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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527204/levetiracetam-alters-oscillatory-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Christian S Musaeus, Mouhsin M Shafi, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Susan T Herman, Daniel Z Press
Seizures occur at a higher frequency in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) but overt, clinically obvious events are infrequent. Evidence from animal models and studies in mild cognitive impairment suggest that subclinical epileptic discharges may play a role in the clinical and pathophysiological manifestations of AD. In this feasibility study, the neurophysiological and cognitive effects of acute administration of levetiracetam (LEV) are measured in patients with mild AD to test whether it could have a therapeutic benefit...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524673/detecting-gravitational-wave-memory-without-parent-signals
#2
Lucy O McNeill, Eric Thrane, Paul D Lasky
Gravitational-wave memory manifests as a permanent distortion of an idealized gravitational-wave detector and arises generically from energetic astrophysical events. For example, binary black hole mergers are expected to emit memory bursts a little more than an order of magnitude smaller in strain than the oscillatory parent waves. We introduce the concept of "orphan memory": gravitational-wave memory for which there is no detectable parent signal. In particular, high-frequency gravitational-wave bursts (≳kHz) produce orphan memory in the LIGO/Virgo band...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521155/is-laughter-a-better-vocal-change-detector-than-a-growl
#3
Ana P Pinheiro, Carla Barros, Margarida Vasconcelos, Christian Obermeier, Sonja A Kotz
The capacity to predict what should happen next and to minimize any discrepancy between an expected and an actual sensory input (prediction error) is a central aspect of perception. Particularly in vocal communication, the effective prediction of an auditory input that informs the listener about the emotionality of a speaker is critical. What is currently unknown is how the perceived valence of an emotional vocalization affects the capacity to predict and detect a change in the auditory input. This question was probed in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and time-frequency analysis approach...
April 11, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506358/-research-advances-in-noninvasive-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-neonates
#4
Jia Huang, Lin Yuan, Chao Chen
Noninvasive ventilation is an important respiratory management technique for the treatment of mild or moderate respiratory failure in the neonatal intensive care unit. Its reasonable application can effectively avoid the use of invasive ventilation and related complications. Recent studies have found that noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation has the advantages of both nasal continuous positive airway pressure and high-frequency ventilation and can rapidly improve oxygenation, effectively remove carbon dioxide, and improve respiratory failure...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505763/comparative-study-of-noise-in-low-current-townsend-discharge-in-nitrogen-and-argon
#5
Yu A Astrov, A N Lodygin, L M Portsel, E V Beregulin
Noise in a low-current Townsend discharge in argon and nitrogen is studied. Experiments were performed in a "semiconductor-gas-discharge" structure constituted by a short plane-parallel discharge gap and a high-resistivity photosensitive semiconductor electrode. The noise of optical emission from gas excited by the discharge was investigated with a photomultiplier. Experiments were done at the room temperature of the discharge structure. According to the obtained data, the noise of discharge glow in Ar is astonishingly low-similar to that earlier found for the cryogenic discharge in this gas...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492159/iloprost-instillation-in-two-neonates-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#6
Sezin Unal, Selma Aktas, Meltem Aksu, Ibrahim M Hirfanoglu, Yildiz Atalay, Canan Turkyilmaz
Pulmonary hypertension may coexist with certain diseases in neonates. Iloprost inhalation is one of the treatments which cause selective pulmonary vasodilatation. Inhalation is not an easy way of drug administration in mechanically ventilated infants; as some exhibit desaturations during inhalation. Moreover, inhalation of drug requires cessation of mechanical ventilation, if patient is on high frequency oscillatory ventilation. We presented two patients with pulmonary hypertension; term baby with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and preterm baby with respiratory distress syndrome; who had iloprost instillation during mechanical ventilation treatment...
