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Dementia vitamin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225048/thiamine-deficiency-oxidative-metabolic-pathways-and-ethanol-induced-neurotoxicity-how-poor-nutrition-contributes-to-the-alcoholic-syndrome-as-marchiafava-bignami-disease
#1
REVIEW
L M P Fernandes, F R Bezerra, M C Monteiro, M L Silva, F R de Oliveira, R R Lima, E A Fontes-Júnior, C S F Maia
Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219990/an-outbreak-of-pellagra-in-the-kasese-catchment-area-dowa-malawi
#2
George Matapandeu, Samuel H Dunn, Patti Pagels
Pellagra is a deficiency of niacin or its amino acid precursor, tryptophan, which presents with the classic four Ds: the characteristic dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if left untreated. The incidence of pellagra is quite rare presently because of increased awareness and strategies such as vitamin fortification. However, the deficiency is still present in cultures that rely on maize as their primary source of sustenance. We report a recent outbreak in a catchment area in Kasese, Malawi, of 691 cases of pellagra which were successfully treated with niacin supplementation...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202477/vitamin-d-is-not-associated-with-incident-dementia-or-cognitive-impairment-an-18-y-follow-up-study-in-community-living-old-men
#3
Erika Olsson, Liisa Byberg, Brita Karlström, Tommy Cederholm, Håkan Melhus, Per Sjögren, Lena Kilander
Background: Vitamin D has been implicated as being important for maintaining cognitive function in old age. Results from longitudinal studies examining the association of vitamin D with incident dementia and cognitive impairment have been inconsistent.Objective: We investigated the relation between vitamin D, assessed in 3 different ways, and the risk of dementia.Design: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, assessed dietary vitamin D intake with the use of 7-d dietary records, and created a vitamin D-synthesis genetic risk score (GRS) at baseline (1991-1995) in a cohort of 1182 Swedish men (mean age: 71 y)...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182163/which-is-preferable-for-orthostatic-hypotension-diagnosis-in-older-adults-active-standing-test-or-head-up-tilt-table-test
#4
Ali Ekrem Aydin, Pinar Soysal, Ahmet Turan Isik
BACKGROUND: Correct evaluation of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is crucial in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality and morbidity. The study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in older adults. METHODS: Active standing test (AST) and head-up tilt table (HUT) test as well as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including mini-mental state examination or the cognitive state test, mini-nutritional assessment, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment indexes, were performed in 290 geriatric patients...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167237/does-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-enhance-cognition-a-randomized-trial-in-healthy-adults
#5
Jacqueline A Pettersen
BACKGROUND: Insufficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognition are unclear. It was hypothesized that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation would result in enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly among adults whose 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (<75nmol/L) at baseline. METHODS: Healthy adults (n=82) from northern British Columbia, Canada (54° north latitude) with baseline 25(OH)D levels ≤100nmol/L were randomized and blinded to High Dose (4000IU/d) versus Low Dose (400IU/d) vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for 18weeks...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164279/calcipotriol-inhibits-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-by-a-calbindin-d28k-dependent-mechanism
#6
Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the formation of microscopically visible intracellular protein aggregates. α-Synuclein is the key aggregating protein in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic Lewy body inclusions. Previous studies have shown relative sparing of neurons in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies that are positive for the vitamin D-dependent calcium buffering protein, calbindin-D28k and that α-synuclein aggregates are excluded from calbindin-D28k-positive neurons...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128435/vitamin-e-for-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
REVIEW
Nicolas Farina, David Llewellyn, Mokhtar Gad El Kareem Nasr Isaac, Naji Tabet
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E occurs naturally in the diet. It has several biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant to scavenge toxic free radicals. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to the pathological processes behind cognitive impairment has led to interest in the use of vitamin E supplements to treat mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2006 and 2012...
January 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#8
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092694/proton-pump-inhibitors-risks-of-long-term-use
#9
REVIEW
Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Stefano Rabitti, Maria Laura Artesiani, Dania Gelli, Marco Montagnani, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Franco Bazzoli
Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs and their use is increasing, in particular for long term treatment, often being over-prescribed and used for inappropriate conditions. In recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards a wide range of adverse effects, and even when a potential underlying biological mechanism is plausible, the clinical evidence of the adverse effect is often weak. Several long term side effects have been investigated ranging from interaction with other drugs, increased risk of infection, reduced intestinal absorption of vitamins and minerals, and more recently kidney damage and dementia...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#10
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086755/vitamin-d-deficiency-as-a-risk-factor-for-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Isolde Sommer, Ursula Griebler, Christina Kien, Stefanie Auer, Irma Klerings, Renate Hammer, Peter Holzer, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Sunlight exposure and high vitamin D status have been hypothesised to reduce the risk of developing dementia. The objective of our research was to determine whether lack of sunlight and hypovitaminosis D over time are associated with dementia. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, ICONDA, and reference lists of pertinent review articles from 1990 to October 2015. We conducted random effects meta-analyses of published and unpublished data to evaluate the influence of sunlight exposure or vitamin D as a surrogate marker on dementia risk...
