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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438810/nasal-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-inhibits-gastroesophageal-reflux-in-the-neonatal-period
#1
Danny Cantin, Djamal Djeddi, Nathalie Samson, Charlène Nadeau, Jean-Paul Praud
Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) in neonates is increasingly considered due to enhanced alveolar ventilation, absence of patient-ventilator asynchrony and lessened ventilator-induced lung injury. Although any type of non-invasive respiratory support can lead to gastric distension via esophageal air passage and thus promote gastroesophageal refluxes (GERs), we have shown that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP; 6 cmH 2 O) and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (15/4 cmH 2 O) conversely inhibit GERs in lambs...
February 10, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433001/a-new-insight-into-the-dependence-of-relaxation-time-on-frequency-in-viscoelastic-surfactant-solutions-from-experimental-to-modeling-study
#2
Brayan F García, Soheil Saraji
HYPOTHESIS: The relaxation time in viscoelastic surfactant solutions is a function of temperature, salt/surfactant concentrations, resting conditions, as well as shear frequency. The simplistic assumption of a single and constant relaxation time is not representative of all relaxation modes in these solutions especially at high frequencies. EXPERIMENTS: Steady-state and oscillatory measurements are carried out to study the effects of high temperature, concentration and resting condition on the rheology of surfactants/salt mixtures including a non-ionic and a zwitterionic/anionic surfactant system...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431985/tremor-sorting-through-the-differential-diagnosis
#3
Paul Crawford, Ethan E Zimmerman
Tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movement of a body part. It is the most common movement disorder encountered in primary care. The diagnosis of tremor is based on clinical information obtained from the history and physical examination. The most common tremors in patients presenting to primary care physicians are enhanced physiologic tremor, essential tremor, and parkinsonian tremor. All persons have low-amplitude, high-frequency physiologic tremors at rest and during action that are not reported as symptomatic, but can be enhanced by anxiety, medication use, caffeine intake, or fatigue...
February 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427934/assessment-of-nanoscopic-dynamic-mechanical-properties-and-b-c-n-triad-effect-on-mwcnt-h-bnnp-nanofillers-reinforced-hdpe-hybrid-composite-using-oscillatory-nanoindentation-an-insight-into-medical-applications
#4
Nitesh Dhar Badgayan, Santosh Kumar Sahu, Sutanu Samanta, P S Rama Sreekanth
A thrust on improvement of different properties of polymer has taken a contemporary route with advent of nanofillers. Although several nanofillers are existent; MultiWalled Carbon Nanotubes- (MWCNTs) and h-Boron Nitride nanoplatelets-(h-BNNPs) unique combination of 1D and 2D dimensional geometry aids an advantage of B-C-N triad elemental effects on properties of tested samples. The current study aims to investigate the effects of MWCNT and h-BNNP reinforcement in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) for high load bearing areas of medical applications requiring both elastic and viscous behavior...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424846/probing-the-surface-fine-structure-through-electrochemical-oscillations
#5
B A F Previdello, P S Fernández, G Tremiliosi-Filho, H Varela
In the course of (electro)catalytic reactions, reversible and irreversible changes, namely the formation of adsorbed poisons, catalyst degradation, surface roughening, etc., take place at distinct time-scales. Reading the transformations on the catalyst surface from the measurement of the reaction rates is greatly desirable but generally not feasible. Herein, we study the effect of random surface defects on Pt(100) electrodes toward the electro-oxidation of methanol in acidic media. The surface defects are gently generated in situ and their relative magnitudes are reproducibly controlled...