April 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475684/the-use-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-neonates-with-severe-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-a-26-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-centre%C3%A2
#7
Ricky Vaja, Ahmed Bakr, Annabel Sharkey, Vijay Joshi, Gail Faulkner, Claire Westrope, Chris Harvey
OBJECTIVES: Neonates with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have a high rate of mortality. There is controversy regarding optimal time of surgical intervention. We present our data over a 26-year period. METHODS: We analysed data from our Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry forms between 1989 and 2015, in order to determine the factors affecting survival outcome for repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia with ECMO as a bridge to surgery and/or recovery...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471492/oscillating-devices-for-airway-clearance-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Lisa Morrison, Stephanie Innes
BACKGROUND: Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469022/flightin-maintains-myofilament-lattice-organization-required-for-optimal-flight-power-and-courtship-song-quality-in-drosophila
#9
Samya Chakravorty, Bertrand C W Tanner, Veronica Lee Foelber, Hien Vu, Matthew Rosenthal, Teresa Ruiz, Jim O Vigoreaux
The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila and other insects with asynchronous flight muscles are characterized by a crystalline myofilament lattice structure. The high-order lattice regularity is considered an adaptation for enhanced power output, but supporting evidence for this claim is lacking. We show that IFMs from transgenic flies expressing flightin with a deletion of its poorly conserved N-terminal domain (fln(ΔN62) ) have reduced inter-thick filament spacing and a less regular lattice. This resulted in a decrease in flight ability by 33% and in skinned fibre oscillatory power output by 57%, but had no effect on wingbeat frequency or frequency of maximum power output, suggesting that the underlying actomyosin kinetics is not affected and that the flight impairment arises from deficits in force transmission...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467509/laryngeal-evidence-for-the-first-and-second-passaggio-in-professionally-trained-sopranos
#10
Matthias Echternach, Fabian Burk, Marie Köberlein, Andreas Selamtzis, Michael Döllinger, Michael Burdumy, Bernhard Richter, Christian Thomas Herbst
INTRODUCTION: Due to a lack of empirical data, the current understanding of the laryngeal mechanics in the passaggio regions (i.e., the fundamental frequency ranges where vocal registration events usually occur) of the female singing voice is still limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study the first and second passaggio regions of 10 professionally trained female classical soprano singers were analyzed. The sopranos performed pitch glides from A3 (ƒo = 220 Hz) to A4 (ƒo = 440 Hz) and from A4 (ƒo = 440 Hz) to A5 (ƒo = 880 Hz) on the vowel [iː]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459336/an-official-american-thoracic-society-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-society-of-critical-care-medicine-clinical-practice-guideline-mechanical-ventilation-in-adult-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#11
Eddy Fan, Lorenzo Del Sorbo, Ewan C Goligher, Carol L Hodgson, Laveena Munshi, Allan J Walkey, Neill K J Adhikari, Marcelo B P Amato, Richard Branson, Roy G Brower, Niall D Ferguson, Ognjen Gajic, Luciano Gattinoni, Dean Hess, Jordi Mancebo, Maureen O Meade, Daniel F McAuley, Antonio Pesenti, V Marco Ranieri, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Eileen Rubin, Maureen Seckel, Arthur S Slutsky, Daniel Talmor, B Taylor Thompson, Hannah Wunsch, Elizabeth Uleryk, Jan Brozek, Laurent J Brochard
BACKGROUND: This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the use of mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel conducted systematic reviews and metaanalyses of the relevant research and applied Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for clinical recommendations. RESULTS: For all patients with ARDS, the recommendation is strong for mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volumes (4-8 ml/kg predicted body weight) and lower inspiratory pressures (plateau pressure < 30 cm H2O) (moderate confidence in effect estimates)...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445715/altered-somatosensory-cortex-neuronal-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias
#12
Mesbah Alam, Regina Rumpel, Xingxing Jin, Christof von Wrangel, Sarah K Tschirner, Joachim K Krauss, Claudia Grothe, Andreas Ratzka, Kerstin Schwabe
Several findings support the concept that sensorimotor integration is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in levodopa-induced dyskinesias. In this study, we explored the neuronal firing activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1FL-Ctx), along with its interaction with oscillatory activity of the primary motor cortex (MCtx) in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) and levodopa-primed dyskinetic (HP-LID) rats as compared to controls under urethane (1...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#13
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436852/frequency-selective-computed-tomography-applications-during-periodic-thoracic-motion
#14
Jacob Herrmann, Eric A Hoffman, David W Kaczka