January 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075382/b-vitamin-intake-and-biomarker-status-in-relation-to-cognitive-decline-in-healthy-older-adults-in-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#12
Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward, Fergal Tracey, Leane Hoey, Anne M Molloy, Kristina Pentieva, Helene McNulty
Advancing age can be associated with an increase in cognitive dysfunction, a spectrum of disability that ranges in severity from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Folate and the other B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with cognition in ageing but the evidence is not entirely clear. The hypothesis addressed in this study was that lower dietary intake or biomarker status of folate and/or the metabolically related B-vitamins would be associated with a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year follow-up period in healthy older adults...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073136/-proton-pump-inhibitor-side-effects-and-complications-of%C3%A2-long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-administration
#13
Hendrik Ueberschaer, Hans-Dieter Allescher
Proton Pump Inhibitors are among the most common drugs taken. The indication is for treatment of heartburn, reflux disease, prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcers, in combination with NSAIDs and steroids as well as H. pylori-eradication. PPI's are widely used, even with non-specific symptoms. This certainly has to do with good tolerability and a previously considered low side effect profile. At the moment, there is growing evidence that the long-term intake of PPI's may not be as safe as assumed. In addition to interactions with some drugs, including platelet aggregation inhibitors, recent studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction, interstitial nephritis, chronic renal injury, infections, vitamin deficiencies and electrolyte shifts as well developing dementia...
January 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999849/dietary-supplement-use-in-older-people-attending-memory-clinics-in-australia
#15
A J Cross, J George, M C Woodward, D Ames, H Brodaty, R A Elliott
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement use is common in older adults. There has been limited research in people attending memory clinics. OBJECTIVES: To explore the use of dietary supplements in older people attending Australian memory clinics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Prospective Research In MEmory clinics (PRIME) study. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older people who attended nine memory clinics and had a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973419/potential-links-between-impaired-one-carbon-metabolism-due-to-polymorphisms-inadequate-b-vitamin-status-and-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Troesch, Peter Weber, M Hasan Mohajeri
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia and no preventive or effective treatment has been established to date. The etiology of AD is poorly understood, but genetic and environmental factors seem to play a role in its onset and progression. In particular, factors affecting the one-carbon metabolism (OCM) are thought to be important and elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels, indicating impaired OCM, have been associated with AD. We aimed at evaluating the role of polymorphisms of key OCM enzymes in the etiology of AD, particularly when intakes of relevant B-vitamins are inadequate...
December 10, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942349/the-risks-and-benefits-of-sun-exposure-2016
#17
REVIEW
David G Hoel, Marianne Berwick, Frank R de Gruijl, Michael F Holick
Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health...
January 2016: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942348/estimated-economic-benefit-of-increasing-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-of-canadians-to-or-above-100%C3%A2-nmol-l
#18
REVIEW
William B Grant, Susan J Whiting, Gerry K Schwalfenberg, Stephen J Genuis, Samantha M Kimball
Mounting evidence from observational and clinical trials indicates that optimal vitamin D reduces the risk of many diseases. We used observational studies and recent data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of Canadians from Cycle 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to estimate the reduction in disease incidence, mortality rates, and the total economic burden (direct plus indirect) of disease if 25(OH)D concentrations of all Canadians were raised to or above 100 nmol/L. Recently, the mean 25(OH)D concentration of Canadians varied depending on age and season (51-69 nmol/L), with an overall mean of 61 nmol/L...
January 2016: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898035/dietary-b-vitamins-and-a-10-year-risk-of-dementia-in-older-persons
#19
Sophie Lefèvre-Arbogast, Catherine Féart, Jean-François Dartigues, Catherine Helmer, Luc Letenneur, Cécilia Samieri
B vitamins may lower the risk of dementia, yet epidemiological findings, mostly from countries with folic acid fortification, have remained inconsistent. We evaluated in a large French cohort of older persons the associations between dietary B vitamins and long-term incident dementia. We included 1321 participants from the Three-City Study who completed a 24 h dietary recall, were free of dementia at the time of diet assessment, and were followed for an average of 7.4 years. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple potential confounders, including overall diet quality, higher intake of folate was inversely associated with the risk of dementia (p for trend = 0...
November 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849379/lower-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-is-associated-with-obesity-but-not-common-chronic-conditions-an-observational-study-of-african-american-and-caucasian-male-veterans
#20
Jacqueline L Cartier, Subhash C Kukreja, Elena Barengolts
Objective The study examined whether vitamin D insufficiency is a predictor of prevalent and/or incident common chronic conditions in African American men (AAM) and Caucasian men (CAM). Methods 1,017 men were recruited at an urban VA medical center and followed prospectively for a mean of 5.4 years. Prevalent and incident chronic conditions evaluated were: obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cancer, depression, dementia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD, including coronary artery disease [CAD], cerebrovascular accident [CVA], and congestive heart failure [CHF])...
November 16, 2016: Endocrine Practice
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