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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143783/metformin-potentiates-the-benefits-of-dietary-restraint-a-metabolomic-study
#1
Marta Riera-Borrull, Anabel García-Heredia, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemí Cabré, Elisabet Cuyàs, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Jordi Camps, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Prevention of the metabolic consequences of a chronic energy-dense/high-fat diet (HFD) represents a public health priority. Metformin is a strong candidate to be incorporated in alternative therapeutic approaches. We used a targeted metabolomic approach to assess changes related to the multi-faceted metabolic disturbances provoked by HFD. We evaluated the protective effects of metformin and explored how pro-inflammatory and metabolic changes respond when mice rendered obese, glucose-intolerant and hyperlipidemic were switched to diet reversal with or without metformin...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143765/relative-influence-of-socioeconomic-psychological-and-sensory-characteristics-physical-activity-and-diet-on-5-year-weight-gain-in-french-adults
#2
Aurélie Lampuré, Katia Castetbon, Mohamed Hanafi, Amélie Deglaire, Pascal Schlich, Sandrine Péneau, Serge Hercberg, Caroline Méjean
Individual characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity influence weight status; however, the contribution of each factor to weight change has not been studied. The objective was to confirm a conceptual framework by simultaneously assessing the relative influence of socioeconomic, psychological and sensory characteristics, physical activity, and dietary intake on five-year weight gain in French adults. Individual characteristics, physical activity, and dietary data were assessed at baseline in 8014 participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140657/sunlight-and-other-disinfectants-disclosure-obligations-under-the-federal-securities-and-drug-regulatory-regimes
#3
Joseph G Milner
Drug development requires patience. Beyond the inherent uncertainty of the development process itself, U.S. drug developers must comply with the regulatory approval process overseen by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Because this process takes time, drug development also costs money. Drug companies seeking to raise funds in U.S. capital markets must navigate the securities regime governed by the Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC). Despite their similar roles as protectors of consumers and public markets, SEC and FDA send conflicting signals about the information drug companies need to disclose to the public...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139068/minor-corral-changes-and-adoption-of-good-handling-practices-can-improve-the-behavior-and-reduce-cortisol-release-in-nellore-cows
#4
Maria Lúcia Pereira Lima, João Alberto Negrão, Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz, Temple Grandin
Inadequate corral facilities and improper handling are major causes of stress in beef cattle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of minor changes in the corral and adoption of good handling practices on the behavior, cortisol release, and time spent taking blood samples in Nellore cows. Minor corral changes included obstructing the cow's vision when the handler walked deep into the animal's flight zone and the elimination of bright objects, color contrasts, puddles, shadows, and darkness in the corral...
November 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134679/prediction-of-protein-structure-with-the-coarse-grained-unres-force-field-assisted-by-small-x-ray-scattering-data-and-knowledge-based-information
#5
Agnieszka S Karczyńska, Magdalena A Mozolewska, Paweƚ Krupa, Artur Gieƚdoń, Adam Liwo, Cezary Czaplewski
A new approach to assisted protein-structure prediction has been proposed, which is based on running multiplexed replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained UNRES force field with restraints derived from knowledge-based models and distance distribution from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The latter restraints are incorporated into the target function as a maximum-likelihood term that guides the shape of the simulated structures towards that defined by SAXS. The approach was first verified with the 1KOY protein, for which the distance distribution was calculated from the experimental structure, and subsequently used to predict the structures of 11 data-assisted targets in the CASP12 experiment...
November 14, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132075/alcohol-induced-disinhibition-is-associated-with-impulsivity-depression-and-suicide-attempt-a-nationwide-community-sample-of-korean-adults
#6
Kwan Woo Choi, Eun Jin Na, Jin Pyo Hong, Maeng Je Cho, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Hana Cho, Hong Jin Jeon
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced disinhibition (AID) is defined as a "loss of restraint over some form of behavior after drinking alcohol regardless of its amount". Although many previous studies have investigated on alcohol use disorder and suicide attempt, few studies have focused on AID and suicide. METHODS: A total of 9461 adults who had a history of drinking completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) with the Suicide Module, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130486/rtp801-is-a-critical-factor-in-the-neurodegeneration-process-of-a53t-alpha-synuclein-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-under-chronic-restraint-stress
#7
Zhao Zhang, Shi-Feng Chu, Sha-Sha Wang, Yi-Na Jiang, Yan Gao, Peng-Fei Yang, Qi-Di Ai, Nai-Hong Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of Parkinson's disease exhibited a younger tendency in recent years with the constantly increased stressors of modern society, but this relationship remains obscured. We performed this study to investigate whether stress contributes to this tendency and identify the executor during this process. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Ten-month-old α-synuclein A53T mice, a PD mice model, were treated with chronic restraint stress (CRS) to simulate a PD-sensitive person with constant stress stimulation...
