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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#1
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822902/pregnancy-outcome-is-influenced-by-luteal-area-during-diestrus-before-successful-insemination-but-not-by-milk-production-level
#2
H Berger, M Lietzau, A Tichy, K Herzog
The objective was to compare luteal area (LA), luteal blood flow (LBF), and progesterone (P4) concentration before and after artificial insemination (AI) in pregnant and open cows in the diestrus preceding insemination and during the first 21 d after insemination. A number of 119 multiparous German Holstein cows were examined using B-mode and color Doppler sonography in diestrus (15-5 d before AI) and on days 7, 14, and 21 post insemination (pi). Blood samples for determination of P4 concentration were collected at each examination...
April 14, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822552/consequences-of-dietary-energy-source-and-energy-level-on-energy-balance-lactogenic-hormones-and-lactation-curve-characteristics-of-cows-after-a-short-or-omitted-dry-period
#3
R J van Hoeij, J Dijkstra, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross, T J G M Lam, G J Remmelink, B Kemp, A T M van Knegsel
Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822550/technical-note-reduced-pulsation-chamber-vacuum-at-normal-pulsation-rate-and-ratio-provides-adequate-prestimulation-to-induce-oxytocin-release-and-milk-ejection-while-simultaneous-milk-flow-is-prevented
#4
Anna-Lena Neuheuser, Claire Belo, Rupert M Bruckmaier
In the present study we investigated the milking characteristics and the oxytocin release in dairy cows milked after either manual prestimulation or a premilking period with pulsating liners at normal pulsation rate (60) and ratio (60:40) while the pulsation chamber vacuum (PCV) was reduced to 20 kPa to prevent the opening of the liners. During the milking trial with 8 cows the PCV reduction was started either before attachment (PCV-1) or immediately after attachment (PCV-2) of the teat cups. Milk yields, total milking times, average milk flows, peak flow rates, the duration of milk flow plateaus, and the duration of milk flow declines did not differ among the 3 treatments...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822549/effect-of-substituting-soybean-meal-and-canola-cake-with-grain-based-dried-distillers-grains-with-solubles-as-a-protein-source-on-feed-intake-milk-production-and-milk-quality-in-dairy-cows
#5
C Gaillard, M T Sørensen, M Vestergaard, M R Weisbjerg, A Basar, M K Larsen, H Martinussen, U Kidmose, J Sehested
The growth of the bioethanol industry is leading to an increase in the production of coproducts such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Both corn-based DDGS and grain-based DDGS (gDDGS; defined as originating from grain sources such as barley, wheat, triticale, or a mix, excluding corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822545/effects-of-the-dose-and-viability-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-2-ruminal-fermentation-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows-and-correlations-between-ruminal-bacteria-abundance-and-performance-measures
#6
Y Jiang, I M Ogunade, K G Arriola, M Qi, D Vyas, C R Staples, A T Adesogan
This study examined effects of the dose and viability of supplemented Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain YE1496 on ruminal fermentation and performance of lactating dairy cows. A second objective was to examine correlations between ruminal bacteria abundance and performance measures. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows (284 ± 18 days in milk) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatment sequences in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design using four 21-d experimental periods. Cows were fed a nonacidotic total mixed ration comprising 22...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819221/functional-validation-of-gpihbp1-and-identification-of-a-functional-mutation-in-gpihbp1-for-milk-fat-traits-in-dairy-cattle
#7
Jie Yang, Xuan Liu, Dan Wang, Chao Ning, Haifei Wang, Qin Zhang, Li Jiang
In a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) on milk production traits in a Chinese Holstein population, we revealed that GPIHBP1 is a novel promising candidate gene for milk fat content traits. In this study, we performed over-expression and RNAi experiments on GPIHBP1 in bovine primary mammary epithelial cells. The results showed that the expression of several important milk fat-related genes (LPL, CD36, VLDLR, ACACA and FASN) increased or decreased when the expression of GPIHBP1 was up- or down-regulated...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815847/mastitis-treatment-reduction-in-antibiotic-usage-in-dairy-cows
#8
REVIEW
V Krömker, S Leimbach
Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815782/influence-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-and-vitamin-e-on-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-concentrations-of-vitamin-a-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-blood-and-milk-of-dairy-cows
