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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645323/early-response-index-a-statistic-to-discover-potential-early-stage-disease-biomarkers
#1
Sirajul Salekin, Mehrab Ghanat Bari, Itay Raphael, Thomas G Forsthuber, Jianqiu Michelle Zhang
BACKGROUND: Identifying disease correlated features early before large number of molecules are impacted by disease progression with significant abundance change is very advantageous to biologists for developing early disease diagnosis biomarkers. Disease correlated features have relatively low level of abundance change at early stages. Finding them using existing bioinformatic tools in high throughput data is a challenging task since the technology suffers from limited dynamic range and significant noise...
June 23, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640595/detection-and-characterization-of-small-molecule-interactions-with-fibrillar-protein-aggregates-using-microscale-thermophoresis
#2
Emily Fisher, Yanyan Zhao, Robert Richardson, Malgorzata Janik, Alexander K Buell, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Gergely Toth
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease share the pathological hallmark of fibrillar protein aggregates. The specific detection of these protein aggregates by positron emission tomography (PET) in the patient brain can yield valuable information for diagnosis and disease progression. However, the identification of novel small compounds that bind fibrillar protein aggregates has been a challenge. In this study, microscale thermophoresis (MST) was applied to assess the binding affinity of known small molecule ligands of α-synuclein fibrils, which were also tested in parallel in a Thioflavin T fluorescence competition assay for further validation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639472/micrornas-as-a-tool-to-aid-stratification-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-and-to-guide-therapy
#3
Matthew Goblirsch, Georg Richtig, Ondrej Slaby, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Armin Gerger, Martin Pichler
Colorectal cancer is a common type of malignant disease with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although treatment options have been expanded over the last years, the mainstay of curative treatment remains surgical removal of the tumor-bearing organ. Systemic treatment options include classic cytotoxic drugs as well as some biological agents. Noncoding RNAs are an evolving field in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and possible treatment. Noncoding miRNAs are small molecules with huge impact on gene expression...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636979/exosomes-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Jun Pan, Meng Ding, Kai Xu, Chunhua Yang, Li-Jun Mao
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635657/selection-of-nucleic-acid-aptamers-targeting-tumor-cell-surface-protein-biomarkers
#5
REVIEW
Marie-Cécile Mercier, Monique Dontenwill, Laurence Choulier
Aptamers are nucleic acids referred to as chemical antibodies as they bind to their specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. They are selected via an iterative process known as 'selective evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment' (SELEX). Aptamers have been developed against numerous cancer targets and among them, many tumor cell-membrane protein biomarkers. The identification of aptamers targeting cell-surface proteins has mainly been performed by two different strategies: protein- and cell-based SELEX, when the targets used for selection were proteins and cells, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634418/long-noncoding-rnas-as-biomarkers-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Luka Bolha, Metka Ravnik-Glavač, Damjan Glavač
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a relatively well-characterized class of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, involved in the regulation of various cell processes, including transcription, intracellular trafficking, and chromosome remodeling. Their deregulation has been associated with the development and progression of various cancer types, the fact which makes them suitable as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In recent years, detection of cancer-associated lncRNAs in body fluids of cancer patients has proven itself as an especially valuable method to effectively diagnose cancer...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632924/metabolomics-as-a-driver-in-advancing-precision-medicine-in-sepsis
#7
Michelle Eckerle, Lilliam Ambroggio, Michael Puskarich, Brent Winston, Alan E Jones, Theodore J Standiford, Kathleen A Stringer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to explain the science of metabolomics-a science of systems biology that measures and studies endogenous small molecules (metabolites) that are present in a single biological sample-and its application to the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. In addition, we discuss how discovery through metabolomics can contribute to the development of precision medicine targets for this complex disease state and the potential avenues for those new discoveries to be applied in the clinical environment...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632200/the-beginning-and-development-of-the-theranostic-approach-in-nuclear-medicine-as-exemplified-by-the-radionuclide-pair-86-y-and-90-y
#8
Frank Rösch, Hans Herzog, Syed M Qaim
In the context of radiopharmacy and molecular imaging, the concept of theranostics entails a therapy-accompanying diagnosis with the aim of a patient-specific treatment. Using the adequate diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, the disease and the state of the disease are verified for an individual patient. The other way around, it verifies that the radiopharmaceutical in hand represents a target-specific and selective molecule: the "best one" for that individual patient. Transforming diagnostic imaging into quantitative dosimetric information, the optimum radioactivity (expressed in maximum radiation dose to the target tissue and tolerable dose to healthy organs) of the adequate radiotherapeutical is applied to that individual patient...
