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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912754/bovine-mastitis-prevalence-risk-factors-and-isolation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-herds-at-hawassa-milk-shed-south-ethiopia
#1
Rahmeto Abebe, Hagere Hatiya, Mesele Abera, Bekele Megersa, Kassahun Asmare
BACKGROUND: Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance in dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries like Ethiopia, where milk and milk products are scarce. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, identify the cow-and herd-level potential risk factors and isolate Staphylococcus aureus, one of etiological agents for contagious mastitis, from cows positive for mastitis. A total of 529 lactating cows selected randomly from 95 herds were screened by California mastitis test (CMT) for sub-clinical mastitis...
December 3, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908415/iodine-in-the-feed-of-cows-and-in-the-milk-with-a-view-to-the-consumer-s-iodine-supply
#2
Friedrich Schöne, Kathrin Spörl, Matthias Leiterer
Milk may be an iodine source for humans, but its magnitude depends on the iodine content of cow feed. The present investigation focused on the iodine level of feed and milk in German feeding practice in comparison with the results of previous milk monitoring and dose-response experiments with dairy cows. In 73 samples of straight feedstuffs (41 concentrates, 32 silages prepared from grass or green maize) and a total of 83 vitamin mineral premixes and compound feeds, respectively, the iodine content was determined and along with the expected daily iodine intake of cows...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907192/adaptive-test-schemes-for-control-of-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cows
#3
Carsten Kirkeby, Kaare Græsbøll, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Lasse Engbo Christiansen, Nils Toft, Tariq Halasa
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection that in dairy cattle causes reduced milk yield, weight loss, and ultimately fatal diarrhea. Subclinical animals can excrete bacteria (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP) in feces and infect other animals. Farmers identify the infectious animals through a variety of test-strategies, but are challenged by the lack of perfect tests. Frequent testing increases the sensitivity but the costs of testing are a cause of concern for farmers. Here, we used a herd simulation model using milk ELISA tests to evaluate the epidemiological and economic consequences of continuously adapting the sampling interval in response to the estimated true prevalence in the herd...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906983/tithonia-diversifolia-as-a-supplementary-feed-for-dairy-cows
#4
Rafael Sandin Ribeiro, Stephanie Amelia Terry, João Paulo Sacramento, Sylvia Rocha E Silveira, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Elsa Fernandes da Silva, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Marco Antônio Sundfeld da Gama, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira, Thierry Ribeiro Tomich, Rogério Martins Maurício, Alexandre Vieira Chaves
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904402/microbiological-quality-and-variability-of-natural-microbiota-in-croatian-cheese-maturing-in-lambskin-sacks
#5
Jadranka Frece, Marija Vrdoljak, Mija Filipčić, Marko Jelić, Iva Čanak, Željko Jakopović, Jelka Pleadin, Ivana Gobin, Tibela Landeka Dragičević, Ksenija Markov
As in the traditional production of cheese in lambskin sacks raw cow's or sheep's milk is mostly used, the purpose of this study is to see how the production affects the microbiological quality of the cheese. To do that, we tested 39 samples of raw cow's and sheep's milk, curd, ripened cheese (15, 30 and 45 days) and lambskin sacks for native microbial population. Two-thirds of the milk, curd and cheese samples had higher counts of staphylococci and enterobacteria than permitted by regulations. Not a single sample had Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, but we did find Escherichia coli in sheep's milk and cheese, and yeast and mould in both types of milk and cheese...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898944/life-cycle-efficiency-of-beef-production-viii-relationship-between-residual-feed-intake-of-heifers-and-subsequent-cow-efficiency-ratios
#6
M E Davis, P A Lancaster, J J Rutledge, L V Cundiff
Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898934/an-insufficient-glucose-supply-causes-reduced-lactose-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows-fed-rice-straw-instead-of-alfalfa-hay
#7
B Wang, F-Q Zhao, B-X Zhang, J-X Liu