#9
S Schäfers, U Meyer, D von Soosten, L Hüther, C Drong, K Eder, E Most, A Tröscher, W Pelletier, A Zeyner, S Dänicke
The objective of this trial was to investigate the influences of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (Vit. E) and their interactions on fatty acid composition and vitamins in milk (α-tocopherol, retinol and β-carotene) as well as on α-tocopherol in blood of pluriparous cows from week 6 ante partum until week 10 post-partum (p.p.). We assigned 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows to four treatment groups with the treatment factors CLA and Vit. E at two levels in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Milk fatty acid composition and milk vitamins were analysed on lactation days 7 and 28...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814393/soya-maize-and-sorghum-based-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-with-amino-acid-is-as-efficacious-as-the-standard-milk-and-peanut-paste-based-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-a-noninferiority-individually-randomized-controlled
#10
Paluku Bahwere, Peter Akomo, Mwawi Mwale, Hitoshi Murakami, Chrissy Banda, Sylvester Kathumba, Chimwemwe Banda, Solomon Jere, Kate Sadler, Steve Collins
Background: Development of more cost-effective ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a global public health priority. To date, previous lower-cost recipes have been less effective than the standard peanut and milk (PM)-based RUTF, particularly in children aged <24 mo.Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy of the PM-RUTF to a milk-free soya, maize, and sorghum (FSMS)-RUTF enriched with crystalline amino acids without cow milk powder and a milk, soya, maize, and sorghum (MSMS)-RUTF containing 9.3% skim cow milk powder...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810831/application-of-a-bayesian-non-linear-model-hybrid-scheme-to-sequence-data-for-genomic-prediction-and-qtl-mapping
#11
Tingting Wang, Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen, Iona M MacLeod, Jennie E Pryce, Michael E Goddard, Ben J Hayes
BACKGROUND: Using whole genome sequence data might improve genomic prediction accuracy, when compared with high-density SNP arrays, and could lead to identification of casual mutations affecting complex traits. For some traits, the most accurate genomic predictions are achieved with non-linear Bayesian methods. However, as the number of variants and the size of the reference population increase, the computational time required to implement these Bayesian methods (typically with Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling) becomes unfeasibly long...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808353/milk-microbiome-and-bacterial-load-following-dry-cow-therapy-without-antibiotics-in-dairy-cows-with-healthy-mammary-gland
#12
Erika C R Bonsaglia, Marilia S Gomes, Igor F Canisso, Ziyao Zhou, Svetlana F Lima, Vera L M Rall, Georgios Oikonomou, Rodrigo C Bicalho, Fabio S Lima
Preventive infusion of antibiotics in the mammary gland of cows consumes 11 tons/year of medically relevant antimicrobials, yet, this practice might not be critical to prevent new infections in the healthy mammary gland of cows. Here, we used next-generation sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR to determine the impact of dry cow therapy without antibiotics on milk microbiome and bacterial load, respectively. Cows diagnosed as negative for mastitis at dry off were randomly allocated to receive antibiotic (intramammary ceftiofur hydrochloride) and teat sealant or just teat sealant...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807278/helminth-infections-on-organic-dairy-farms-in-spain
#13
I Orjales, M Mezo, M Miranda, M González-Warleta, F Rey-Crespo, M Vaarst, S Thamsborg, F J Diéguez, J A Castro-Hermida, M López-Alonso
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies in milk samples and F. hepatica infection was diagnosed by the detection of coproantigens in faecal samples. Dictyocaulus viviparus and Calicophoron daubneyi infections were diagnosed by conventional coprological techniques...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807076/review-behavioral-signs-of-estrus-and-the-potential-of-fully-automated-systems-for-detection-of-estrus-in-dairy-cattle
#14
S Reith, S Hoy
Efficient detection of estrus is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance in dairy cattle. In this context, comprehensive knowledge of estrus-related behaviors is fundamental to achieve optimal estrus detection rates. This review was designed to identify the characteristics of behavioral estrus as a necessary basis for developing strategies and technologies to improve the reproductive management on dairy farms. The focus is on secondary symptoms of estrus (mounting, activity, aggressive and agonistic behaviors) which seem more indicative than standing behavior...