June 20, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631628/the-absence-of-cd56-expression-can-differentiate-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-from-other-thyroid-lesions
#9
Ioana Golu, Mihaela Maria Vlad, Alis Dema, Lavinia Cristina Moleriu, Anca Tudor, Mihaela Iacob, Oana Popa, Marioara Cornianu
CONTEXT: The neural cell adhesion molecule CD56 is an antigen important for the differentiation of the follicular epithelium. Recent studies have reported low or absent expression of CD56 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its presence in normal thyroid tissue, benign thyroid lesions, and most follicular non-PTC tumors. AIM: We wish to estimate the value of CD56 in the differentiation of PTC (including follicular variant-PTC [FV-PTC]) from other nontumoral lesions and follicular thyroid neoplasias...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628844/serum-micrornas-in-buffalo-cows-potential-biomarkers-of-pregnancy
#10
Gabriella Guelfi, Valentina Stefanetti, Silvio De Luca, Andrea Giontella, Vittoria Lucia Barile, Olimpia Barbato
MiRNAs (microRNA) constitute a large family of single-stranded, non-coding small RNAs. Although the functions and target genes of most miRNAs are still unknown, it has been well established that they are involved in embryogenesis, organogenesis and neonatal birth. In recent decades, interest in buffalo breeding has largely increased worldwide thus focusing the attention on this species as a dairy purpose animal. Problems related to long calving interval, late puberty and seasonal anestrus hamper reproductive efficiency in this species...
June 4, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628634/protein-signature-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-the-case-of-apolipoprotein-a-1-proteoforms
#11
Chiara Fania, Beatrice Arosio, Daniele Capitanio, Enrica Torretta, Cristina Gussago, Evelyn Ferri, Daniela Mari, Cecilia Gelfi
In the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181), and the 42 amino acid isoform of alpha β-amyloid (Aβ) are well established surrogate CSF markers. However, there is a constant need for new diagnostic markers to identify the disease at a very early stage. The identification of new molecules for AD diagnosis and monitoring in CSF is hampered by several "confounding" factors including intra- and inter-individual, pre-analytical and analytical variabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627982/mirnas-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-and-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-cardiovascular-disease-with-a-particular-focus-on-wo2010091204
#12
Yanyan Yang, Tao Yu, Shaoyan Jiang, Yinfeng Zhang, Mengpeng Li, Ningning Tang, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Jian-Xun Wang, Pei-Feng Li
A number of miRNAs have been reported to be critically involved in the regulation of cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Therefore, the development of potent analogues/inhibitors for miRNAs have thus become a key focus in the present drug discovery. In this review, we discuss the basic research and clinical use of miRNAs as the early diagnosis and therapeutic targets for CVD. We have also focused on the efficiency of therapeutically targeting miR-499, which is considered as one of the most promising molecules for treating CVDs...
June 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627846/drug-induced-myopathies
#13
Romain Guemara, Ilias Lazarou, Ierre-André Guerne
Drug myopathies are frequent and their identification important because of their potential morbidity. Apart from statins, the drugs most often involved are glucocorticoids, antimalarials, colchicine, and antiretrovirals. These myopathies are largely preventable, particularly those that occur in combinations of treatments or in the presence of comorbidities. Their relatively specific presentation often makes it possible to approach the diagnosis and to target the possible molecule to be interrupted. In general, they are spontaneously and rapidly reversible upon discontinuation of the drug, with the exception of statin-induced autoimmune necrotizing myopathy ; however, the latter is reversible under immunosuppressants, when initiated early enough...
