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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937611/hcg-biological-functions-and-clinical-applications
#1
REVIEW
Chinedu Nwabuobi, Sefa Arlier, Frederick Schatz, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, and represents a key embryonic signal that is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. hCG can activate various signaling cascades including mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2), protein kinase C (PKC), and/or protein kinase A (PKA) in several cells types by binding to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) or potentially by direct/indirect interaction with transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFβR)...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936745/circulating-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
Yihua Bei, Ting Chen, Daniel Dumitru Banciu, Dragos Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao
Circulating exosomes could arrive in distant tissues via blood circulation, thus directly communicating with target cells and rapidly regulating intracellular signalings. Circulating exosomes and exosomal cargos are critically involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology, such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Circulating exosomes enriched with various types of biological molecules can be changed not only in the number but also in the composite cargos upon cardiac injury, such as myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and sepsis cardiomyopathy, which may further influence cardiomyocyte function and contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935537/affibody-molecules-for-the-molecular-imaging-and-targeted-drug-delivery-in-the-management-of-breast-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Anindita De, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Breast cancer is one of the leading reasons for the morbidity and mortality of cancer related death globally. The modern therapies are basically the combination of the breast-preserving surgeries or ablation with or without node biopsy or destroying the carcinoma cells adjuvant with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal or biological therapies depending upon the nature of the receptor of the cancerous cells, nature of the lymph node, as well as the tendency of the recurrence. For decade's carcinoma management suffered by the limitation of imagining, targeting and penetrability problem associated with management and cure of this deadly disease leads to unwanted chemo-toxicity and side effects...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933536/a-bimetallic-silver-neodymium-theranostic-nanoparticle-with-multimodal-nir-mri-ct-imaging-and-combined-chemo-photothermal-therapy
#4
Sandeep K Mishra, S Kannan
An engineered metallic nanostructure is an excellent candidate for "theranosis" of cancer, having intrinsic properties of multimodal imaging and therapy. Toward this target, the development of silver-neodymium bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-Nd BNPs) via microwave-assisted polyol synthesis is presented. The resultant Ag-Nd BNPs exhibit good monodispersity with average size of 10 nm, fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) region, and magnetic properties. The Ag-Nd BNPs also validate MRI, CT, and NIR trimodal imaging ability and enunciate valuable temperature response upon irradiation under a NIR laser...
September 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933418/biomarkers-in-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Joaquin Bobillo Lobato, Maria Jiménez Hidalgo, Luis M Jiménez Jiménez
A biomarker is generally an analyte that indicates the presence and/or extent of a biological process, which is in itself usually directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. The biomarkers in the field of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) have particular relevance where spectacular therapeutic initiatives have been achieved, most notably with the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). There are two main types of biomarkers. The first group is comprised of those molecules whose accumulation is directly enhanced as a result of defective lysosomal function...
December 17, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932769/microrna-expression-in-a-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumour
#6
Darrell Green, Irina Mohorianu, Isabelle Piec, Jeremy Turner, Clare Beadsmoore, Andoni Toms, Richard Ball, John Nolan, Iain McNamara, Tamas Dalmay, William D Fraser
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are a heterogeneous set of bone and soft tissue neoplasms that can cause a number of paraneoplastic syndromes such as tumour induced osteomalacia. The term phosphaturic comes from the common finding that these tumours secrete high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 which causes renal phosphate wasting leading to hypophosphatemia. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are rare and diagnosis is difficult. A very active 68 year old male presented with bone pain and muscle weakness...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932144/peri-implantitis-and-extracellular-matrix-antibodies-a-case-control-study
#7
Piero Papi, Stefano Di Carlo, Daniele Rosella, Francesca De Angelis, Mario Capogreco, Giorgio Pompa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to compare patients with a healthy peri-implant environment and patients affected by peri-implantitis, evaluating the occurrence of antibodies to extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. The authors hypothesized the presence of ECM autoantibodies in serum of peri-implantitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: one with dental implants with a diagnosis of peri-implantitis and one control group with implants classified as being "healthy...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932079/nano-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-in-pancreatic-cancer-current-evidences-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Guido Giordano, Massimo Pancione, Nunzio Olivieri, Pietro Parcesepe, Marianna Velocci, Tania Di Raimo, Luigi Coppola, Giuseppe Toffoli, Mario Rosario D'Andrea
Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is an aggressive and chemoresistant disease, representing the fourth cause of cancer related deaths in western countries. Majority of patients have unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease at time of diagnosis and the 5-year survival rate in these conditions is extremely low. For more than a decade gemcitabine has been the cornerstone of metastatic PDAC treatment, although survival benefit was very poor. PDAC cells are surrounded by an intense desmoplastic reaction that may create a barrier to the drugs penetration within the tumor...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928965/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-cardiomyopathy
#9
REVIEW
Paulino Alvarez, Wh Wilson Tang
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle leading to abnormal structure or function in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, or valvular or congenital heart disease. Currently, cardiomyopathy is the leading diagnosis of heart transplant patients worldwide. Incorporation of next-generation sequencing strategies will likely revolutionize genetic testing in cardiomyopathy. The use of patient-specific pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for disease modeling and therapeutic testing has opened a new avenue for precision medicine in cardiomyopathy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928843/expression-and-clinical-relevance-of-spopl-in-medulloblastoma
#10
Yuanjun Hu, Lixuan Yang, Maolei Zhang, Zhengsong Huang, Jiaping Lin, Nu Zhang
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a type of malignant brain tumor in children. Although knowledge of MB is increasing and the survival rate of patients with MB has improved in previous years, the long-term treatment-associated complications remain unfavorable. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical for patients with MB, but effective molecular markers for MB remain elusive. The Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is a member of the MATH-BTB protein family and is a type of joint molecule for Cullin-3. SPOP inhibits tumor growth...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927078/yes-associated-protein-a-novel-molecular-target-for-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Liang Shan, Hongyuan Jiang, Lifang Ma, Yongchun Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common type of malignant tumor. The early-diagnosis and treatment options for HCC are limited, which is primarily due to an incomplete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease. Yes-associated protein (YAP) overexpression promotes proliferation and phenotypic transformation of HCC cells. Recently, elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway and investigating the interactions between the signaling molecules, as a potential strategy for the treatment of HCC, has become an area of interest...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927040/overexpression-of-dendritic-cell-specific-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-3-grabbing-nonintegrin-related-protein-in-cervical-cancer-and-correlation-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-antigen
#12
Xiangdong Wang, Yangmei Jiang, Menglang Yuan, Chunlin Chen, Keyong Wang, Qianshi Zhang, Yunfei Zuo, Shuangyi Ren
Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin-related protein (DC-SIGNR) is a type II transmembrane protein that has been reported to bind to various pathogens and participate in immunoregulation and tumorigenesis. However, further research is required to investigate whether the level of DC-SIGNR and cervical cancer are associated. The present study aimed to explore the clinical diagnostic significance of DC-SIGNR in cervical cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of DC-SIGNR was performed in samples from 25 patients with early stage cervical cancer, 14 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical polyp samples from 15 individuals...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923936/isolation-of-exosomes-from-whole-blood-by-integrating-acoustics-and-microfluidics
#13
Mengxi Wu, Yingshi Ouyang, Zeyu Wang, Rui Zhang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chuyi Chen, Hui Li, Peng Li, David Quinn, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, Yoel Sadovsky, Tony Jun Huang
Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that play an important role in many biological processes, including intercellular communications, antigen presentation, and the transport of proteins, RNA, and other molecules. Recently there has been significant interest in exosome-related fundamental research, seeking new exosome-based biomarkers for health monitoring and disease diagnoses. Here, we report a separation method based on acoustofluidics (i.e., the integration of acoustics and microfluidics) to isolate exosomes directly from whole blood in a label-free and contact-free manner...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920432/plk1-targeted-fluorescent-tumor-imaging-with-high-signal-background-ratio
#14
Ji-Ting Hou, Kyung-Phil Ko, Hu Shi, Wen Xiu Ren, Peter Verwilst, Seyoung Koo, Jin Yong Lee, Sung-Gil Chi, Jong Seung Kim
As significantly expressed during cell division, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays crucial roles in numerous mitotic events and has attracted interest as a potential therapeutic marker in oncological drug discovery. We prepared two small molecular fluorescent probes, 1 and 2, conjugated to SBE13 (a type II PLK1 inhibitor) to investigate the PLK1-targeted imaging of cancer cells and tumors. Enzymatic docking studies, molecular dynamics simulations, in vitro and in vivo imaging experiments, all supported the selective targeting and visualization of PLK1 expressing cells by probes 1 and 2, and probe 2 was successfully demonstrated to image PLK1-upregualted tumors with a remarkable signal to background ratios...
