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Small Vessels Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452984/quantitative-cerebrovascular-pathology-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-older-adults
#1
Swati Rane, Natalie Koh, Peter Boord, Tara Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Suman Jayadev, Brenna Cholerton, Eric Larson, Thomas J Grabowski
Cerebrovascular disease, especially small vessel pathology, is the leading comorbidity in degenerative disorders. We applied arterial spin labeling and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) imaging to quantify small vessel disease and study its effect on cognitive symptoms in nondemented older adults from a community-based cohort. We evaluated baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling and percent signal change as a marker of CVR using blood-oxygen level-dependent imaging following a breath-hold stimulus...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#2
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451664/update-on-antiphospholipid-antibody-syndrome
#3
Michelle Remião Ugolini Lopes, Adriana Danowski, Andreas Funke, Jozelia Rêgo, Roger Levy, Danieli Castro Oliveira de Andrade
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) associated with thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity. Most APS events are directly related to thrombotic events, which may affect small, medium or large vessels. Other clinical features like thrombocytopenia, nephropathy, cardiac valve disease, cognitive dysfunction and skin ulcers (called non-criteria manifestations) add significant morbidity to this syndrome and represent clinical situations that are challenging...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447643/a-case-of-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-caused-by-novel-anticoagulant-rivaroxaban
#4
Riley Dean, Alison M Messer, Melanie Pickett, Richard Jahan-Tigh
Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) is type of small vessel vasculitis that commonly presents as palpable purpura involving the lower extremities and buttocks. Approximately half of cases are idiopathic, but the disease may be triggered by infection, drug reaction, inflammatory disease, or other causes. We report a case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis secondary to the novel anticoagulant rivaroxaban (Xarelto®).
November 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444178/heterogeneity-in-pulmonary-emphysema-analysis-of-ct-attenuation-using-gaussian-mixture-model
#5
Mizuho Nishio, Yutaka Tanaka
PURPOSE: To utilize Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the quantification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate the combined use of multiple types of quantification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients (67 men, 20 women; age, 67.4 ± 11.0 years) who had undergone computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) were included. The heterogeneity of CT attenuation in emphysema (HC) was obtained by analyzing a distribution of CT attenuation with GMM...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441165/propylthiouracil-induced-anca-negative-cutaneous-small-vessel-vasculitis
#6
Aliaksandr Trusau, Michael L Brit
Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. PTU is known to cause different adverse reactions including autoimmune syndromes. PTU-induced autoimmune syndromes can be classified into drug-induced lupus or drug-induced vasculitis. Differential diagnoses could be very challenging. PTU-induced vasculitis is more common than PTU-induced lupus, and has a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Usually it is limited to the skin in a form of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, but may also affect organs including kidneys and lungs...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439338/multi-parametric-classification-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-the-impact-of-diverse-cerebrovascular-injury-biomarkers
#7
Brittany Lang, Mark S Kindy, F Andrew Kozel, Susan K Schultz, Saeid Taheri
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a diagnostic term applied to cognitively impaired individuals with heterogeneous cerebrovascular conditions affecting large and/or small vessels. Individual biomarkers have been identified as instrumental in relating VCID to specific underlying pathologies to better characterize this syndrome. Emerging research to refine panels of biomarkers will increase classification sensitivity and specificity. Refined VCID clustering based on the severity and pathology of vascular injury will permit the development of optimal prevention and treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439160/co-occurrence-of-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-dysfunction-after-stroke-associations-with-brain-pathology-and-prognosis
#8
Elles Douven, Pauline Aalten, Julie Staals, Syenna H J Schievink, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Frans R J Verhey, Sebastian Köhler
OBJECTIVE: To examine, first, whether the co-occurrence of executive dysfunction (ED) and poststroke depression (PSD) shows different associations with neuroimaging markers and the course of depression and executive function, and second, whether it is associated with a different course on other cognitive domains and quality of life. METHODS: The present study included 245 stroke patients (35.9% female, mean age 67.5 years (SD=11.9). All patients completed neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment 3 months poststroke, which were repeated at 6-month and 12-month follow-up...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438165/histologic-features-of-gastrointestinal-tract-biopsies-in-iga-vasculitis-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#9
Christine Y Louie, Adam J Gomez, Richard K Sibley, Dorsey Bass, Teri A Longacre
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis or Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) typically occurs in the pediatric population, although rare cases also occur in adults. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common. The "classic" histologic finding in IgA vasculitis (HSP) is leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV); other histologic features in biopsies of IgA vasculitis (HSP) have only been rarely described. The pathology archival files at our institution were searched for GI biopsies from patients with IgA vasculitis (HSP)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438074/lacunar-infarcts-but-not-perivascular-spaces-are-predictors-of-cognitive-decline-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#10
Philip Benjamin, Sarah Trippier, Andrew J Lawrence, Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen A Williams, Bhavini Patel, Robin G Morris, Thomas R Barrick, Andrew D MacKinnon, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small-vessel disease is a major cause of cognitive impairment. Perivascular spaces (PvS) occur in small-vessel disease, but their relationship to cognitive impairment remains uncertain. One reason may be difficulty in distinguishing between lacunes and PvS. We determined the relationship between baseline PvS score and PvS volume with change in cognition over a 5-year follow-up. We compared this to the relationship between baseline lacune count and total lacune volume with cognition...