May 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627685/metabolomic-analysis-based-on-1h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-metabolic-profiles-in-tuberculous-malignant-and-transudative-pleural-effusion
#14
Cheng Wang, Jingjin Peng, Yanling Kuang, Jiaqiang Zhang, Luming Dai
Pleural effusion is a common clinical manifestation with various causes. Current diagnostic and therapeutic methods have exhibited numerous limitations. By involving the analysis of dynamic changes in low molecular weight catabolites, metabolomics has been widely applied in various types of disease and have provided platforms to distinguish many novel biomarkers. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are few studies regarding the metabolic profiling for pleural effusion. In the current study, 58 pleural effusion samples were collected, among which 20 were malignant pleural effusions, 20 were tuberculous pleural effusions and 18 were transudative pleural effusions...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624653/giant-ring-mitochondria-in-a-patient-with-heart-failure-and-cerebral-white-matter-disease-due-to-mt-tl1-mitochondrial-gene-mutation
#15
Brian A Houston, Daniel P Judge, Emily Brown, Marc Halushka, Lili A Barouch
BACKGROUND: The presence of giant ring mitochondria on endomyocardial biopsy is rarely reported and does not have a well-defined differential diagnosis. METHODS: We report the case of a 54-year-old man with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and left ventricular hypertrophy, initially thought to have an infiltrative cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: The patient was found to have extensive vacuolization caused by the presence of giant ring mitochondria on endomyocardial biopsy...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624481/mir-34a-overexpression-predicts-poor-prognostic-outcome-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-independently-of-clinicopathological-factors-with-established-prognostic-value
#16
Stamatia-Maria Rapti, Christos K Kontos, Spyridon Christodoulou, Iordanis N Papadopoulos, Andreas Scorilas
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is regulated by TP53 and, in response, downregulates the expression of a gamut of protein-coding genes, including apoptosis regulators, transcription factors, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases. Its upregulation initiates a reprogramming of gene expression and promotes apoptosis. The purpose of this study was the investigation of the potential clinical significance of miR-34a as a molecular prognostic biomarker in colorectal adenocarcinoma using an in-house real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622169/molecular-aspects-of-allergens-in-atopic-dermatitis
#17
Raffaela Campana, Sheron Dzoro, Irene Mittermann, Elena Fedenko, Olga Elisyutina, Musa Khaitov, Alexander Karaulov, Rudolf Valenta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Molecular allergology uses pure, mainly recombinant and structurally defined allergen molecules and allergen-derived epitopes to study mechanisms of IgE-associated allergy, to diagnose, and even predict the development of allergic manifestations and to treat and prevent IgE-associated allergies. Atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease is almost always associated with IgE sensitization to allergens. However, also non-IgE-mediated pathomechanisms seem to be operative in atopic dermatitis and it is often difficult to identify the disease-causing allergens...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621802/glypican-3-a-promising-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Fubo Zhou, Wenting Shang, Xiaoling Yu, Jie Tian
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type. Therefore, molecular targets are urgently required for the early detection of HCC and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal proteoglycan anchored to the cell membrane, is normally detected in the fetal liver but not in the healthy adult liver. However, in HCC patients, GPC3 is overexpressed at both the gene and protein levels, and its expression predicts a poor prognosis...
June 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621736/a-panel-of-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-prostate-cancer
#19
Rhonda Daniel, Qianni Wu, Vernell Williams, Gene Clark, Georgi Guruli, Zendra Zehner
Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer among men; yet, current diagnostic methods are insufficient, and more reliable diagnostic markers need to be developed. One answer that can bridge this gap may lie in microRNAs. These small RNA molecules impact protein expression at the translational level, regulating important cellular pathways, the dysregulation of which can exert tumorigenic effects contributing to cancer. In this study, high throughput sequencing of small RNAs extracted from blood from 28 prostate cancer patients at initial stages of diagnosis and prior to treatment was used to identify microRNAs that could be utilized as diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer compared to 12 healthy controls...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621261/ag488-as-a-therapy-against-gliomas
#20
Jadith Ziegler, Anja Bastian, Megan Lerner, Lora Bailey-Downs, Debra Saunders, Nataliya Smith, Jake Sutton, James D Battiste, Michael A Ihnat, Aleem Gangjee, Rheal A Towner
High-grade gliomas such as glioblastomas (GBM) present a deadly prognosis following diagnosis and very few effective treatment options. Here, we investigate if the small molecule AG488 can be an effective therapy against GBM with both anti-angiogenic as well as an anti-microtubule inhibiting modalities, using a human G55 glioma xenograft model in nude mice. From in vitro studies, we report that AG488 incubation reduced cell viability in G55 and HMEC-1 cells more so than TMZ treatment, and AG488 treatment also decreased cell viability in normal astrocytes, but not as much as for G55 cells (p<0...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
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