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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925408/liver-volume-and-hepatic-adiposity-in-childhood-relations-to-body-growth-and-visceral-fat
#1
R Malpique, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo, M Diaz, F Villarroya, J Pavia, A Congo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may lead to hepato-visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation before the onset of puberty. In prepubertal children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), we assessed potential relationships between the aforementioned sequence and liver volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 86 children (41 AGA and 45 SGA with catch-up growth; age (mean±s...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925357/restraint-of-presynaptic-protein-levels-by-wnd-dlk-signaling-mediates-synaptic-defects-associated-with-the-kinesin-3-motor-unc-104
#2
Jiaxing Li, Yao V Zhang, Elham Asghari Adib, Doychin T Stanchev, Xin Xiong, Susan Klinedinst, Pushpanjali Soppina, Thomas Robert Jahn, Richard I Hume, Tobias M Rasse, Catherine A Collins
The kinesin-3 family member Unc-104/KIF1A is required for axonal transport of many presynaptic components to synapses, and mutation of this gene results in synaptic dysfunction in mice, flies and worms. Our studies at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction indicate that many synaptic defects in unc-104-null mutants are mediated independently of Unc-104's transport function, via the Wallenda (Wnd)/DLK MAP kinase axonal damage signaling pathway. Wnd signaling becomes activated when Unc-104's function is disrupted, and leads to impairment of synaptic structure and function by restraining the expression level of active zone (AZ) and synaptic vesicle (SV) components...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924642/breastfeeding-un-covered-narratives-of-public-breastfeeding-on-romanian-discussion-forums
#3
Diana Tăut
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the construction of breastfeeding in public, as depicted in the stories and the opinions of women participating in discussions on public forums. METHOD: There were 8 discussion forums selected, from which 769 messages were subjected to a narrative analysis further informed by recurrent themes identified in the literature and across messages. The emerging narratives were grouped based on their valence, and three broader categories of themes were formed, highlighting the predominant tone towards breastfeeding in public...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923960/igh-isotype-specific-b-cell-receptor-expression-influences-b-cell-fate
#4
Pei Tong, Alessandra Granato, Teng Zuo, Neha Chaudhary, Adam Zuiani, Seung Seok Han, Rakesh Donthula, Akritee Shrestha, Debattama Sen, Jennifer M Magee, Michael P Gallagher, Cees E van der Poel, Michael C Carroll, Duane R Wesemann
Ig heavy chain (IgH) isotypes (e.g., IgM, IgG, and IgE) are generated as secreted/soluble antibodies (sIg) or as membrane-bound (mIg) B cell receptors (BCRs) through alternative RNA splicing. IgH isotype dictates soluble antibody function, but how mIg isotype influences B cell behavior is not well defined. We examined IgH isotype-specific BCR function by analyzing naturally switched B cells from wild-type mice, as well as by engineering polyclonal Ighγ1/γ1 and Ighε/ε mice, which initially produce IgG1 or IgE from their respective native genomic configurations...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920794/intraocular-pressure-and-examination-findings-in-three-species-of-central-and-south-american-tree-frogs-cruziohyla-craspedopus-cruziohyla-calcarifer-and-anotheca-spinosa
#5
Andrew C Lewin, Jennifer C Hausmann, Paul E Miller
The purpose of this prospective study was to describe intraocular pressure (IOP) and examination findings in three tree frog species (Cruziohyla craspedopus [fringe leaf frog], Cruziohyla calcarifer [splendid leaf frog], and Anotheca spinosa [spiny-headed or coronated tree frog]). Thirty-one C. craspedopus, four C. calcarifer, and five A. spinosa were weighed, sexed based on phenotype where possible, and examined using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. IOP was measured using the TonoVet and TonoLab rebound tonometers while the frogs were held two ways (unrestrained, then restrained)...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918771/falls-in-hospitalized-geriatric-psychiatry-patients-high-incidence-but-only-a-few-fractures
#6
Dennis Oepen, Tim Fleiner, Andrés Oliva Y Hausmann, Susanne Zank, Wiebren Zijlstra, Peter Haeussermann
Fall rates from 3.2 to 17.1 falls per 1,000 hospital days in geriatric psychiatry facilities have been reported to date. Up to 5% of the falls result in severe injuries, but data concerning medical consequences are scare. This brief report presents a retrospective analysis of one year fall protocols from a geriatric psychiatry department focusing on consequences of falls. Fall-induced injuries were rated in four categories: no injuries, mild injuries (contusions, hematomas, abrasions), moderate injuries (lacerations, dislocations), and severe injuries (fractures, cerebral hemorrhages)...
September 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918223/an-ecological-model-to-factors-associated-with-booster-seat-use-a-population-based-study
#7
Sarit Shimony Kanat, Rosa Gofin
Belt-positioning booster seat use (BPB) is an effective technology to prevent severe child injury in cases of car crash. However, in many countries, age-appropriate car restraint use for children aged 4-7 years old remains the lowest among all age groups. The aim of this study was to identify the main determinants of BPB use through a comprehensive approach. An ecological model was used to analyze individual, parent-child relationships, and neighborhood characteristics. Parents of children enrolled in the first and second grades completed a self-reported questionnaire (n=745)...