November 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129745/fluorescent-light-up-acridine-orange-derivatives-bind-and-stabilize-kras-22rt-g-quadruplex
#8
Josué Carvalho, Edgar Pereira, Julien Marquevielle, Maria P C Campello, Jean-Louis Mergny, António Paulo, Gilmar F Salgado, João A Queiroz, Carla Cruz
KRAS is often found mutated in lethal cancers and should be an important target for anticancer drug development. However, no effective inhibitor has been reported so far, prompting the scientific community to describe the RAS proteins as nearly "undruggable". Recent approaches developed to modulate KRAS protein expression comprises the targeting of G-quadruplex (G4) structures formed within the nuclease hypersensitive element of KRAS promoter region, by designing small and specific ligands to stabilize the tertiary fold and reduce gene expression...
November 9, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129637/a-multicentre-qualitative-study-assessing-implementation-of-an-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-program
#9
D Martin, D Roulin, F Grass, V Addor, O Ljungqvist, N Demartines, M Hübner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The existence of enhanced recovery specific guidelines (ERAS) is not enough to change patient management practice since many barriers exist to successful ERAS implementation. The present survey aimed to analyse motivations for implementation as well as encountered difficulties and challenges. Further, relevance and importance of perioperative care items and postoperative recovery targets were assessed. METHODS: A multicentre qualitative study was conducted between August and December 2016 among surgeons, anaesthesiologists and nurses from implemented ERAS centres in Switzerland (n = 16) and Sweden (n = 14)...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129149/anaesthetic-and-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-ketamine-plus-dexmedetomidine-for-chemical-restraint-in-black-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-nigritus
#10
J A B Chagas, L C P Santos, J R Silva Filho, C Bondan
AIMS: To evaluate the quality of anaesthesia and cardiorespiratory effects of ketamine and two doses of dexmedetomidine in captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) undergoing routine clinical examination. METHODS: Twenty-four animals undergoing routine clinical examination were enrolled in the study. Animals were briefly physically restrained and examined to ensure no obvious illness was present and that they were healthy. Monkeys were randomly allocated to two groups (n=12 per group) and then treated with a combination of I/M 7...
November 12, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129122/convergence-and-divergence-an-analysis-of-mechanical-restraints
#11
Jean Daniel Jacob, Dave Holmes, Désiré Rioux, Pascale Corneau, Colleen MacPhee
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric nurses are regularly confronted with the uses and effects of control interventions such as mechanical restraints. Although there are evident tensions in the literature regarding the use of mechanical restraints, very little research has focused on the lived and embodied experience of their use, whether from the patient's perspective or the perspective of nursing staff responsible for their application. Research aims: (1) to gain access to the bodily phenomenon of being placed in mechanical restraints; (2) to give voice to the intimate experiential understanding of this experience; and (3) through phenomenological interpretation, to understand the subjective processes and meaning-making of this experience...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129113/seclusion-and-restraint-the-voice-of-the-patient
#12
Kim J Masters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128802/chronic-social-isolation-in-adaptation-of-hpa-axis-to-heterotypic-stress
#13
Anna Gądek-Michalska, Andrzej Bugajski, Joanna Tadeusz, Paulina Rachwalska, Jan Bugajski
BACKGROUND: Social crowding and isolation are recognized as major stressors and risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders. Chronic isolation stress (IS) and crowding stress (CS) activate neuroendocrine and neurochemical mechanisms, that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes of the plasma level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) after chronic psychosocial IS and CS were investigated. METHODS: Control rats were kept 5 per cage and not stressed...