We seek to use computed tomography (CT) to characterize regional lung parenchymal deformation during highfrequency and multi-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Periodic motion of thoracic structures results in artifacts of CT images obtained by standard reconstruction algorithms, especially for frequencies exceeding that of the X-ray source rotation. In this study, we propose an acquisition and reconstruction technique for high resolution imaging of the thorax during periodic motion. Our technique relies on phase-binning projections according to the frequency of subject motion relative to the scanner rotation, prior to volumetric reconstruction...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413621/recent-advances-in-pediatric-ventilatory-assistance
#15
REVIEW
Nicolas Nardi, Guillaume Mortamet, Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud, Philippe Jouvet
In this review on respiratory assistance, we aim to discuss the following recent advances: the optimization and customization of mechanical ventilation, the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and the role of noninvasive ventilation. The prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury and diaphragmatic dysfunction is now a key aspect in the management of mechanical ventilation, since these complications may lead to higher mortality and prolonged length of stay in intensive care units. Different physiological measurements, such as esophageal pressure, electrical activity of the diaphragm, and volumetric capnography, may be useful objective tools to help guide ventilator assistance...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411273/low-frequency-cortical-oscillations-entrain-to-subthreshold-rhythmic-auditory-stimuli
#16
Sanne Ten Oever, Charles E Schroeder, David Poeppel, Nienke van Atteveldt, Ashesh D Mehta, Pierre Mégevand, David M Groppe, Elana Zion-Golumbic
Many environmental stimuli contain temporal regularities, a feature that can help predict forthcoming input. Phase locking (entrainment) of ongoing low-frequency neuronal oscillations to rhythmic stimuli is proposed as a potential mechanism for enhancing neuronal responses and perceptual sensitivity, by aligning high-excitability phases to events within a stimulus stream. Previous experiments show that rhythmic structure has a behavioral benefit even when the rhythm itself is below perceptual detection thresholds (ten Oever et al...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407831/-a-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-versus-conventional-mechanical-ventilation-for-treating-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
Jun-Ying Qiao, Yuan-Zhe Li, He-Yi Wang, Shuai-Dan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the clinical efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) for treating pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Data from randomized controlled trials comparing HFOV and CMV in the treatment of pediatric ARDS published before July 2016 were collected from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, CNKI, and Wanfang Data. Literature screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewers according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396622/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reveals-intrinsic-perceptual-and-attentional-rhythms
#18
REVIEW
Laura Dugué, Rufin VanRullen
Oscillatory brain activity has functional relevance for perceptual and cognitive processes, as proven by numerous electrophysiology studies accumulating over the years. However, only within the past two decades have researchers been able to study the causal role of such oscillations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology. Two complementary approaches exist. A majority of research employs rhythmic TMS (rTMS) to entrain oscillatory activity and investigate its effect on targeted brain functions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387588/modulation-of-oscillatory-power-and-connectivity-in-the-human-posterior-cingulate-cortex-supports-the-encoding-and-retrieval-of-episodic-memories
#19
Bradley Lega, James Germi, Michael Rugg
Existing data from noninvasive studies have led researchers to posit that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) supports mnemonic processes: It exhibits degeneration in memory disorders, and fMRI investigations have demonstrated memory-related activation principally during the retrieval of memory items. Despite these data, the role of the PCC in episodic memory has received only limited treatment using the spatial and temporal precision of intracranial EEG, with previous analyses focused on item retrieval. Using data gathered from 21 human participants who underwent stereo-EEG for seizure localization, we characterized oscillatory patterns in the PCC during the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384491/hierarchical-levels-of-representation-in-language-prediction-the-influence-of-first-language-acquisition-in-highly-proficient-bilinguals
#20
Nicola Molinaro, Francesco Giannelli, Sendy Caffarra, Clara Martin
Language comprehension is largely supported by predictive mechanisms that account for the ease and speed with which communication unfolds. Both native and proficient non-native speakers can efficiently handle contextual cues to generate reliable linguistic expectations. However, the link between the variability of the linguistic background of the speaker and the hierarchical format of the representations predicted is still not clear. We here investigate whether native language exposure to typologically highly diverse languages (Spanish and Basque) affects the way early balanced bilingual speakers carry out language predictions...
July 2017: Cognition
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