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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636003/in-vitro-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-by-whey-protein-to-preserve-intestinal-health
#1
T Sánchez-Moya, R López-Nicolás, D Planes, C A González-Bermúdez, G Ros-Berruezo, C Frontela-Saseta
The effect of several types of whey milk - cow, sheep, goat and a mixture of them (60 : 20 : 20, respectively) - was assessed in the human gut microbiota. The prebiotic potential of these substrates was evaluated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following faecal batch culture fermentations (mimicking colonic fermentation) for 48 hours, using faeces from normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) donors. Throughout the fermentation process, pH, gas production, short chain and branched fatty acids (SCFA-BCFA) were measured, as well as the changes of microbiota using qPCR...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629299/farm-and-cow-level-prevalence-of-bovine-digital-dermatitis-on-dairy-farms-in-taranaki-new-zealand
#2
D A Yang, C Heuer, R Laven, W D Vink, R N Chesterton
AIMS: This aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the herd and cow-level prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in dairy farms in the northern Taranaki region of New Zealand, and to identify whether there was any spatial clustering of herds with the disease. METHODS: A survey of 224 dairy farms in the northern Taranaki region of New Zealand was undertaken from September 2014 to February 2015. Following training in robust criteria to confirm BDD visually, a technician inspected the rear feet of every milking cow on the farms during milking...
June 19, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628759/do-infants-with-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-have-inadequate-levels-of-vitamin-d
#3
Cristiane M Silva, Silvia A da Silva, Margarida M de C Antunes, Gisélia Alves Pontes da Silva, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Kátia G Brandt
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) have inadequate vitamin D levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with CMPA and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification...
June 16, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627316/associations-between-management-practices-and-colostrum-quality-on-new-zealand-dairy-farms
#4
K S Denholm, J C Hunnam, E L Cuttance, S McDougall
AIMS: To describe colostrum quality in spring-calving dairy herds in New Zealand, in terms of Brix, pH and total and coliform bacterial counts and to investigate associations between farm management practices and these measures of colostrum quality. METHODS: In June 2015, commercial dairy farms (n=105), located in North and South Islands of New Zealand, were visited shortly after the first cows had calved, and when approximately 50% and 80% of the herd had calved (early, middle and late visits)...
June 18, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626609/detection-and-drug-resistance-profile-of-escherichia-coli-from-subclinical-mastitis-cows-and-water-supply-in-dairy-farms-in-saraburi-province-thailand
#5
Woranich Hinthong, Natapol Pumipuntu, Sirijan Santajit, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Shutipen Buranasinsup, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pisinee Aiumurai, Nitaya Indrawattana
Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625983/strain-level-metagenomic-analysis-of-the-fermented-dairy-beverage-nunu-highlights-potential-food-safety-risks
#6
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Kareem Daari, Orla O'Sullivan, Jennifer C Martin, Cornelius T Arthur, Marcus J Claesson, Karen P Scott, Paul D Cotter
The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here, we demonstrate that three short read alignment-based methods, MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, can accurately, and rapidly, identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes which were intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625184/detection-of-70-kda-heat-shock-protein-in-the-saliva-of-dairy-cows
#7
Elsa Lamy, Viktor Jurkovich, Lénia Rodrigues, Ana Geraldo, Liliana Cachucho, Flávio Silva, Catarina Matos, Fernando Capela E Silva, Cristina Pinheiro, László Könyves, Mikolt Bakony, Alfredo Pereira
This Research Communication describes, for the first time, the detection of HSP70 in saliva of dairy cows. Thermal stress is a major environmental stress that limits animal growth, metabolism, and productivity. The cellular response to heat stress involves the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs), presumably to protect the functional stability of cells at increasing temperatures. HSP70 has been found to be present in cattle blood serum and may also be present in other secretory fluids, such as saliva, as already observed in humans...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625182/bovine-intra-mammary-challenge-with-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-spp-dysgalactiae-to-explore-the-effect-on-the-response-of-complement-activity
#8
Susan Maye, James Flynn, Catherine Stanton, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Philip M Kelly
Recently published work as described by the authors highlighted the extent of Complement activity in bovine milk. Localised mastitis infection occurring in the mammary glands of dairy cows is readily detectable by the levels of somatic cells in milk. Thus, it is opportune to monitor Complement activity in milks in association with the animal's innate immune response to mammary infection. Preliminary screening of milk samples taken randomly showed that milk with a high somatic cell count (SCC) reduced growth of the Complement-sensitive strain E...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624286/genomic-evaluation-of-age-at-first-calving
#9
J L Hutchison, P M VanRaden, D J Null, J B Cole, D M Bickhart
From their time of birth until their first lactation, dairy heifers incur management, health, and feed expenses while not producing milk. Much effort has been made to estimate optimal ages of first calving (AFC) for cows to reduce these costs, which can be as high as $2.50 per day, and ensure that animals are productive earlier in life. To identify AFC for 3 dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss) that maximizes production, we retrieved phenotypic records for more than 14 million cows calving between 1997 and 2015 from the US national dairy database...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624284/comparing-the-effect-of-homogenization-and-heat-processing-on-the-properties-and-in-vitro-digestion-of-milk-from-organic-and-conventional-dairy-herds
#10
D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, D X Ren, P M Tomasula
We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624281/short-communication-genetic-parameters-for-milk-protein-composition-predicted-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-french-montb%C3%A3-liarde-normande-and-holstein-dairy-cattle-breeds
#11
M P Sanchez, M Ferrand, M Gelé, D Pourchet, G Miranda, P Martin, M Brochard, D Boichard