August 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806673/preservation-and-reactivation-of-candidatus-jettenia-asiatica-and-anammoxoglobus-propionicus-using-different-preservative-agents
#15
A Viancelli, M C Pra, L A Scussiato, M Cantão, A M G Ibelli, A Kunz
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria have peculiar characteristics that make them difficult to cultivate. The conservation of these microorganisms in culture collections or laboratories requires successful preservation and reactivation techniques. Furthermore, studies have shown that successful reactivation may be preservative dependent. Considering this, the present study aimed to evaluate the preservation and reactivation of anammox consortia enriched from swine manure treatment lagoons, by using different preservative agents at different temperatures: KNO3 (at 4 °C), glycerol (-20 °C, -80 °C), and skimmed cow milk (-20 °C, -80 °C, -200 °C)...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806625/association-of-changes-among-body-condition-score-during-the-transition-period-with-nefa-and-bhba-concentrations-milk-production-fertility-and-health-of-holstein-cows
#16
R V Barletta, M Maturana Filho, P D Carvalho, T A Del Valle, A S Netto, F P Rennó, R D Mingoti, J R Gandra, G B Mourão, P M Fricke, R Sartori, E H Madureira, M C Wiltbank
Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805919/cows-exposed-to-heat-stress-during-fetal-life-exhibit-improved-thermal-tolerance
#17
B M S Ahmed, U Younas, T O Asar, S Dikmen, P J Hansen, G E Dahl
Maternal heat stress during late gestation affects calf function during postnatal life. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether calves that experience heat stress in utero have altered thermoregulatory responses to acute heat stress later in life. Specifically, the hypothesis was that heat stress in utero would improve the response to acute heat stress at maturity. Females were born to dams exposed to heat stress or cooled during late gestation preceding their birth. All animals were raised postnatally under identical management...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805912/prediction-of-fecal-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-excretion-for-chinese-holstein-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
Q B Qu, P Yang, R Zhao, S L Zhi, Z W Zhai, F F Ding, K Q Zhang
Mathematical models for predicting nitrogen and phosphorus excretion play a key role in manure application and environment monitoring. An analysis for prediction of fecal nitrogen (FN, g/d) and fecal phosphorus (FP, g/d) excretion for Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows was conducted using a data set from 15 dairy farms in northern China. The whole independent-variable data set, obtained with questionnaires, consisted of 110 sets of average diet nutrient compositions, including DMI (kg/d), CP content (% DM), OM intake (OMI, kg/d), nitrogen intake (NI, g/d), and phosphorus intake (PI, g/d), and animal characteristics, including average days in milk (DIM, d), average milk yield (MY, kg/d), and average BW (kg)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805897/effects-of-grass-silage-quality-and-level-of-feed-intake-on-enteric-methane-production-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#19
D Warner, A Bannink, B Hatew, H van Laar, J Dijkstra
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a compound feed meal (70:10:20 on DM basis). Treatments consisted of 4 grass silage qualities prepared from grass harvested from leafy through late heading stage, and offered to dairy cows at 96 ± 2.4 (mean ± SEM) days in milk (namely, high intake) and 217 ± 2...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804941/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-gene-expression-and-milk-synthesis-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#20
Lian Li, Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Genlin Wang
Heat stress can play a negative effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli; these alveolar mammary epithelial cells reflect the milk producing ability of dairy cows. In this study, we exposed bovine mammary epithelial cells to heat stress and compared them to a control group using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry...
August 14, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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