November 9, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125838/nitrergic-neurons-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-encode-information-about-stress-duration
#14
India S Nichols, Mary I Jones, Chuma Okere, Godwin Ananaba, Brittany Bush, Cloe Gray, Allison Brager, J Christopher Ehlen, Ketema Paul
Nitrergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) may play a role in physiological stress responses. The caudal lateral wings (CLW) are unique compared to other rostral-caudal DRN sub-regions because they contain distinct nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) populations that are independent of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). NOS neurons in the CLW are also highly activated during acute restraint stress. However, the effects of acute stress duration on NOS activation in the CLW are unclear. Here NADPH-d, an index of NOS activity, is used to show that sub-regions of the DRN have differential NOS activation in response to 6 hours of restraint stress in rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125364/improving-care-for-patients-with-dementia-in-the-recovery-room
#15
Helena Edis
Caring for patients with dementia emerging from general anaesthesia in the recovery room can be very challenging. Sedation is sometimes necessary in order to nurse patients effectively and avoid any negative consequences of poor post-anaesthetic care. No local or national guidelines could be found to suggest best nursing practice in this situation. Three small-scale innovations were introduced into the recovery room in one hospital as part of a quality improvement project to give alternatives to chemical restraint...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125223/perinatal-nutrition-interacts-with-genetic-background-to-alter-behavior-in-a-parent-of-origin-dependent-manner-in-adult-collaborative-cross-mice
#16
S A Schoenrock, D Oreper, J Farrington, R C McMullan, R Ervin, D R Miller, F Pardo-Manuel de Villena, W Valdar, L M Tarantino
Previous studies in animal models and humans have shown that exposure to nutritional deficiencies in the perinatal period increases the risk of psychiatric disease. Less well understood is how such effects are modulated by the combination of genetic background and parent-of-origin. To explore this, we exposed female mice from 20 Collaborative Cross (CC) strains to either protein deficient, vitamin D deficient, methyl donor enriched or standard diet during the perinatal period. These CC females were then crossed to a male from a different CC strain to produce reciprocal F1 hybrid females comprising 10 distinct genetic backgrounds...
November 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123604/factors-behind-not-using-child-restrain-t-among-hospital-employees-and-general-population-a-case-control-study
#17
Emad Siddiqui, Badar Afzal, Ghazala Kazi, Asher Feroz, Rubaba Naeem, Tarab Mansoor, Ahreen Allana, Saif Siddiqui, Zain Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crash (MVC) related injury has been identified as a major public health concern. Child restrain (CR) seat belts can minimize the mortality and morbidity from MVC. The use for seat belts is substantially low in developing countries like Pakistan even though its use has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality by a significant extent. METHODS: This was a case control study with cases from the general population (GP) and controls from the Aga Khan University (AKU) employees in a 3:1 ratio...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122058/physical-restraint-to-patients-with-dementia-in-acute-physical-care-settings-effect-of-the-financial-incentive-to-acute-care-hospitals
#18
Miharu Nakanishi, Yasuyuki Okumura, Asao Ogawa
BACKGROUND: In April 2016, the Japanese government introduced an additional benefit for dementia care in acute care hospitals (dementia care benefit) into the universal benefit schedule of public healthcare insurance program. The benefit includes a financial disincentive to use physical restraint. The present study investigated the association between the dementia care benefit and the use of physical restraint among inpatients with dementia in general acute care settings. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study design was used...
November 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121886/the-strange-case-of-mr-h-starting-dialysis-at-90%C3%A2-years-of-age-clinical-choices-impact-on-ethical-decisions
#19
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Andreea Corina Sofronie, Jean-Philippe Coindre
BACKGROUND: Starting dialysis at an advanced age is a clinical challenge and an ethical dilemma. The advantages of starting dialysis at "extreme" ages are questionable as high dialysis-related morbidity induces a reflection on the cost- benefit ratio of this demanding and expensive treatment in a person that has a short life expectancy. Where clinical advantages are doubtful, ethical analysis can help us reach decisions and find adapted solutions. CASE PRESENTATION: Mr...
November 9, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117852/the-resignation-of-sir-william-charles-ellis
#20
Andrew J Howe
Sir William Ellis (1780-1839) was superintendent of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum and Hanwell Asylum. He was a practitioner of moral therapy and non-restraint. He added his own religious aspects to his treatment based on his personal experiences. These interventions were novel and benefitted his patients. However, he is less well known in the present day than his contemporaries who also championed non-restraint. In 1838, he left Hanwell Asylum, as he disagreed with plans to expand patient capacity. The resurgence of Whig politics at the time also played its part in his resignation...
November 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
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