February 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423437/fast-and-slow-oscillations-recruit-molecularly-distinct-subnetworks-of-lateral-hypothalamic-neurons-in-situ
#6
Christin Kosse, Denis Burdakov
Electrical signals generated by molecularly-distinct classes of lateral hypothalamus (LH) neurons have distinct physiological consequences. For example, LH orexin neurons promote net body energy expenditure, while LH non-orexin neurons [VGAT, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)] drive net energy conservation. Appropriate switching between such physiologically-opposing LH outputs is traditionally thought to require cell-type-specific chemical modulation of LH firing. However, it was recently found that, in vivo, the LH neurons are also physiologically exposed to electrical oscillations of different frequency bands...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410179/envelope-analysis-links-oscillatory-and-arrhythmic-eeg-activities-to-two-types-of-neuronal-synchronization
#7
Javier Diaz, Alejandro Bassi, Alex Coolen, Ennio A Vivaldi, Juan-Carlos Letelier
Traditionally, EEG is understood as originating from the synchronous activation of neuronal populations that generate rhythmic oscillations in specific frequency bands. Recently, new neuronal dynamics regimes have been identified (e.g. neuronal avalanches) characterized by irregular or arrhythmic activity. In addition, it is starting to be acknowledged that broadband properties of EEG spectrum (following a 1/f law) are tightly linked to brain function. Nevertheless, there is still no theoretical framework accommodating the coexistence of these two EEG phenomenologies: rhythmic/narrowband and arrhythmic/broadband...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408880/daily-visual-stimulation-in-the-critical-period-enhances-multiple-aspects-of-vision-through-bdnf-mediated-pathways-in-the-mouse-retina
#8
Amanda M Mui, Victoria Yang, Moe H Aung, Jieming Fu, Adewumi N Adekunle, Brian C Prall, Curran S Sidhu, Han Na Park, Jeffrey H Boatright, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Visual experience during the critical period modulates visual development such that deprivation causes visual impairments while stimulation induces enhancements. This study aimed to determine whether visual stimulation in the form of daily optomotor response (OMR) testing during the mouse critical period (1) improves aspects of visual function, (2) involves retinal mechanisms and (3) is mediated by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine (DA) signaling pathways. We tested spatial frequency thresholds in C57BL/6J mice daily from postnatal days 16 to 23 (P16 to P23) using OMR testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398142/low-and-high-frequency-cortical-brain-oscillations-reflect-dissociable-mechanisms-of-concurrent-speech-segregation-in-noise
#9
Anusha Yellamsetty, Gavin M Bidelman
Parsing simultaneous speech requires listeners use pitch-guided segregation which can be affected by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the auditory scene. The interaction of these two cues may occur at multiple levels within the cortex. The aims of the current study were to assess the correspondence between oscillatory brain rhythms and determine how listeners exploit pitch and SNR cues to successfully segregate concurrent speech. We recorded electrical brain activity while participants heard double-vowel stimuli whose fundamental frequencies (F0s) differed by zero or four semitones (STs) presented in either clean or noise-degraded (+5 dB SNR) conditions...
February 2, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398078/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-inhalation-injury-an-evidence-based-approach
#10
REVIEW
C J Deutsch, A Tan, S Smailes, P Dziewulski
INTRODUCTION: Smoke inhalation injury (II) is an independent risk factor for mortality in burns and its management is inherently complex. We aim to make recommendations for best practice in managing II and its sequelae by reviewing all available current evidence in order to provide an evidence-based approach. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane database and Embase using PRISMA guidelines with no patient population exclusion criteria. Published work was reviewed and evidence levels graded...
February 1, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394328/stereotyped-high-frequency-oscillations-discriminate-seizure-onset-zones-and-critical-functional-cortex-in-focal-epilepsy
#11
Su Liu, Candan Gurses, Zhiyi Sha, Michael M Quach, Altay Sencer, Nerses Bebek, Daniel J Curry, Sujit Prabhu, Sudhakar Tummala, Thomas R Henry, Nuri F Ince
High-frequency oscillations in local field potentials recorded with intracranial EEG are putative biomarkers of seizure onset zones in epileptic brain. However, localized 80-500 Hz oscillations can also be recorded from normal and non-epileptic cerebral structures. When defined only by rate or frequency, physiological high-frequency oscillations are indistinguishable from pathological ones, which limit their application in epilepsy presurgical planning. We hypothesized that pathological high-frequency oscillations occur in a repetitive fashion with a similar waveform morphology that specifically indicates seizure onset zones...
January 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393857/oscillatory-behavior-of-p-wave-duration-and-pr-interval-in-experimental-congestive-heart-failure-a-preliminary-study
#12
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Damiano Magrì, Gaetana D'Alessandro, Claudia Fiorucci, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Ilaria Parrotta, Masahiro Ogawa, Shien-Fong Lin, Peng-Sheng Chen
The relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of the sinus node and heart rate variability has been extensively investigated. Current study sought to evaluate, in an animal experimental model of pacing-induced tachycardia congestive heart failure (CHF), a possible ANS influence on P wave duration and PR interval oscillations. Short term (5-minutes) time and frequency domain analysis has been obtained in six dogs for the following electrocardiographic intervals: P wave duration (P), from the onset to peak of P wave (Pp), from the onset of P wave to the q onset (PR) and from the end of P wave to the onset of q wave (PeR)...
