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Multiple sclerosis and iron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851995/key-clinical-benefits-of-neuroimaging-at-7t
#2
Siegfried Trattnig, Elisabeth Springer, Wolfgang Bogner, Gilbert Hangel, Bernhard Strasser, Barbara Dymerska, Pedro Lima Cardoso, Simon Daniel Robinson
The growing interest in ultra-high field MRI, with more than 35.000 MR examinations already performed at 7T, is related to improved clinical results with regard to morphological as well as functional and metabolic capabilities. Since the signal-to-noise ratio increases with the field strength of the MR scanner, the most evident application at 7T is to gain higher spatial resolution in the brain compared to 3T. Of specific clinical interest for neuro applications is the cerebral cortex at 7T, for the detection of changes in cortical structure, like the visualization of cortical microinfarcts and cortical plaques in Multiple Sclerosis...
November 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829982/new-insights-into-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Bożena Adamczyk, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by an inflammatory process and demyelination. The etiology of the disease is still not fully understood. Therefore, finding new etiological factors is of such crucial importance. It is suspected that the development of MS may be affected by oxidative stress (OS). In the acute phase OS initiates inflammatory processes and in the chronic phase it sustains neurodegeneration. Redox processes in MS are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulation of axonal bioenergetics, iron accumulation in the brain, impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, and OS memory...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808258/significant-glial-alterations-in-response-to-iron-loading-in-a-novel-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-culture-model
#4
Sinead Healy, Jill McMahon, Peter Owens, Una FitzGerald
Aberrant iron deposition in the brain is associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. To study the collective response to iron loading, we have used hippocampal organotypic slices as a platform to develop a novel ex vivo model of iron accumulation. We demonstrated differential uptake and toxicity of iron after 12 h exposure to 10 μM ferrous ammonium sulphate, ferric citrate or ferrocene. Having established the supremacy of ferrocene in this model, the cultures were then loaded with 0...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799546/in-vivo-nanoparticle-imaging-of-innate-immune-cells-can-serve-as-a-marker-of-disease-severity-in-a-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Klara Kirschbaum, Jana K Sonner, Matthias W Zeller, Katrin Deumelandt, Julia Bode, Rakesh Sharma, Thomas Krüwel, Manuel Fischer, Angelika Hoffmann, Milene Costa da Silva, Martina U Muckenthaler, Wolfgang Wick, Björn Tews, John W Chen, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Michael Platten, Michael O Breckwoldt
Innate immune cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Current clinical imaging is restricted to visualizing secondary effects of inflammation, such as gliosis and blood-brain barrier disruption. Advanced molecular imaging, such as iron oxide nanoparticle imaging, can allow direct imaging of cellular and molecular activity, but the exact cell types that phagocytose nanoparticles in vivo and how phagocytic activity relates to disease severity is not well understood...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796537/slow-expansion-of-multiple-sclerosis-iron-rim-lesions-pathology-and-7%C3%A2-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Assunta Dal-Bianco, Günther Grabner, Claudia Kronnerwetter, Michael Weber, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Eduard Auff, Fritz Leutmezer, Siegfried Trattnig, Hans Lassmann, Francesca Bagnato, Simon Hametner
In multiple sclerosis (MS), iron accumulates inside activated microglia/macrophages at edges of some chronic demyelinated lesions, forming rims. In susceptibility-based magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, iron-laden microglia/macrophages induce a rim of decreased signal at lesion edges and have been associated with slowly expanding lesions. We aimed to determine (1) what lesion types and stages are associated with iron accumulation at their edges, (2) what cells at the lesion edges accumulate iron and what is their activation status, (3) how reliably can iron accumulation at the lesion edge be detected by 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (4) if lesions with rims enlarge over time in vivo, when compared to lesions without rims...
October 27, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746629/the-brain-proteome-of-the-ubiquitin-ligase-peli1-knock-out-mouse-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#7
Ragnhild Reehorst Lereim, Eystein Oveland, Yichuan Xiao, Øivind Torkildsen, Stig Wergeland, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Shao-Cong Sun, Frode S Berven
The ubiquitin ligase Peli1 has previously been suggested as a potential treatment target in multiple sclerosis. In the multiple sclerosis disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Peli1 knock-out led to less activated microglia and less inflammation in the central nervous system. Despite being important in microglia, Peli1 expression has also been detected in glial and neuronal cells. In the present study the overall brain proteomes of Peli1 knock-out mice and wild-type mice were compared prior to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction, at onset of the disease and at disease peak...
