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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649232/ion-channels-of-pituitary-gonadotrophs-and-their-roles-in-signaling-and-secretion
#1
REVIEW
Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ivana Bjelobaba, Hana Zemkova
Gonadotrophs are basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary gland specialized to secrete gonadotropins in response to elevation in intracellular calcium concentration. These cells fire action potentials (APs) spontaneously, coupled with voltage-gated calcium influx of insufficient amplitude to trigger gonadotropin release. The spontaneous excitability of gonadotrophs reflects the expression of voltage-gated sodium, calcium, potassium, non-selective cation-conducting, and chloride channels at their plasma membrane (PM)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646451/regulation-of-sustained-attention-false-alarm-responding-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules-by-prefrontal-gabaa-transmission-comparison-with-nmda-transmission
#2
Meagan L Auger, Juliet Meccia, Stan B Floresco
RATIONALE: Both prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABAA and NMDA transmission regulate attentional processes, yet how they may differentially regulate signal detection or other aspects of attention is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined PFC GABAA and NMDA receptor regulation of attention using a sustained attention task (SAT) permitting identification of distinct forms of impairments. As this task requires implementation of conditional rules, we also investigated how reducing PFC GABA transmission affected performance of visual and auditory conditional discriminations...
June 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645783/maerua-angolensis-stem-bark-extract-reverses-anxiety-and-related-behaviours-in-zebrafish-involvement-of-gabaergic-and-5-ht-systems
#3
Charles Kwaku Benneh, Robert Peter Biney, Priscilla Kolibea Mante, Augustine Tandoh, Donatus Wewura Adongo, Eric Woode
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maerua angolensis DC (Capparaceae) has been employed in the management of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including anxiety. This study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of the petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction stem bark extract and its possible mechanism(s) using zebrafish anxiety models. METHODS: Adult zebrafish, tested in the novel tank and light dark tests, have shown by previous authors to be sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of known anxiolytic drugs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643105/differential-role-of-gabaa-receptors-and-neuroligin-2-for-perisomatic-gabaergic-synapse-formation-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Patrizia Panzanelli, Simon Früh, Jean-Marc Fritschy
Perisomatic GABAergic synapses onto hippocampal pyramidal cells arise from two populations of basket cells with different neurochemical and functional properties. The presence of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in their postsynaptic density (PSD) distinguishes perisomatic synapses from GABAergic synapses on dendrites and the axon-initial segment. Targeted deletion of neuroligin 2 (NL2), a transmembrane protein interacting with presynaptic neurexin, has been reported to disrupt postsynaptic clustering of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) and their anchoring protein, gephyrin, at perisomatic synapses...
June 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642232/a-single-amino-acid-residue-at-transmembrane-domain-4-of-the-alpha-subunit-influences-carisoprodol-direct-gating-efficacy-at-gabaa-receptors
#5
Manoj Kumar, Manish Kumar, John Freund, Glenn H Dillon
The muscle relaxant carisoprodol (CSP, trade name Soma) has recently been controlled at the federal level as a Schedule IV drug due to its high abuse potential and consequences of misuse, such as withdrawal syndrome, delusions, seizures and even death. Recent work has shown that carisoprodol can directly gate and allosterically modulate the GABAA receptor. These actions are subunit-dependent; compared to other GABAA receptors, carisoprodol has nominal direct gating effects in α3β2γ2receptors. Here, using site-directed-mutagenesis and whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, we examined the role of GABAA receptor α subunit transmembrane domain 4 (TM4) amino acids in direct gating and allosteric modulatory actions of carisoprodol...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638920/-a-study-on-toxic-effects-of-sodium-salicylate-on-rat-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-dopamine-receptors-mediate-expressions-of-nmda-and-gabaa-receptors
#6
Ting-Jia Wei, Hui-Ying Chen, Xi Huang, Jing-Jin Weng, Jiang-Yuan Qin, Ji-Ping Su
