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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087531/salivary-gluten-degradation-and-oral-microbial-profiles-in-health-and-celiac-disease
#1
Na Tian, Lina Faller, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Joshua Hansen, Jos A Bosch, Guoxian Wei, Bruce J Paster, Detlef Schuppan, Eva J Helmerhorst
: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the GI tract after the colon. Moreover, saliva contains gluten-degrading enzymes produced by oral bacteria that may modify gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease (CD). AIM: To investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects vs patients with classical and refractory CD...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087253/what-is-an-ideal-antibiotic-discovery-challenges-and-path-forward
#2
REVIEW
Sheo B Singh, Katherine Young, Lynn L Silver
An ideal antibiotic is an antibacterial agent that kills or inhibits the growth of all harmful bacteria in a host, regardless of site of infection without affecting beneficial gut microbes (gut flora) or causing undue toxicity to the host. Sadly, no such antibiotics exist. What exists are many effective Gram-positive antibacterial agents as well as broad-spectrum agents that provide treatment of certain Gram-negative bacteria but not holistic treatment of all bacteria. However effectiveness of all antibacterial agents is being rapidly eroded due to resistance...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077947/asthma-and-the-microbiome-defining-the-critical-window-in-early-life
#3
REVIEW
Leah T Stiemsma, Stuart E Turvey
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory immune disorder of the airways affecting one in ten children in westernized countries. The geographical disparity combined with a generational rise in prevalence, emphasizes that changing environmental exposures play a significant role in the etiology of this disease. The microflora hypothesis suggests that early life exposures are disrupting the composition of the microbiota and consequently, promoting immune dysregulation in the form of hypersensitivity disorders. Animal model research supports a role of the microbiota in asthma and atopic disease development...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076766/are-gut-microbes-responsible-for-post-dieting-weight-rebound
#4
Julien Chilloux, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
One of the dieting conundrums in the age of the obesity epidemic is the cycle of weight loss and regain known as the "yo-yo effect." Thaiss et al. (2016) demonstrate that the microbiome plays a key role in this phenomenon and that simple dietary supplementations can reset the weight-rebound clock.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073366/oral-treatment-with-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-attenuates-behavioural-deficits-and-immune-changes-in-chronic-social-stress
#5
Aadil Bharwani, M Firoz Mian, Michael G Surette, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe
BACKGROUND: Stress-related disorders involve systemic alterations, including disruption of the intestinal microbial community. Given the putative connections between the microbiota, immunity, neural function, and behaviour, we investigated the potential for microbe-induced gut-to-brain signalling to modulate the impact of stress on host behaviour and immunoregulation. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice treated orally over 28 days with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) ™ or vehicle were subjected to chronic social defeat and assessed for alterations in behaviour and immune cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#6
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069756/inside-out-hiv-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-mucosal-immune-system
#7
REVIEW
Jay Liu, Brett Williams, Daniel Frank, Stephanie M Dillon, Cara C Wilson, Alan L Landay
The components of the human gut microbiome have been found to influence a broad array of pathologic conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and even to cancer. HIV infection upsets the delicate balance in the normal host-microbe interaction both through alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut microbial communities as well as through disruption of the normal host response mechanisms. In this article we review the current methods of gut microbiome analysis and the resulting data regarding how HIV infection might change the balance of commensal bacteria in the gut...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069102/the-effect-of-cp-concentration-in-the-diet-on-urea-kinetics-and-microbial-usage-of-recycled-urea-in-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#8
E D Batista, E Detmann, S C Valadares Filho, E C Titgemeyer, R F D Valadares
In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067223/the-microbiota-maintain-homeostasis-of-liver-resident-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-17-cells-in-a-lipid-antigen-cd1d-dependent-manner
#9
Fenglei Li, Xiaolei Hao, Yongyan Chen, Li Bai, Xiang Gao, Zhexiong Lian, Haiming Wei, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
The microbiota control regional immunity using mechanisms such as inducing IL-17A-producing γδ T (γδT-17) cells in various tissues. However, little is known regarding hepatic γδT cells that are constantly stimulated by gut commensal microbes. Here we show hepatic γδT cells are liver-resident cells and predominant producers of IL-17A. The microbiota sustain hepatic γδT-17 cell homeostasis, including activation, survival and proliferation. The global commensal quantity affects the number of liver-resident γδT-17 cells; indeed, E...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066816/from-genomes-to-phenotypes-traitar-the-microbial-trait-analyzer
#10
Aaron Weimann, Kyra Mooren, Jeremy Frank, Phillip B Pope, Andreas Bremges, Alice C McHardy
The number of sequenced genomes is growing exponentially, profoundly shifting the bottleneck from data generation to genome interpretation. Traits are often used to characterize and distinguish bacteria and are likely a driving factor in microbial community composition, yet little is known about the traits of most microbes. We describe Traitar, the microbial trait analyzer, which is a fully automated software package for deriving phenotypes from a genome sequence. Traitar provides phenotype classifiers to predict 67 traits related to the use of various substrates as carbon and energy sources, oxygen requirement, morphology, antibiotic susceptibility, proteolysis, and enzymatic activities...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065939/an-expanding-stage-for-commensal-microbes-in-host-immune-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Yan Shi, Libing Mu
Gastrointestinal commensal microbiota is a concentrated mix of microbial life forms, including bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. These life forms are targets of host antimicrobial defense in order to establish a homeostatic symbiosis inside the host. However, they are also instrumental in shaping the functions of our immune system via a diverse set of communication mechanisms. In the gut, T helper 17, regulatory T and B cells are continuously tuned by specific microbial strains and metabolic processes. These cells in return help to establish a mutually beneficial exchange with the gut microbial contents...