September 2016: Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725112/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-astrocyte-transcriptome-in-multiple-sclerosis-normal-appearing-white-matter-reveals-a-neuroprotective-role
#8
Rachel Waller, M Nicola Woodroofe, Stephen B Wharton, Paul G Ince, Simona Francese, Paul R Heath, Alex Cudzich-Madry, Ruth H Thomas, Natalie Rounding, Basil Sharrack, Julie E Simpson
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). White matter lesions in MS are surrounded by areas of non-demyelinated normal appearing white matter (NAWM) with complex pathology, including blood brain barrier dysfunction, axonal damage and glial activation. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type within the CNS, may respond and/or contribute to lesion pathogenesis. We aimed to characterise the transcriptomic profile of astrocytes in NAWM to determine whether specific glial changes exist in the NAWM which contribute to lesion development or prevent disease progression...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570231/chronic-iron-overload-induces-gender-dependent-changes-in-iron-homeostasis-lipid-peroxidation-and-clinical-course-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
Božena Ćurko-Cofek, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Jelena Marinić, Marin Tota, Nada Starčević Čizmarević, Čedomila Milin, Smiljana Ristić, Biserka Radošević-Stašić, Vesna Barac-Latas
To analyze iron- and gender-dependent mechanisms possibly involved in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in this study we evaluated the effects of iron overload (IO) on iron status and lipid peroxidation processes (LPO) in tissues of female and male DA rats during chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a well-established MS animal model. Rats were treated by iron sucrose (75mg/kg bw/day) or with saline solution during two weeks before the sensitization with bovine brain homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant...
August 26, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500074/pathological-relationships-involving-iron-and-myelin-may-constitute-a-shared-mechanism-linking-various-rare-and-common-brain-diseases
#10
Moones Heidari, Sam H Gerami, Brianna Bassett, Ross M Graham, Anita C G Chua, Ritambhara Aryal, Michael J House, Joanna F Collingwood, Conceição Bettencourt, Henry Houlden, Mina Ryten, John K Olynyk, Debbie Trinder, Daniel M Johnstone, Elizabeth A Milward
We previously demonstrated elevated brain iron levels in myelinated structures and associated cells in a hemochromatosis Hfe (-/-) xTfr2 (mut) mouse model. This was accompanied by altered expression of a group of myelin-related genes, including a suite of genes causatively linked to the rare disease family 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA). Expanded data mining and ontological analyses have now identified additional myelin-related transcriptome changes in response to brain iron loading...
2016: Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459926/no-evidence-for-increased-brain-iron-deposition-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-disease
#11
Thomas Gattringer, Michael Khalil, Christian Langkammer, Margit Jehna, Alexander Pichler, Daniela Pinter, Markus Kneihsl, Katja Petrovic, Stefan Ropele, Franz Fazekas, Christian Enzinger
Besides specific iron accumulation in some neurodegenerative disorders, increased iron deposition in cerebral deep gray matter (DGM) is found in multiple sclerosis. As this is considered largely a white matter (WM) disease, we speculated that patients with more severe ischemic WM hyperintensities (WMH) might also have an increased iron concentration in DGM structures and tested this assumption by using magnetic resonance imaging-based quantitative R2* relaxometry. WMH severity was measured in 61 patients with acute transient neurological symptoms (mean age: 71...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443156/-therapy-of-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-treatment-algorithm
#12
REVIEW
C Veauthier, F Paul
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and one of the main reasons for underemployment and early retirement. The mechanisms of MS-related fatigue are unknown but comorbid disorders play a major role. Anemia, diabetes, side effects of medication and depression should be ruled out. Moreover, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) should be differentiated from fatigue. No approved medicinal therapy of MS fatigue is currently available. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of current treatment strategies with a particular focus on secondary fatigue due to sleep disorders...