The objective of the present study was to investigate the nutrient availability for milk production in the mammary gland of lactating cows fed different forage-based diets. The 3 diets contained 30% corn stover (CS), 30% rice straw (RS), or 23% alfalfa hay plus 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH) as a forage source. All diets contained 15% of DM as corn silage and 55% of DM as concentrate. The percentage of milk lactose was always lower in the RS-fed cows than in the cows fed AH or CS during the 12-wk feeding trial ( < 0...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898905/opportunities-for-genomic-prediction-for-fertility-using-endocrine-and-classical-fertility-traits-in-dairy-cattle
#8
A M M Tenghe, B Berglund, E Wall, R F Veerkamp, D J de Koning
Endocrine fertility traits, defined from progesterone concentration levels in milk, have been suggested as alternative indicators for fertility in dairy cows because they are less biased by farm management decisions and more directly reflect a cow's reproductive physiology than classical traits derived from insemination and calving data. To determine the potential use of endocrine fertility traits in genomic evaluations, the improvement in accuracy from using endocrine fertility traits concurrent with classical traits in the genomic prediction of fertility was quantified...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895813/cow-s-milk-allergy-towards-an-update-of-dracma-guidelines
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Fiocchi, Lamia Dahda, Christophe Dupont, Cristina Campoy, Vincenzo Fierro, Antonio Nieto
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated CMA were systematized in a GRADE guideline. OBJECTIVES & METHODS: After 6 years, the state of the knowledge in diagnosis and treatment of CMA has largely evolved. We summarize here the main advances, and exemplify indicating some specific points: studies aimed at better knowledge of the effects of breastfeeding and the production of new special formulae intended for the treatment of CMA. The literature (PubMed/MEDLINE) was searched using the following algorithms: (1) [milk allergy] AND diagnosis; (2) [milk allergy] AND [formul*] OR [breast*], setting the search engine [6-years] time and [human] limits...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894411/allele-specific-pcr-and-melting-curve-analysis-showed-relatively-high-frequency-of-%C3%AE-casein-gene-a1-allele-in-iranian-holstein-simmental-and-native-cows
#10
M Gholami, S H Hafezian, G Rahimi, A Farhadi, Z Rahimi, D Kahrizi, S Kiani, H Karim, S Vaziri, S Muhammadi, F Veisi, K Ghadiri, H Shetabi, J Zargooshi
There are two allelic forms of A1 and A2 of β-casein gene in dairy cattle. Proteolytic digestion of bovine β-casein A1 type produces bioactive peptide of β-casomorphin-7 known as milk devil. β-casomorphin-7 causes many diseases, including type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease syndrome, sudden death and madness. The aim of the present study was to determine the different allelic forms of β-casein gene in Iranian Holstein, Simmental and native cattle in order to identify A1 and A2 variants. The blood samples were collected randomly and DNA was extracted using modified salting out method...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892878/inflammatory-biomarkers-are-associated-with-ketosis-in-periparturient-holstein-cows
#11
Mohannad Abuajamieh, Sara K Kvidera, Maria V Sanz Fernandez, Amir Nayeri, Nathan C Upah, Erin A Nolan, Sam M Lei, Jeffery M DeFrain, Howard B Green, Katie M Schoenberg, William E Trout, Lance H Baumgard
Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm...
September 21, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892648/milking-performance-evaluation-and-factors-affecting-milking-claw-vacuum-levels-with-flow-simulator
#12
Masafumi Enokidani, Kazuhiro Kawai, Yasunori Shinozuka, Aiko Watanabe
Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21...
November 28, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891592/evaluation-of-a-cow-side-milk-progesterone-assay-and-assessment-of-the-positive-predictive-value-of-oestrus-diagnosis-by-dairy-farmers-in-new-south-wales
#13
L Ingenhoff, E Hall, J K House
OBJECTIVES: The three objectives of this study were to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of oestrus diagnosis (heat detection accuracy) by dairy farmers, calculate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the P4 Rapid milk progesterone assay for detecting a corpus luteum and evaluate the economics of using a cow-side milk progesterone assay designed to aid oestrus diagnosis. METHODS: Milk samples were collected from 752 cows diagnosed in oestrus by farm personnel on 14 dairy farms...