Genetic parameters for the major milk proteins were estimated in the 3 main French dairy cattle breeds (i.e. Montbéliarde, Normande, and Holstein) as part of the PhénoFinlait program. The 6 major milk protein contents as well as the total protein content (PC) were estimated from mid-infrared spectrometry on 133,592 test-day milk samples from 20,434 cows in first lactation. Lactation means, expressed as a percentage of milk (protein contents) or of protein (protein fractions), were analyzed with an animal mixed model including fixed environmental effects (herd, year × month of calving, and spectrometer) and a random genetic effect...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624278/estimation-of-prevalence-and-incidence-of-subclinical-mastitis-in-a-large-population-of-brazilian-dairy-herds
#12
Marcos Busanello, Rodolfo S Rossi, Laerte D Cassoli, José C F Pantoja, Paulo F Machado
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and incidence of subclinical mastitis (SM) in a large population of Brazilian dairy herds and to describe how these indices changed over time. A data set comprising individual cow somatic cell counts (SCC) from 18,316 test days (TD) of 1,809 herds that participated in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) program between January 2011 and May 2015 was available for analysis. Only tests that had ≥10 lactating cows and that were performed at 30 ± 10-d intervals were used for analysis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624276/cow-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-protein-fractions-and-free-amino-acids-predicted-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-bovine-milk
#13
A McDermott, M De Marchi, D P Berry, G Visentin, M A Fenelon, N Lopez-Villalobos, S McParland
The objective of the present study was to identify the factors associated with both the protein composition and free amino acid (FAA) composition of bovine milk predicted using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Milk samples were available from 7 research herds and 69 commercial herds. The spectral data from the research herds comprised 94,286 separate morning and evening milk samples; the spectral data from the commercial herds comprised 40,260 milk samples representing a composite sample of both the morning and evening milkings...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624274/effect-of-nutritional-immunomodulation-and-heat-stress-during-the-dry-period-on-subsequent-performance-of-cows
#14
Thiago F Fabris, Jimena Laporta, Fabiana N Corra, Yazielis M Torres, David J Kirk, Derek J McLean, J D Chapman, Geoffrey E Dahl
Heat stress in dairy cows during the dry period impairs milk yield in the next lactation. Feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) to lactating cows during heat stress may increase dry matter intake (DMI) and lowers respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), but the effects in dry cows are not known. We hypothesized that OG supplementation before, during, and after the dry period (approximately 160 d total) would overcome the effects of heat stress and improve cow performance in the next lactation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622794/schmallenberg-virus-predicting-within-herd-seroprevalence-using-bulk-tank-milk-antibody-titres-and-exploring-individual-animal-antibody-titres-using-empirical-distribution-functions-edf
#15
Á B Collins, J Grant, D Barrett, M L Doherty, A Hallinan, J F Mee
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges and can cause abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants and milk drop in dairy cattle. Estimating true within-herd seroprevalence is an essential component of efficient and cost-effective SBV surveillance programs. The objectives of this study were: (1) determine the correlation between bulk-tank milk (BTM)-ELISA results and within-herd seroprevalence, (2) evaluate the ability of BTM-ELISA results to predict within-herd seroprevalence and (3) explore the distributions of individual animal serology results using novel statistical methodology...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622786/dairy-cow-disability-weights
#16
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620918/development-of-a-h2-o2-sensitive-quantum-dots-based-fluorescent-sandwich-elisa-for-sensitive-detection-of-bovine-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-by-monoclonal-antibody
#17
Shengfa He, Xin Li, Jinyan Gao, Ping Tong, Hongbing Chen
BACKGROUND: Bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the major allergen in cows' milk, and specific epitope play a key role in food allergy. Developing a method specifically bind to IgE epitope is necessary for testing BLG and its allergenic residues. RESULTS: The monoclonal antibody (1G9) specific to IgE linear epitope for BLG was identified as high affinity and specificity. Based on 1G9, a sensitive fluorescent sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) was successfully developed using catalase-mediated fluorescence quenching of thiolated CdTe quantum dots in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as fluorescent signal output...
June 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620249/comparison-of-surti-goat-milk-with-cow-and-buffalo-milk-for-physicochemical-characteristics-selected-processing-related-parameters-and-activity-of-selected-enzymes
#18
Darshna B Prajapati, Dharti B Kapadiya, Amit Kumar Jain, Bhavbhuti M Mehta, Vijaykumar B Darji, Kishorkumar D Aparnathi
AIM: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615028/experimentally-induced-subclinical-mastitis-are-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-eliciting-similar-pain-responses
#19
Annalisa Elena Jolanda Giovannini, Bart Henricus Philippus van den Borne, Samantha Kay Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Rupert Max Bruckmaier, Claudia Spadavecchia
BACKGROUND: Pain accompanying mastitis has gained attention recently as a relevant welfare compromising aspect of disease. Adequate pain recognition and therapy are necessary in the context of a modern and ethically acceptable dairy care. For research purposes mastitis is often induced by intramammary infusion of immunogenic bacterial cell wall components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus are commonly administered to this end...
June 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611405/local-immunization-impacts-the-response-of-dairy-cows-to-escherichia-coli-mastitis
#20
Vincent Herry, Christophe Gitton, Guillaume Tabouret, Maryline Répérant, Laurine Forge, Christian Tasca, Florence B Gilbert, Edouard Guitton, Céline Barc, Christophe Staub, David G E Smith, Pierre Germon, Gilles Foucras, Pascal Rainard
Current vaccines to Escherichia coli mastitis have shown some albeit limited efficacy. Their mode of action has not been documented, and immune responses protecting the mammary gland against E. coli are not completely understood. To improve our knowledge of mammary gland immune protection, cows immunized either intramuscularly or intramammarily with the E. coli P4 were submitted to a homologous mastitis challenge. A third group of mock-immunized cows serve as challenge controls. Local immunization modified favorably the course of infection, by improving bacterial clearance while limiting inflammation...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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