December 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432676/multiple-sclerosis
#13
Massimo Filippi, Paolo Preziosa, Maria A Rocca
Due to its sensitivity to the different multiple sclerosis (MS)-related abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established tool to diagnose MS and to monitor its evolution. MRI has been included in the diagnostic workup of patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS, and ad hoc criteria have been proposed and are regularly updated. In patients with definite MS, the ability of conventional MRI techniques to explain patients' clinical status and progression of disability is still suboptimal...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420299/changes-in-serum-ceruloplasmin-levels-based-on-immunomodulatory-treatments-and-melatonin-supplementation-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#14
Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Paweł Sowa, Sebastian Mucha, Jacek Zostawa, Bogdan Mazur, Maciej Owczarek, Krystyna Pierzchała
BACKGROUND The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently unknown, but it is thought that oxidative damage and iron metabolism mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to examine ceruloplasmin concentration in MS patients based on various immunomodifying therapies and to test the effect of antioxidative melatonin on ceruloplasmin levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study included 102 MS patients and 15 healthy controls. Patients were divided into groups according to different immunomodifying therapies: interferons beta 1a, interferons beta 1b, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, and immunomodifying pre-treatment (A, B, G, Mx, and P groups, respectively), and the relapse R group...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397642/metallo-pathways-to-alzheimer-s-disease-lessons-from-genetic-disorders-of-copper-trafficking
#15
M A Greenough, A Ramírez Munoz, A I Bush, C M Opazo
Copper is an essential metal ion that provides catalytic function to numerous enzymes and also regulates neurotransmission and intracellular signaling. Conversely, a deficiency or excess of copper can cause chronic disease in humans. Menkes and Wilson disease are two rare heritable disorders of copper transport that are characterized by copper deficiency and copper overload, respectively. Changes to copper status are also a common feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
September 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282860/in-vivo-7t-mr-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-reveals-opposite-susceptibility-contrast-between-cortical-and-white-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
W Bian, E Tranvinh, T Tourdias, M Han, T Liu, Y Wang, B Rutt, M M Zeineh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic susceptibility measured with quantitative susceptibility mapping has been proposed as a biomarker for demyelination and inflammation in patients with MS, but investigations have mostly been on white matter lesions. A detailed characterization of cortical lesions has not been performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate magnetic susceptibility in both cortical and WM lesions in MS by using quantitative susceptibility mapping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with MS were scanned on a 7T MR imaging scanner with T1-, T2-, and T2*-weighted sequences...
June 9, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270171/persistent-7-tesla-phase-rim-predicts-poor-outcome-in-new-multiple-sclerosis-patient-lesions
#17
Martina Absinta, Pascal Sati, Matthew Schindler, Emily C Leibovitch, Joan Ohayon, Tianxia Wu, Alessandro Meani, Massimo Filippi, Steven Jacobson, Irene C M Cortese, Daniel S Reich
BACKGROUND: In some active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, a strong immune reaction at the lesion edge may contain growth and thereby isolate the lesion from the surrounding parenchyma. Our previous studies suggest that this process involves opening of the blood-brain barrier in capillaries at the lesion edge, seen on MRI as centripetal contrast enhancement and a colocalized phase rim. We hypothesized that using these features to characterize early lesion evolution will allow in vivo tracking of tissue degeneration and/or repair, thus improving the evaluation of potential therapies for chronic active lesions...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256856/quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-r2-measured-changes-during-white-matter-lesion-development-in-multiple-sclerosis-myelin-breakdown-myelin-debris-degradation-and-removal-and-iron-accumulation
#18
Y Zhang, S A Gauthier, A Gupta, W Chen, J Comunale, G C-Y Chiang, D Zhou, G Askin, W Zhu, D Pitt, Y Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* are sensitive to myelin and iron changes in multiple sclerosis lesions. This study was designed to characterize lesion changes on quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* at various gadolinium-enhancement stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 64 patients with MS with different enhancing patterns in white matter lesions: nodular, shell-like, nonenhancing < 1 year old, and nonenhancing 1-3 years old...
September 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242432/astrocytes-in-oligodendrocyte-lineage-development-and-white-matter-pathology
#19
REVIEW
Jiasi Li, Lei Zhang, Yongxin Chu, Michael Namaka, Benqiang Deng, Jiming Kong, Xiaoying Bi
White matter is primarily composed of myelin and myelinated axons. Structural and functional completeness of myelin is critical for the reliable and efficient transmission of information. White matter injury has been associated with the development of many demyelinating diseases. Despite a variety of scientific advances aimed at promoting re-myelination, their benefit has proven at best to be marginal. Research suggests that the failure of the re-myelination process may be the result of an unfavorable microenvironment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239049/white-matter-tract-injury-is-associated-with-deep-gray-matter-iron-deposition-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Niels Bergsland, Eleonora Tavazzi, Maria Marcella Laganà, Francesca Baglio, Pietro Cecconi, Stefano Viotti, Robert Zivadinov, Giuseppe Baselli, Marco Rovaris
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With respect to healthy controls (HCs), increased iron concentrations in the deep gray matter (GM) and decreased white matter (WM) integrity are common findings in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The association between these features of the disease remains poorly understood. We investigated the relationship between deep iron deposition in the deep GM and WM injury in associated fiber tracts in MS patients. METHODS: Sixty-six MS patients (mean age 50...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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