December 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891506/synchronization-of-dairy-cows-does-not-limit-the-behavioral-response-to-treatment-in-mixed-treatment-experimental-designs
#14
Meagan T M King, Robin E Crossley, Trevor J DeVries
In many research studies, animals assigned to different treatments are housed adjacently or together in a group. One critique of these designs has been the potential role of behavioral facilitation and synchronization between animals on different treatments in mixed treatment groups (heterogeneous groups). To evaluate this, we compared the synchrony of feeding behavior between dairy cows housed in heterogeneous groups to cows exposed to the same treatment simultaneously (homogenous groups). Twenty-four cows were exposed to each of the two treatments over 21 days in a replicated cross-over design...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890338/a-longitudinal-study-on-transmission-of-staphylococcus-aureus-genotype-b-in-swiss-communal-dairy-herds
#15
Bart H P van den Borne, Hans U Graber, Verena Voelk, Carlotta Sartori, Adrian Steiner, M Christina Haerdi-Landerer, Michèle Bodmer
Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S...
November 18, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889169/characterization-of-biocide-tolerant-bacteria-isolated-from-cheese-and-dairy-small-medium-enterprises
#16
Ma Luisa Fernández Márquez, Ma José Grande Burgos, Ma Carmen López Aguayo, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas
A collection of 120 bacterial isolates from small medium enterprises involved in the production of cow milk and the manufacture of goat cheese were screened for sensitivity to biocides benzalkonium chloride (BC), cetrimide (CT), hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP), triclosan (TC), hexachlorophene (CF) and poly-(hexamethylen guanidinium) hydrochloride (PHMG). Nineteen isolates were selected according to biocide tolerance and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactococcus sp. (6) Enterococcus sp. (1), Lactobacillus sp...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889128/genome-wide-association-study-for-lactation-persistency-female-fertility-longevity-and-lifetime-profit-index-traits-in-holstein-dairy-cattle
#17
S Nayeri, M Sargolzaei, M K Abo-Ismail, S Miller, F Schenkel, S S Moore, P Stothard
Female fertility in Holstein cattle can decline when intense genetic selection is placed on milk production. One approach to improving fertility is to identify the genomic regions and variants affecting fertility traits and then incorporate this knowledge into selection decisions. The objectives of this study were to identify or refine the positions of the genomic regions associated with lactation persistency, female fertility traits (age at first service, cow first service to conception, heifer and cow nonreturn rates), longevity traits (herd life, indirect herd life, and direct herd life), and lifetime profit index in the North American Holstein dairy cattle population...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889127/a-comparison-of-semen-diluents-on-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-fertility-of-liquid-bull-semen
#18
Edel M Murphy, Craig Murphy, Ciara O'Meara, Gemma Dunne, Bernard Eivers, Patrick Lonergan, Sean Fair
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on calving rate (CR) following artificial insemination with liquid bull semen stored for up to 3 d postcollection. In experiment 1, the effect of storing liquid semen maintained at a constant ambient temperature in 1 of 7 different diluents [Caprogen (homemade), OptiXcell, BioXcell, BullXcell, INRA96, NutriXcell, or AndroMed (all commercially available)] on total and progressive motility was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 2, the field fertility of liquid semen diluted in Caprogen, BioXcell, or INRA96 and inseminated on d 1, 2, or 3 postcollection was assessed in comparison to frozen-thawed semen (total of n = 19,126 inseminations)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889125/analysis-of-pasture-supplementation-strategies-by-means-of-a-mechanistic-model-of-ruminal-digestion-and-metabolism-in-the-dairy-cow
#19
J P McNamara, M J Auldist, L C Marett, P J Moate, W J Wales
Effective pasture supplementation is critical to the efficiency of resource management in milk production. We understand a great deal about ruminal and metabolic processes in dairy cattle that control efficiency but we need to improve our ability to predict effects of practical feeding strategies based on the basic biological processes of the cow. Therefore, a large-scale pasture supplementation study was used to explore the details of both practical management and the underlying biological principles and processes involved...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889123/validation-of-the-m-stage-scoring-system-for-digital-dermatitis-on-dairy-cows-in-the-milking-parlor
#20
L Solano, H W Barkema, C Jacobs, K Orsel
A high prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD) and the benefits of early topical treatment highlight the need for simple tools for routine DD detection. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of scoring DD lesions using the 5 M-stage scoring system in the milking parlor compared with the trimming chute as the gold standard. Three observers inspected 3,585 cows and 6,991 hind feet from 9 farms in the milking parlor using a mirror (glued to a plastic kitchen spatula) and a headlamp, followed by inspection in a trimming chute within 5 d...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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