February 2, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432400/treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-with-a-new-generation-drug-coated-balloon-final-results-of-the-italian-elutax-sv-registry-dcb-rise
#11
Bernardo Cortese, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Raffaela Fetiveau, Vruyr Balian, Simonetta Blengino, Massimo Fineschi, Renata Rogacka, Corrado Lettieri, Andrea Pavei, Maurizio D'Amico, Arnaldo Poli, Gaetano Di Palma, Roberto A Latini, Pedro S Orrego, Romano Seregni
AIMS: Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are a recognized alternative to stents for the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR), and there is some initial clinical evidence about their efficacy for the treatment of small coronary vessels. Newer-generation DCBs were developed to overcome the reduced deliverability of the previous generation, also warranting a more effective drug delivery to vessel wall. However, the vast majority of new-generation DCBs still lack of reliability due to paucity of clinical data...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430730/cerebral-ischemia-during-hemodialysis-finding-the-signal-in-the-noise
#12
EDITORIAL
Clare MacEwen, Peter Watkinson, Lionel Tarassenko, Christopher Pugh
Hemodialysis patients have multiple risk factors for small vessel cerebrovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction. Hemodialysis itself may cause clinically significant neurological injury through repetitive cerebral ischemia. However, supporting evidence to date consists of epidemiological associations, expert opinion, and small, single-centre studies of variable methodological quality. Isolating the impact of intra-dialytic hemodynamic instability from underlying renal and vascular disease on clinically relevant functional outcomes would require very large, controlled studies, given the heterogeneity and confounding comorbidities of the population, and the complex relationship between blood pressure and cerebral oxygen delivery...
February 11, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429204/-small-vessel-childhood-primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
J Deng, F Fang, X H Wang, M Ge, L J He, N Zhang
Objective: To summarize the clinical and pathological features of small vessel-childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (SV-cPACNS), discuss the immune therapy and increase the attention to brain biopsy in SV-cPACNS. Methods: The clinical data, pathology of brain biopsy, treatment and outcome of an SV-cPACNS patient hospitalized in Beijing Children's Hospital in February 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The cases reported at Pubmed, CNKI and Wanfang databases from 2007 to 2017 were searched, the clinical and pathological features, immunotherapy and prognosis of the disease were summarized according to the literature review...
