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Small Vessels Disease

Helle Precht, Pieter H Kitslaar, Alexander Broersen, Jouke Dijkstra, Oke Gerke, Jesper Thygesen, Kenneth Egstrup, Jess Lambrechtsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cardiac comorbidities in psoriasis patients have increasingly moved into the focus of clinical research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate myocardial scintigraphy as a screening method in patients with psoriasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Assessment of various comorbidities in 50 psoriasis patients without clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Myocardial scintigraphy was employed to detect cardiac risk/exercise-induced ischemia...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
HINTERGRUND: Kardiale Komorbiditäten bei Patienten mit Psoriasis stehen seit Jahren im Fokus. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, im Rahmen einer Pilotstudie die Myokardszintigraphie als mögliche Früherkennungsmethode zu evaluieren. PATIENTEN UND METHODIK: Es wurden bei insgesamt 50 kardial asymptomatischen Patienten mit einer Psoriasis der Haut verschiedene Begleiterkrankungen erfasst. Dabei kam zur Erkennung von kardialem Risiko/ belastungsinduzierter Ischämie die Myokardszintigraphie zum Einsatz...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Hossein Derakhshankhah, Mohammad Javad Hajipour, Ebrahim Barzegari, Alireza Lotfabadi, Maryam Ferdousi, Ali Akbar Saboury, Eng-Poh Ng, Mohammad Raoufi, Hussein Awala, Svetlana Mintova, Rassoul Dinarvand, Morteza Mahmoudi
EMT-type zeolite nanoparticles (EMT NPs) with diameter smaller than 12 nm and uniform pore size of 7.3 Å have shown high selective affinity toward plasma protein (fibrinogen). Besides, the EMT NPs have demonstrated no adverse effect on blood coagulation hemostasis. Therefore, it was envisioned that the EMT NPs could inhibit possible β-Amyloid (Aβ)-fibrinogen interactions that result in the formation of structurally abnormal clots, which are resistant to lysis, in cerebral vessels of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Uta Hanning, Andreas Roesler, Annette Peters, Klaus Berger, Bernhard T Baune
While MRI brain changes have been related to mortality during ageing, the role of inflammation in this relationship remains poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the impact of MRI changes on all-cause mortality and the mediating role of cytokines. All-cause mortality was evaluated in 268 community dwelling elderly (age 65-83 years) in the MEMO study (Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg elderly). MRI markers of brain atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines in serum were assessed...
October 20, 2016: Age (2005-)
Satoshi Fujii, Tomonori Sugiura, Yasuaki Dohi, Nobuyuki Ohte
Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of death. Data from animal experiments suggest that atherosclerosis involves an inflammatory process of the vascular wall under hyperlipidemia. Atherothrombosis can become a serious complication of atherosclerosis leading to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical applications to use this knowledge remain scarce. The plasma levels of vascular endothelium-enriched microRNA (miRNAs) in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease could serve as a disease marker...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Mie Rostved Rasmussen, Kirstine Lykke Nielsen, Mia Roest Laursen, Camilla Bak Nielsen, Pia Svendsen, Henrik Dimke, Erik Ilsø Christensen, Mogens Johannsen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
Loss-of-function mutations in the transmembrane ABCC6 transport protein cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum - an ectopic, metabolic mineralization disorder affecting the skin, eye and vessels. ABCC6 is assumed to mediate efflux of one or several small molecule compounds from the liver cytosol to the circulation. Untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was employed to inspect liver cytosolic extracts from mice with targeted disruption of the Abcc6 gene. Absence of the ABCC6 protein induced an altered profile of metabolites in the liver causing accumulation of compounds as more features were upregulated than downregulated in ABCC6-deficient mice...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
J A Molad, D T Blumenthal, F Bokstein, M Findler, I Finkel, N M Bornstein, S Yust-Katz, E Auriel
Post-radiation leukoencephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and white matter alternations on imaging. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is one of several suggested etiologies. Cerebral microinfarction (CMI) is a recently described marker of SVD. We sought to examine the rate of CMI as a biomarker of ongoing ischemia among patients who underwent brain radiotherapy (RT). 110 patients treated with RT for primary or metastatic brain tumors were enrolled. A total of 685 brain MRI tests performed 1-108 months post-radiation were examined...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Hagit Peleg, Eldad Ben-Chetrit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article addresses the prevalence and relationship between autoinflammatory diseases and vasculitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are a group of syndromes characterized by episodes of unprovoked inflammation due to dysregulation of the innate immune system. Despite the common occurrence of rashes and other skin lesions in these diseases, vasculitis is reported in only a few. On the other hand, neutrophilic dermatoses are more prevalent...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Craig Anderson, Shoichiro Sato, Candice Delcourt, Hisatomi Arima, Shihong Zhang, Rustam RAl-Shahi Salman, Christian Stapf, Dan Woo, Matthew Flaherty, Achala Vagal, Jiguang Wang, John Chalmers
OBJECTIVE: The INTERACT2 trial demonstrated beneficial effects of early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, concerns persist over harms associated with the treatment, particularly in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) (ie white matter lesions [WML], lacunes and atrophy) and renal failure. We determined associations of CSVD, and renal failure, on outcomes in INTERACT2 participants. DESIGN AND METHOD: There were 2069/2839 patients with baseline brain CT (< 6hr ICH onset)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rhian M Touyz
Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to hypertension include injury to small arteries, characterised by endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, (so called hypertensive vascular phenotype). These changes are initially adaptive but in the long term become maladaptive leading to vascular damage and loss of function, particularly important in small resistance arteries, critically involved in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and consequently in blood pressure control...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Takashi Oide, Kazuhiro Yasufuku, Kiyoshi Shibuya, Ichiro Yoshino, Yukio Nakatani, Kenzo Hiroshima
We report a 38-year-old woman with a left lung tumor presenting as obstructive pneumonia. Bronchoscopic examination revealed a polypoid tumor filling the left main bronchus. The tumor was partially resected by a snaring procedure for diagnostic purposes. Microscopic examination revealed a submucosal tumor located underneath normal bronchial epithelium. The tumor was composed of sheets of uniform oval to cuboidal cells encompassing numerous blood vessels. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells exhibited smooth muscle markers, but were negative for neuroendocrine markers...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Yuandong Li, Woo June Choi, Wan Qin, Utku Baran, Lauren M Habenicht, Ruikang K Wang
BACKGROUND: Arteriogenesis describes the active growth of the pre-existing collateral arterioles, which is a crucial tissue-saving process in occlusive vascular diseases. NEW METHOD: We propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based microangiography (OMAG) to monitor arteriogenesis following artery transection in mouse ear and focal stroke in mouse brain. RESULTS: Our longitudinal mouse ear study shows that the growth phase of arteriogenesis, indicated by changes in collateral vessel diameter and velocity, occurs between 12-24hours after vessel occlusion...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Agnes Trautmann, Derek J Roebuck, Clare A McLaren, Eileen Brennan, Stephen D Marks, Kjell Tullus
OBJECTIVES: Renovascular disease (RVD) is found in about 10 % of secondary childhood hypertension. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard to diagnose RVD. Non-invasive imaging methods like Doppler ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomography angiography (CTA) are increasingly used. Our aim was to evaluate the role and accuracy of US, MRA, and CTA compared to DSA in diagnosing RVD in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 127 children with suspected renovascular hypertension was performed in children referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital between 2006 and 2014 due to clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension and/or findings on US and/or MRA or CTA...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Sergio Prieto-González, Georgina Espígol-Frigolé, Ana García-Martínez, Marco A Alba, Itziar Tavera-Bahillo, José Hernández-Rodríguez, Arturo Renú, Rosa Gilabert, Francisco Lomeña, Maria C Cid
Various imaging modalities, including color duplex ultrasonography, CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and PET, are emerging as important aids to the diagnosis, staging, evaluation of disease activity and response to treatment in systemic vasculitis. Although large-vessel vasculitis is the main target of imaging, refinement and increasing accuracy of imaging modalities are also providing useful information in the evaluation of medium-vessel and small-vessel vasculitis.
November 2016: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Renpeng Zhou, Lei Zhu, Shibo Fu, Yunliang Qian, Danru Wang, Chen Wang
Bioengineering of small-diameter blood vessels offers a promising approach to reduce the morbidity associated with coronary artery and peripheral vascular disease. The aim of this study was to construct a two-layered small-diameter blood vessel using smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The outer layer was constructed with biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin mesh seeded with SMCs, and this complex was then rolled around a silicone tube under pulsatile stimulation...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ayman Grada, Vincent Falanga
Chronic skin ulcers are frequently encountered in clinical practice and are often due to very heterogeneous etiologies. Cryofibrinogenemia is an unusual cause of non-healing skin ulcers. It is a small-vessel occlusive vascular disorder that results from the precipitation of cryofibrinogens in plasma. The lack of definitive diagnostic criteria means cryofibrinogenemia remains an under-diagnosed entity that causes significant morbidity. One of the most common manifestations of cryofibrinogenemia is skin ulceration...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Christian Pagnoux
Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are small-vessel vasculitides that include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitides can be considered the fourth entity. Despite their rarity and still unknown cause(s), research pertaining to ANCA-associated vasculitides has been very active over the past decades. The pathogenic role of antimyeloperoxidase ANCA (MPO-ANCA) has been supported using several animal models, but that of antiproteinase 3 ANCA (PR3-ANCA) has not been as strongly demonstrated...
September 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Neelesh K Nadkarni, Robert M Boudreau, Stephanie A Studenski, Oscar L Lopez, Ge Liu, Stephen Kritchevsky, Kristine Yaffe, Anne B Newman, Caterina Rosano
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gait speed and prior 10 years interleukin-6 (IL-6) burden in older adults. We then assessed whether white matter characteristics influence this relationship. METHODS: In 179 community-dwelling older adults, gait speed was assessed on an automated walkway and serum IL-6 was assayed on ELISA. Concurrently, white matter characteristics were assessed on MRI by quantifying volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of small vessel disease, and normal-appearing white matter on fractional anisotropy (NAWM-FA), a marker of axonal integrity...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
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