September 18, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919434/ultrasensitive-microrna-21-detection-based-on-dna-hybridization-chain-reaction-and-sybr-green-dye
#15
Zhi Li, Bingchen Li, Yunlei Zhou, Huanshun Yin, Jun Wang, Shiyun Ai
It is extremely important for quantifying trace microRNAs in the biomedical applications. In this study, an ultrasensitive, rapid and efficient label-free fluorescence method was proposed and applied for detecting microRNA-21 in serum of gastric cancer patients based on DNA hybridization chain reaction (HCR). DNA H1 and DNA H2 were designed and used as hairpin probes, the HCR was proceeded in the presence of target microRNAs. Amounts of SYBR Green І dyes were used as signal molecules to intercalate long DNA concatemers from HCR, which guaranteed the model of label-free fluorescence and strong fluorescence density...
September 15, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919109/long-term-measurements-of-human-inflammatory-cytokines-reveal-complex-baseline-variations-between-individuals
#16
Danlu Wu, Trinh L Dinh, Bruce P Bausk, David R Walt
Comprehensive characterization of the healthy human proteome baseline is essential for personalized medicine. Baseline data are necessary to understand the variation between individuals as well as longitudinal variation within individuals. Many important protein biomarkers, such as cytokines, exist at extremely low or undetectable levels in the healthy state. This paper describes results from a 14-week study of healthy human subjects using ultrasensitive single molecule array (Simoa) assays to measure both intra and intersubject variation of 15 cytokines...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913623/updated-strategies-for-the-management-pathogenesis-and-molecular-genetics-of-different-forms-of-ichthyosis-syndromes-with-prominent-hair-abnormalities
#17
REVIEW
Madiha Rasheed, Shaheen Shahzad, Afifa Zaeem, Imran Afzal, Asma Gul, Sumbal Khalid
Syndromic ichthyosis is rare inherited disorders of cornification with varied disease complications. This disorder appears in seventeen subtypes associated with severe systematic manifestations along with medical, cosmetic and social problems. Syndromic ichthyosis with prominent hair abnormalities covers five major subtypes: Netherton syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, ichthyosis hypotrichosis syndrome, ichthyosis hypotrichosis sclerosing cholangitis and ichthyosis follicularis atrichia photophobia syndrome. These syndromes mostly prevail in high consanguinity states, with distinctive clinical features...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912774/therapeutic-antibodies-to-kir3dl2-and-other-target-antigens-on-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphomas
#18
REVIEW
Christian Schmitt, Anne Marie-Cardine, Armand Bensussan
KIR3DL2 is a member of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family that was initially identified at the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. KIR3DL2, also known as CD158k, is expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer. Each chain is composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail containing two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. Beside its expression on NK cells, it is also found on rare circulating T lymphocytes, mainly CD8(+). Although the KIR gene number varies between haplotype, KIR3DL2 is a framework gene present in all individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911967/applications-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-in-lipid-analyses-an-emerging-powerful-tool-for-lipidomics-studies
#19
REVIEW
Jingbo Li, Thomas Vosegaard, Zheng Guo
The role of lipids in cell, tissue, and organ physiology is crucial; as many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, and infectious diseases, are closely related to absorption and metabolism of lipids. Mass spectrometry (MS) based methods are the most developed powerful tools to study the synthetic pathways and metabolic networks of cellular lipids in biological systems; leading to the birth of an emerging subject lipidomics, which has been extensively reviewed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), another powerful analytical tool, which allows the visualization of single atoms and molecules, is receiving increasing attention in lipidomics analyses...
September 11, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902016/raman-microscopy-a-noninvasive-method-to-visualize-the-localizations-of-biomolecules-in-the-cornea
#20
Yuichi Kaji, Toshihiro Akiyama, Hiroki Segawa, Tetsuro Oshika, Hideaki Kano
PURPOSE: In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. METHODS: Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation...
September 7, 2017: Cornea
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