February 2, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392835/cortical-oscillations-and-entrainment-in-speech-processing-during-working-memory-load
#13
Jens Hjortkjaer, Jonatan Märcher-Rørsted, Søren A Fuglsang, Torsten Dau
Neuronal oscillations are thought to play an important role in working memory (WM) and speech processing. Listening to speech in real-life situations is often cognitively demanding but it is unknown whether WM load influences how auditory cortical activity synchronizes to speech features. Here we developed an auditory n-back paradigm to investigate cortical entrainment to speech envelope fluctuations under different degrees of WM load. We measured the electroencephalogram (EEG), pupil dilations, and behavioural performance from 22 subjects listening to continuous speech with an embedded n-back task...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389051/frequency-dependent-tacs-modulation-of-bold-signal-during-rhythmic-visual-stimulation
#14
Yuhui Chai, Jingwei Sheng, Peter A Bandettini, Jia-Hong Gao
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a promising tool for modulating cortical oscillations. In previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, tACS has been found to modulate brain oscillatory activity in a frequency-specific manner. However, the spatial distribution and hemodynamic response for this modulation remains poorly understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the advantage of measuring neuronal activity in regions not only below the tACS electrodes but also across the whole brain with high spatial resolution...
February 1, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380945/hearing-and-seeing-meaning-in-noise-alpha-beta-and-gamma-oscillations-predict-gestural-enhancement-of-degraded-speech-comprehension
#15
Linda Drijvers, Asli Özyürek, Ole Jensen
During face-to-face communication, listeners integrate speech with gestures. The semantic information conveyed by iconic gestures (e.g., a drinking gesture) can aid speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we investigated the spatiotemporal neural oscillatory activity associated with gestural enhancement of degraded speech comprehension. Participants watched videos of an actress uttering clear or degraded speech, accompanied by a gesture or not and completed a cued-recall task after watching every video...
January 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373641/cortical-responses-to-input-from-distant-areas-are-modulated-by-local-spontaneous-alpha-beta-oscillations
#16
Kiyohide Usami, Griffin W Milsap, Anna Korzeniewska, Maxwell J Collard, Yujing Wang, Ronald P Lesser, William S Anderson, Nathan E Crone
Any given area in human cortex may receive input from multiple, functionally heterogeneous areas, potentially representing different processing threads. Alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta oscillations (13-20 Hz) have been hypothesized by other investigators to gate local cortical processing, but their influence on cortical responses to input from other cortical areas is unknown. To study this, we measured the effect of local oscillatory power and phase on cortical responses elicited by single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) at distant cortical sites, in awake human subjects implanted with intracranial electrodes for epilepsy surgery...
January 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367893/three-dimensional-stimulus-source-for-pattern-electroretinography-in-mid-and-far-peripheral-retina
#17
Shresta Patangay, Zahra Derafshi, Thasarat S Vajaranant, Jason C Park, Elham Ghahari, J Jason McAnany, John R Hetling
Purpose: The pattern electroretinogram (pERG) response reflects, in part, ganglion cell function. However, probing retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function in the mid- and far peripheral retina is difficult with conventional flat-panel pERG stimulus sources. A pattern stimulus source is presented for probing the peripheral retina. Peripheral pERG (ppERG) responses were evaluated versus luminance, reversal rate, and field subtended, and were compared with conventional pERG in healthy eyes...
January 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347610/relaxation-time-of-the-global-order-parameter-on-multiplex-networks-the-role-of-interlayer-coupling-in-kuramoto-oscillators
#18
Alfonso Allen-Perkins, Thiago Albuquerque de Assis, Juan Manuel Pastor, Roberto F S Andrade
This work considers the time scales associated with the global order parameter and the interlayer synchronization of coupled Kuramoto oscillators on multiplexes. For two-layer multiplexes with an initially high degree of synchronization in each layer, the difference between the average phases in each layer is analyzed from two different perspectives: the spectral analysis and the nonlinear Kuramoto model. Both viewpoints confirm that the prior time scales are inversely proportional to the interlayer coupling strength...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347498/plain-and-oscillatory-solitons-of-the-cubic-complex-ginzburg-landau-equation-with-nonlinear-gradient-terms
#19
M Facão, M I Carvalho
In this work, we present parameter regions for the existence of stable plain solitons of the cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE) with higher-order terms associated with a fourth-order expansion. Using a perturbation approach around the nonlinear Schrödinger equation soliton and a full numerical analysis that solves an ordinary differential equation for the soliton profiles and using the Evans method in the search for unstable eigenvalues, we have found that the minimum equation allowing these stable solitons is the cubic CGLE plus a term known in optics as Raman-delayed response, which is responsible for the redshift of the spectrum...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347174/periodic-jetting-and-monodisperse-jet-drops-from-oblique-gas-injection
#20
Oliver McRae, Antoine Gaillard, James C Bird
When air is blown in a straw or tube near an air-liquid interface, typically one of two behaviors is observed: a dimple in the liquid's surface, or a frenzy of sputtering bubbles, waves, and spray. Here we report and characterize an intermediate regime that can develop when a confined air jet enters the interface at an angle. This regime is oscillatory with a distinct characteristic frequency and can develop periodic angled jets that can break up into monodisperse aerosols. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this highly periodic regime are not well understood...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
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