eukaryotic cell membranes...
October 26, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773766/affinity-purification-of-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-omvs-utilizing-a-his-tag-mutant
#19
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Kyle A DiVito, Michael A Daniele, Scott A Walper
To facilitate the rapid purification of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), we developed two plasmid constructs that utilize a truncated, transmembrane protein to present an exterior histidine repeat sequence. We chose OmpA, a highly abundant porin protein, as the protein scaffold and utilized the lac promoter to allow for inducible control of the epitope-presenting construct. OMVs containing mutant OmpA-His6 were purified directly from Escherichia coli culture media on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) Ni-NTA resin...
October 20, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771057/outer-membrane-vesicles-of-gallibacterium-anatis-induce-protective-immunity-in-egg-laying-hens
#20
Susanne E Pors, Ida J Pedersen, Ragnhild Bager Skjerning, Ida C N Thøfner, Gry Persson, Anders M Bojesen
Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have previously shown promising results in protection against infections and we hypothesized that OMVs could serve as an immunogen to protect egg-laying hens against G. anatis. To investigate the immunogenic potential of G. anatis OMVs, two in vivo studies in egg-laying hens were made...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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