January 9, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065879/structural-zeros-in-high-dimensional-data-with-applications-to-microbiome-studies
#12
Abhishek Kaul, Ori Davidov, Shyamal D Peddada
SUMMARYThis paper is motivated by the recent interest in the analysis of high-dimensional microbiome data. A key feature of these data is the presence of "structural zeros" which are microbes missing from an observation vector due to an underlying biological process and not due to error in measurement. Typical notions of missingness are unable to model these structural zeros. We define a general framework which allows for structural zeros in the model and propose methods of estimating sparse high-dimensional covariance and precision matrices under this setup...
January 8, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065740/bacterial-signaling-to-the-nervous-system-via-toxins-and-metabolites
#13
REVIEW
Nicole J Yang, Isaac M Chiu
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064261/clinical-effects-of-prebiotics-in-pediatric-population
#14
Rok Orel, Lea Vodušek Reberšak
CONTEXT: Prebiotics are non-digestible components of food that in a selective manner trigger the expansion of microbes in the gut with valuable effects for the health of the host. In our document, current literature pertaining to the clinical effects of the use of prebiotics for the treatment and prevention of some common pediatric pathology such as infantile colic, constipation, absorption of minerals, weight gain, diarrhea, respiratory infections, and eczema is reviewed. EVIDENCE: Data was collected through search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, UpToDate, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database as well as through references from relevant articles, all until September 2015...
December 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062270/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease-in%C3%A2-vitro-modeling-of-host-microbe-interactions-at-the-aerobe-anaerobe-interphase-of-the-human-gut
#15
REVIEW
Julius Z H von Martels, Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad, Arno R Bourgonje, Tjasso Blokzijl, Gerard Dijkstra, Klaas Nico Faber, Hermie J M Harmsen
The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition. Functional studies using (in vitro) gut models are required to investigate the precise interactions that occur between specific bacteria (or bacterial mixtures) and gut epithelial cells. As most gut bacteria are obligate or facultative anaerobes, studying their effect on oxygen-requiring human gut epithelial cells is technically challenging...
January 3, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061847/role-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolites-on-gut-homeostasis-and-human-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Lan Lin, Jianqiong Zhang
BACKGROUND: A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health. METHODS: This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbial metabolites, as well as the involvement of commensals in the gut homeostasis...
January 6, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060822/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-large-scale-changes-in-axenic-aedes-aegypti-larvae
#17
Kevin J Vogel, Luca Valzania, Kerri L Coon, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that Aedes aegypti larvae colonized by a native community of bacteria and gnotobiotic larvae colonized by only Escherichia coli develop very similarly into adults, whereas axenic larvae never molt and die as first instars. In this study, we extended these findings by first comparing the growth and abundance of bacteria in conventional, gnotobiotic, and axenic larvae during the first instar...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059627/structural-and-functional-alterations-in-the-colonic-microbiome-of-the-rat-in-a-model-of-stress-induced-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Nicolaas H Fourie, Dan Wang, Sarah K Abey, Amy L Creekmore, Shuangsong Hong, Christiana G Martin, John W Wiley, Wendy A Henderson
Stress is known to perturb the microbiome and exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) associated symptoms. Characterizing structural and functional changes in the microbiome is necessary to understand how alterations affect the biomolecular environment of the gut in IBS. Repeated water avoidance (WA) stress was used to induce IBS-like symptoms in rats. The colon-mucosa associated microbiome was characterized in 13 stressed and control animals by 16S sequencing. In silico analysis of the functional domains of microbial communities was done by inferring metagenomic profiles from 16S data...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#19
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056754/gut-microbiota-in-vascular-disease-therapeutic-target
#20
A N Anbazhagan, S Priyamvada, M Priyadarshini
Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a powerful regulator of host physiology. Most of effects are mediated through metabolites acting as energy sources, signaling molecules, receptor ligands and substrates for host enzymes. Owing to the meta-stability and high amenability of the gut microbiota to modification by diet and environment, predicting specific gut microbes or its metabolites responsible for different host metabolic states is often confounded. However, through animal models and human studies a direct role of gut microbes in cardiovascular disorders (CVD) has emerged...
January 4, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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