The aim of the present study was to observe whether dopamine receptor (DR) was involved in the effects of sodium salicylate (SS) on the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Forty-eight hours after primary culture of rat SGNs, immunofluorescence technique was applied to detect expressions of DR1 and DR2, the two subtypes of dopamine receptors. Western blot was performed to assess NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and GABAA receptor subunit α2 (GABRα2) protein expressions in the SGNs after the treatments of SS alone or in combination with DR antagonists...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#7
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress induces an impaired GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is altered in chronic stress. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole cell patch-clamp recording was performed on PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats that had been subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634406/enhancing-kcc2-function-counteracts-morphine-induced-hyperalgesia
#8
Francesco Ferrini, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Antoine G Godin, Miorie Le Quang, Yves De Koninck
Morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) is a severe adverse effect accompanying repeated morphine treatment, causing a paradoxical decrease in nociceptive threshold. Previous reports associated MIH with a decreased expression of the Cl(-) extruder KCC2 in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, weakening spinal GABAA/glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition. Here, we tested whether the administration of small molecules enhancing KCC2, CLP257 and its pro-drug CLP290, may counteract MIH. MIH was typically expressed within 6-8 days of morphine treatment...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630256/the-small-gtpase-rac1-contributes-to-extinction-of-aversive-memories-of-drug-withdrawal-by-facilitating-gabaa-receptor-endocytosis-in-the-vmpfc
#9
Wei-Sheng Wang, Yun-Yue Ju, Qi-Xin Zhou, Jian-Xin Tang, Meng Li, Lei Zhang, Shuo Kang, Zhong-Guo Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Hui Ji, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Jing-Gen Liu
Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA receptor (GABAAR) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623169/mutation-of-the-inhibitory-ethanol-site-in-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptors-promotes-tolerance-to-ethanol-induced-motor-incoordination
#10
Yuri A Blednov, Cecilia M Borghese, Carlos I Ruiz, Madeline A Cullins, Adriana Da Costa, Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek, Gregg E Homanics, R Adron Harris
Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABAA receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine)...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621434/eea1-restores-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-in-hippocampal-neurons-from-rett-syndrome-mice
#11
Xin Xu, Lucas Pozzo-Miller
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Deletion of Mecp2 in mice results in an imbalance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which affects "Hebbian" long-term synaptic plasticity. Since the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms, we examined the role of MeCP2 in homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) at excitatory synapses...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620078/role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-the-retrieval-of-novel-object-recognition-memory-after-a-long-delay
#12
Marie A Pezze, Hayley J Marshall, Kevin Cf Fone, Helen J Cassaday
Previous in vivo electrophysiological studies suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACgx) is an important substrate of novel object recognition (NOR) memory. However, intervention studies are needed to confirm this conclusion and permanent lesion studies cannot distinguish effects on encoding and retrieval. The interval between encoding and retrieval tests may also be a critical determinant of the role of the ACgx. The current series of experiments used micro-infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, into ACgx to reversibly inactivate the area and distinguish its role in encoding and retrieval...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619476/brexanolone-sage-547-injection-in-post-partum-depression-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Stephen Kanes, Helen Colquhoun, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, Shane Raines, Ryan Arnold, Amy Schacterle, James Doherty, C Neill Epperson, Kristina M Deligiannidis, Robert Riesenberg, Ethan Hoffmann, David Rubinow, Jeffrey Jonas, Steven Paul, Samantha Meltzer-Brody
BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression is a serious mood disorder in women that might be triggered by peripartum fluctuations in reproductive hormones. This phase 2 study investigated brexanolone (USAN; formerly SAGE-547 injection), an intravenous formulation of allopregnanolone, a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, for the treatment of post-partum depression. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled self-referred or physician-referred female inpatients (≤6 months post partum) with severe post-partum depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score ≥26) in four hospitals in the USA...
