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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235041/a-hybrid-constant-and-oscillatory-field-ion-mobility-analyzer-using-structures-for-lossless-ion-manipulations
#1
Aneesh Prabhakaran, Ahmed M Hamid, Sandilya V B Garimella, Blandina R Valenzuela, Robert G Ewing, Yehia M Ibrahim, Richard D Smith
Here we explore the combination of constant and oscillatory fields applied in a single device to affect the continuous separation and filtering of ions based on their mobilities. The device explored allows confining and manipulating ions utilizing a combination of radio frequency (rf), direct current (DC) fields, and traveling waves (TW) in a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) module. We have investigated theoretically and experimentally a concept for continuous filtering of ions based on their mobilities where ions are mobility separated and selected by passage through two regions, both of which incorporated combined TW and constant fields providing opposing forces on the ions...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226965/brain-reflections-a-circuit-based-framework-for-understanding-information-processing-and-cognitive-control
#2
Gabriele Gratton
Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217332/revisiting-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-vitro-and-in-silico-in-neonatal-conductive-airways
#3
REVIEW
Katrin Bauer, Eliram Nof, Josué Sznitman
BACKGROUND: High frequency oscillatory ventilation is often used for lung support in premature neonates suffering from respiratory distress syndrome. Despite its broad use in neonatal intensive care units, there are to date no accepted protocols for the choice of appropriate ventilation parameter settings. In this context, the underlying mass transport mechanisms are still not fully understood. METHODS: We revisit the question of flow phenomena under conventional mechanical ventilation and high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an anatomically-inspired model of neonatal conductive airways spanning the first few airway generations...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214783/effective-tidal-volume-for-normocapnia-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-using-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation
#4
Seul Mi Lee, Ran Namgung, Ho Sun Eun, Soon Min Lee, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park
PURPOSE: Removal of CO₂ is much efficient during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for preterm infants. However, an optimal carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO₂) and tidal volume (VT) have not yet been established due to much individual variance. This study aimed to analyze DCO₂ values, VT, and minute volume in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants using HFOV and correlates with plasma CO₂ (pCO₂). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Daily respiratory mechanics and ventilator settings from twenty VLBW infants and their two hundred seventeen results of blood gas analysis were collected...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192891/comparison-of-different-functional-eit-approaches-to-quantify-tidal-ventilation-distribution
#5
Zhanqi Zhao, Po-Jen Yun, Yen-Liang Kuo, Feng Fu, Meng Dai, Inez Frerichs, Knut Moeller
The aim of the study was to examine the pros and cons of different types of functional EIT (fEIT) to quantify tidal ventilation distribution in a clinical setting. Approach: fEIT images were calculated with (1) standard deviation of pixel time curve, (2) regression coefficients of global and local impedance time curves, or (3) mean tidal variations. To characterize temporal heterogeneity of tidal ventilation distribution, another fEIT image of pixel inspiration times is also proposed. Main results: fEIT - regression is very robust to signals with different phase information...
December 1, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192865/electrocorticography-and-the-early-maturation-of-high-frequency-suppression-within-the-default-mode-network
#6
Kurt E Weaver, Andrew Poliakov, Edward J Novotny, Jared D Olson, Thomas J Grabowski, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE The acquisition and refinement of cognitive and behavioral skills during development is associated with the maturation of various brain oscillatory activities. Most developmental investigations have identified distinct patterns of low-frequency electrophysiological activity that are characteristic of various behavioral milestones. In this investigation, the authors focused on the cross-sectional developmental properties of high-frequency spectral power from the brain's default mode network (DMN) during goal-directed behavior...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190329/cortical-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-a-progressive-model-of-parkinsonism-in-nonhuman-primates
#7
Annaelle Devergnas, M Caiola, D Pittard, T Wichmann
Parkinson's disease is associated with abnormal oscillatory electrical activities of neurons and neuronal ensembles throughout the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network. It has recently been documented in patients with advanced parkinsonism that the amplitude of gamma-band oscillations (50-200 Hz) in electrocorticogram recordings from the primary motor cortex is abnormally coupled to the phase of beta band oscillations within the same signals. It is not known when in the course of the disease the abnormal phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) arises, and whether it is influenced by arousal or prior exposure to dopaminergic medications...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163203/cyclic-stretch-alters-vascular-reactivity-of-mouse-aortic-segments
#8
Arthur Leloup, Sofie De Moudt, Cor Van Hove, Paul Fransen
Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10%) than muscular arteries (2%). As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC). The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6-600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161621/human-subthalamic-oscillatory-dynamics-following-somatosensory-stimulation
#9
Saskia Elben, Carlos Trenado, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Wojtecki
OBJECTIVE: Electrical median nerve somatosensory stimulation leads to a distinct modulation of cortical oscillations. Initial high frequency and gamma augmentation, as well as modulation of beta and alpha oscillations have been reported. We aimed at investigating the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in somatosensory processing by means of local field potential recordings, since recordings during passive movements and peripheral somatosensory stimulation have suggested a prominent role...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#10
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127656/altered-oscillatory-brain-dynamics-of-emotional-processing-in-young-binge-drinkers
#11