February 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428808/cellular-immune-regulation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-anca-associated-vasculitides
#14
REVIEW
Anouk von Borstel, Jan-Stephan Sanders, Abraham Rutgers, Coen A Stegeman, Peter Heeringa, Wayel H Abdulahad
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small- to medium-sized blood vessels, affecting primarily the lungs and kidneys. Both animal and human studies show that the balance between inflammatory- and regulatory T and B cells determines the AAV disease pathogenesis. Recent evidence shows malfunctioning of the regulatory lymphocyte compartment in AAV. In this review we summarize the immune regulatory properties of both T- and B cells in patients with AAV and discuss how aberrations herein might contribute to the disease pathogenesis...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428736/whole-genome-sequencing-identifies-novel-notch3-mutations-for-leukoaraiosis
#15
Wen-Lei Shi, Yong-Biao Zhang, Wei Wei, Hong-Yan Gao, Yong-Hua Huang
BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis, a subtype of cerebral small vessel disease, is a common condition found on CT or MRI in elderly people. Leukoaraiosis is strongly associated with cognitive impairment, mental abnormality, gait disorders and urinary dysfunction. However, the genetic risk of leukoaraiosis is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to identify the loss-of-function mutations for leukoaraiosis in Chinese. METHODS: We performed whole-genome sequencing on 11 leukoaraiosis patients and further validated the candidate mutations and tags of the candidate genes in 304 individuals including 160 patients and 144 healthy controls using Sequenom MassARRAY platform...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427772/circulating-angiopoietin-2-and-its-soluble-receptor-tie-2-concentrations-are-related-to-inflammatory-markers-in-the-general-population
#16
Elisabeth A Schuldt, Wolfgang Lieb, Marcus Dörr, Markus M Lerch, Henry Völzke, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich
BACKGROUND: The Angiopoietin/Tie (Tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains) signaling axis has crucial influences on angiogenesis and the vasculature's reorganization. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is discussed as a biomarker for diseases' severity and development. Previous studies reported increased Ang2 levels in patients with inflammatory diseases and associations of Ang2 with inflammation markers in relatively small samples. We aimed to assess the relation of Ang2 and Tie2 with inflammation markers in the general population...
February 7, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425278/carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-silent-brain-infarctions-in-a-biracial-cohort-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#17
Melissa C Caughey, Ye Qiao, B Gwen Windham, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas H Mosley, Bruce A Wasserman
Background: Both hypertensive and atherosclerotic processes contribute to common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Elevated CCA-IMT may be indicative of subclinical cerebrovascular disease; however, its role in the absence of concomitant carotid artery plaque is uncertain, and few studies have examined associations in black populations. Materials and Methods: At cohort visit 3 (1993-1995) a subset of stroke-free participants (641 blacks and 702 whites, mean age 63) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was imaged by brain MRI and carotid ultrasound...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422904/emerging-role-of-immunity-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ying Fu, Yaping Yan
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the main causes of vascular dementia in older individuals. Apart from risk containment, efforts to prevent or treat CSVD are ineffective due to the unknown pathogenesis of the disease. CSVD, a subtype of stroke, is characterized by recurrent strokes and neurodegeneration. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, chronic inflammatory responses, and leukocyte infiltration are classical pathological features of CSVD. Understanding how BBB disruption instigates inflammatory and degenerative processes may be informative for CSVD therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417823/drug-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-primer-for-clinicians-and-scientists
#19
Mark E Orcholski, Ke Yuan, Charlotte Rajasingh, Halley Tsai, Elya A Shamskhou, Navneet Kaur Dhillon, Norbert F Voelkel, Roham T Zamanian, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez
Drug-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (D-PAH) is a form of World Health Organization (WHO) Group 1 pulmonary hypertension (PH) defined by severe small vessel loss and obstructive vasculopathy, which leads to progressive right heart failure and death. To date, 16 different compounds have been associated with D-PAH, including anorexigens, recreational stimulants, and more recently, several Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications. While the clinical manifestation, pathology, and hemodynamic profile of D-PAH are indistinguishable from other forms of PAH, its clinical course can be unpredictable and to some degree dependent on removal of the offending agent...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410622/serum-hepatocyte-growth-factor-is-associated-with-small-vessel-disease-in-alzheimer-s-dementia
#20
Yanan Zhu, Saima Hilal, Yuek L Chai, M K Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
Background: While hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to exert cell growth, migration and morphogenic effects in various organs, recent studies suggest that HGF may also play a role in synaptic maintenance and cerebrovascular integrity. Although increased levels of HGF have been reported in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is unclear whether peripheral HGF may be associated with cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and dementia. In this study, we examined the association of baseline serum HGF with neuroimaging markers of CeVD in a cohort of pre-dementia (cognitive impaired no dementia, CIND) and AD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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