June 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615640/differential-depression-of-neuronal-network-activity-by-midazolam-and-its-main-metabolite-1-hydroxymidazolam-in-cultured-neocortical-slices
#14
Monika Balk, Harald Hentschke, Uwe Rudolph, Bernd Antkowiak, Berthold Drexler
The benzodiazepine midazolam is widely used in critical care medicine. Midazolam has a clinically active metabolite, 1-hydroxymidazolam. The contribution of 1-hydroxymidazolam to the effects of midazolam is controversial. The aim of the current study was to compare the actions of midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam on network activity of cortical neurons. Midazolam depressed neuronal activity at a low concentration of 5 nM. When midazolam concentration was increased, it depressed neuronal discharge rates in a biphasic manner...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615486/acid-base-physiology-neurobiology-and-behaviour-in-relation-to-co2-induced-ocean-acidification
#15
REVIEW
Martin Tresguerres, Trevor J Hamilton
Experimental exposure to ocean and freshwater acidification affects the behaviour of multiple aquatic organisms in laboratory tests. One proposed cause involves an imbalance in plasma chloride and bicarbonate ion concentrations as a result of acid-base regulation, causing the reversal of ionic fluxes through GABAA receptors, which leads to altered neuronal function. This model is exclusively based on differential effects of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine on control animals and those exposed to elevated CO2 However, direct measurements of actual chloride and bicarbonate concentrations in neurons and their extracellular fluids and of GABAA receptor properties in aquatic organisms are largely lacking...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611592/commentary-garlh-family-proteins-stabilize-gabaa-receptors-at-synapses
#16
COMMENT
Chang-Hoon Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610974/positive-modulation-of-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptors-in-preadolescence-prevents-reduced-locomotor-response-to-amphetamine-in-adult-female-but-not-male-rats-prenatally-exposed-to-lipopolysaccharide
#17
Bojan Batinić, Anja Santrač, Ivan Jančić, Guanguan Li, Aleksandra Vidojević, Bojan Marković, James M Cook, Miroslav M Savić
We previously demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to pregnant Wistar rat dams, at embryonic days 15 and 16 (E15/16), induced a decrease of baseline locomotor activity and diminished reactivity to amphetamine in adult female offspring. In the present study we aimed to assess the duration of LPS-induced maternal immune activation (MIA) and investigate possible changes in levels of main neurotransmitters in fetal brain during MIA. We hypothesized that the observed behavioral changes may be linked with MIA-induced disturbance of prenatal GABAergic system development, especially with α5 GABAA receptors (α5GABAARs), expression of which takes place between E14 and E17...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609670/differential-effects-of-the-18-kda-translocator-protein-tspo-ligand-etifoxine-on-steroidogenesis-in-rat-brain-plasma-and-steroidogenic-glands-pharmacodynamic-studies
#18
Philippe Liere, Antoine Pianos, Jean-Paul Oudinet, Michael Schumacher, Yvette Akwa
Etifoxine is indicated in humans for treating anxiety. In rodents, besides its anxiolytic-like properties, it has recently shown neuroprotective and neuroregenerative activities. It acts by enhancing GABAA receptor function and by stimulating acute steroid biosynthesis via the activation of the 18-kDa translocator protein. However, the regulatory action of etifoxine on steroid production is not well characterized. In this work, we performed dose-response, acute and chronic time-course experiments on the effects of intraperitoneal injections of etifoxine on steroid levels in adult male rat brain and plasma analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 3, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609577/cerebrolysin-prevents-deficits-in-social-behavior-repetitive-conduct-and-synaptic-inhibition-in-a-rat-model-of-autism
#19
Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Swagata Roychowdhury, Anwesha Banerjee, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, María Elena Bringas, Michael P Kilgard, Gonzalo Flores, Marco Atzori
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607477/gabaa-receptor-subunit-gene-polymorphisms-predict-symptom-based-and-developmental-deficits-in-chinese-han-children-and-adolescents-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#20
Shuhan Yang, Xuan Guo, Xiaopeng Dong, Yu Han, Lei Gao, Yuanyuan Su, Wei Dai, Xin Zhang
GABAA receptor subunit genes GABRB3, GABRA5, and GABRG3 located on chromosome 15q11-q13 have been implicated in the etiology of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). This study intended to investigate the possible role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in GABRB3 (rs2081648 and rs1426217), GABRA5 (rs35586628), and GABRG3 (rs208129) genes in ASD susceptibility and symptom-based and developmental phenotypes of ASD in Chinese Han children and adolescents. 99 ASD patients and 231 age- and gender- frequency-matched typical developing (TD) controls were tested by TaqMan® genotyping assay...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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