Siyuan Huang, Lee A Holcomb, Stephen M Cruz, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking, also termed binge drinking, is commonly practiced by young adults. It is accompanied by a range of cognitive, affective, and social problems, but the neural dynamics underlying changes in emotional functions is poorly understood. To investigate the behavioral and brain indices of affective processing as a function of binge drinking, young, healthy participants (23.3 ± 3.3 years) were assigned to two groups (n = 32 each) based on their drinking habits. Binge drinking (BD) participants reported drinking heavily with at least five binge episodes in the last 6 months, whereas light drinkers (LD) reported no more than one binge episode in the last 6 months...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125416/gamma-oscillations-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-a-patient-with-a-phantom-limb-case-report
#12
Diellor Basha, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison
The amputation of an extremity is commonly followed by phantom sensations that are perceived to originate from the missing limb. The mechanism underlying the generation of these sensations is still not clear although the development of abnormal oscillatory bursting in thalamic neurons may be involved. The theory of thalamocortical dysrhythmia implicates gamma oscillations in phantom pathophysiology although this rhythm has not been previously observed in the phantom limb thalamus. In this study, the authors report the novel observation of widespread 38-Hz gamma oscillatory activity in spike and local field potential recordings obtained from the ventral caudal somatosensory nucleus of the thalamus (Vc) of a phantom limb patient undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111591/magnetoencephalographic-imaging-of-ictal-high-frequency-oscillations-80-200%C3%A2-hz-in-pharmacologically-resistant-focal-epilepsy
#13
Jayabal Velmurugan, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Narayanan Mariyappa, Shankar G Ravi, Kandavel Thennarasu, Ravindranadh C Mundlamuri, Kenchaiah Raghavendra, Rose Dawn Bharath, Jitender Saini, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Jamuna Rajan, Anita Mahadevan, Malla B Rao, Parthasarathy Satishchandra, Sanjib Sinha
OBJECTIVE: Specificity of ictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in identifying epileptogenic abnormality is significant, compared to the spikes and interictal HFOs. The objectives of the study were to detect and to localize ictal HFOs by magnetoencephalography (MEG) for identifying the seizure onset zone (SOZ), evaluate the cortical excitability from preictal to ictal transition, and establish HFO concordance rates with other modalities and postsurgical resection. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with drug-resistant epilepsy had at least 1 spontaneous seizure each during MEG acquisition, and analysis was carried out on 20 seizures from 20 patients...
November 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104149/spatial-attention-modulates-visual-gamma-oscillations-across-the-human-ventral-stream
#14
Lorenzo Magazzini, Krish D Singh
Oscillatory synchronization in the gamma frequency range has been proposed as a neuronal mechanism to prioritize processing of relevant stimuli over competing ones. Recent studies in animals found that selective spatial attention enhanced gamma-band synchronization in high-order visual areas (V4) and increased the gamma peak frequency in V1. The existence of such mechanisms in the human visual system is yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we used MEG, in combination with an optimised stimulus design, to record visual gamma oscillations from human early visual cortex, while participants performed a visuospatial attention cueing task...
November 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100418/contribution-of-gabaa-gabac-and-glycine-receptors-to-rat-dark-adapted-oscillatory-potentials-in-the-time-and-frequency-domain
#15
Jiaman Dai, Juncai He, Gang Wang, Min Wang, Shiying Li, Zheng Qin Yin
Retinal oscillatory potentials (OPs) consist of a series of relatively high-frequency rhythmic wavelets, superimposed onto the ascending phase of the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG). However, the origin of OPs is uncertain and methods of measurement of OPs are diverse. In this study, we first isolated OPs from the rat ERG and fitted them with Gabor functions and found that the envelope of the OP contained information about maximum amplitude and time-to-peak to enable satisfactory quantification of the later OPs...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099443/association-of-response-to-inhaled-nitric-oxide-and-duration-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
Jasmine C Dowell, Neal J Thomas, Nadir Yehya
OBJECTIVES: Literature regarding appropriate use of inhaled nitric oxide for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is sparse. This study aims to determine if positive response to inhaled nitric oxide is associated with decreased mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large pediatric academic medical center. PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS: One hundred sixty-one children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and inhaled nitric oxide exposure for greater than or equal to 1 hour within 3 days of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome onset...
November 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090947/might-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-improve-prognosis-of-more-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-not-so-sure
#17
Didier Dreyfuss, Stéphane Gaudry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090945/reply-to-might-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-improve-prognosis-of-more-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-not-so-sure
#18
Maureen O Meade, Duncan Young, Niall D Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079768/non-invasive-detection-of-language-related-prefrontal-high-gamma-band-activity-with-beamforming-meg
#19
Hiroaki Hashimoto, Yuka Hasegawa, Toshihiko Araki, Hisato Sugata, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Shiro Yorifuji, Masayuki Hirata
High gamma band (>50 Hz) activity is a key oscillatory phenomenon of brain activation. However, there has not been a non-invasive method established to detect language-related high gamma band activity. We used a 160-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system equipped with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometers to non-invasively investigate neuromagnetic activities during silent reading and verb generation tasks in 15 healthy participants. Individual data were divided into alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-25 Hz), low gamma (25-50 Hz), and high gamma (50-100 Hz) bands and analysed with the beamformer method...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066591/the-role-of-rescue-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-severe-ards
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Alessandri, Francesco Pugliese, V Marco Ranieri
ARDS is characterized by a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema with bilateral chest radiograph opacities and hypoxemia refractory to oxygen therapy. It is a common cause of admission to the ICU due to hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Corticosteroids are not recommended in ARDS patients. Rescue therapies alleviate hypoxemia in patients unable to maintain reasonable oxygenation: recruitment maneuvers, prone positioning, inhaled nitric oxide, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improve oxygenation, but their impact on mortality remains unproven...
October 24, 2017: Respiratory Care
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