September 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918093/topological-structure-determination-of-rna-using-small-angle-x-ray-scattering
#8
Yuba R Bhandari, Linxin Fan, Xianyang Fang, George Zaki, Eric A Stahlberg, Wei Jiang, Charles D Schwieters, Jason R Stagno, Yun-Xing Wang
Knowledge of RNA three-dimensional topological structures provides important insight into the relationship between RNA structural components and function. It is often likely that near complete sets of biochemical and biophysical data containing structural restraints are not available but one still wants to obtain knowledge about approximate topological folding of RNA. In this regard, general methods for determining such topological structures with minimum readily available restraints are lacking. Naked RNAs are difficult to crystallize and NMR spectroscopy is generally limited to small RNA fragments...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916246/pre-clinical-toxicology-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#9
REVIEW
Nabil Al-Humadi
Vaccine development requires pre-clinical toxicology studies, following good laboratory practice (GLP), before first in human (phase I) use. Many factors are critical in the final outcome of any pre-clinical toxicology study. The study design is one of these critical factors and should be carefully planned to avoid any false negative and/or false positive results. Preparation is another most critical factor in a successful study. Major changes in any procedure during the course of study should be avoided by all means...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915909/differential-signal-sensitivities-can-contribute-to-the-stability-of-multispecies-bacterial-communities
#10
János Juhász, Dóra Bihary, Attila Jády, Sándor Pongor, Balázs Ligeti
BACKGROUND: Bacterial species present in multispecies microbial communities often react to the same chemical signal but at vastly different concentrations. The existence of different response thresholds with respect to the same signal molecule has been well documented in quorum sensing which is one of the best studied inter-cellular signalling mechanisms in bacteria. The biological significance of this phenomenon is still poorly understood, and cannot be easily studied in nature or in laboratory models...
September 15, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914290/reducing-routine-labs-teaching-residents-restraint
#11
Michael I Ellenbogen, Kevin J O'Leary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913833/symptom-trajectories-throughout-two-family-therapy-treatments-for-adolescent-anorexia-nervosa
#12
Stuart B Murray, Eva Pila, Daniel Le Grange, Susan M Sawyer, Elizabeth K Hughes
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the trajectory of symptom remission and affective functioning throughout the course of two family-based treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN): conjoint family-based treatment (FBT) and parent-focused treatment (PFT). METHOD: Participants were 107 adolescents (Mage  = 15.5 years, SD = 1.5) with a primary diagnosis of AN who participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing FBT (N = 55) and PFT (N = 51)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913592/chronic-stress-causes-sex-specific-and-structure-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-activity-in-rat-brain
#13
Carina de Souza Mota, Simone Nardin Weis, Roberto Farina Almeida, Carla Dalmaz, Fátima Therezinha Costa Guma, Letícia Ferreira Pettenuzzo
Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces a variety of changes in brain function, some of which are mediated by glucocorticoids. The response to stress occurs in a sex-specific way, and may include mitochondrial and synaptic alterations. The synapse is highly dependent on mitochondrial energy supply, and when mitochondria become dysfunctional, they orchestrate cell death. This study aimed to investigate the CRS effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, as well as mitochondrial potential and mass in cell body and synapses using hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male and female rats...
September 14, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913321/mixed-tumor-in-deep-lobe-and-versatility-of-acellular-dermal-matrix
#14
Jin Hwan Byun, Jung Soo Lim, Hye Kyung Lee
Frey's syndrome and infra-auricular depressed deformities are the ones of the most common complications that can occur after total parotidectomy. We report 1 case of pleomorphic adenoma occurred in the deep lobe that obtained good results from using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) after total parotidectomy. A 24-year-old man visited the hospital with oval shape mass in right mandibular angle which of 4 cm in size was found in the deep lobe of right parotid gland from Magnetic resonance imaging scanning and a pleomorphic adenoma was suspected...
June 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913137/intra-cesarean-insertion-and-fixation-of-frameless-intrauterine-devices
#15
REVIEW
Ateş Karateke, Abdulkadir Turgut, Özkan Özdamar, Dirk Wildemeersch
Various contraceptive methods are available to postpartum women including hormonal and nonhormonal barriers, as well as injectable forms. Of all the available birth control methods, intrauterine devices (IUD) are felt by many to be the near-ideal form of contraception, and are recommended by advocacy groups, physicians, and gynecological organizations worldwide. Immediate postpartum IUD insertion deserves greater attention because it can provide immediate contraception, prevents repeat unintended pregnancies, and may serve to reduce the incidence or need for secondary cesarean delivery; however, insertion of conventional T-shape IUDs immediately post placenta delivery is limited by their high expulsion and displacement rates...
March 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912247/mir-212-mediates-counter-regulation-on-crh-expression-and-hpa-axis-activity-in-male-mice
#16
Yuxiao Tang, Xingjian Cai, Hongwei Zhang, Hui Shen, Wanyin Wang, Zhilei Shen, Wei Gu, Changquan Ling, Min Li
The mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been studied persistently but still are not elucidated. Considering the emerging roles of microRNA in stress response, we conducted a microRNA microarray in mice hypothalamus to identify the potential role of microRNAs in regulating the HPA axis. In total, 41 microRNAs changed during heat stress, in which we found that miR-212 contains binding sequence with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 3'UTR according to sequence analysis. We observed that miR-212 expression in the hypothalamus was escalated by repeated heat and restraint stress...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911273/memory-enhancement-of-fresh-ginseng-on-deficits-induced-by-chronic-restraint-stress-in-mice
#17
Liming Dong, Yi Wang, Jingwei Lv, Hongxia Zhang, Ning Jiang, Cong Lu, Pan Xu, Xinmin Liu
OBJECTIVES: Chronic stress exposure can disrupt the balance of organisms, result in learning and memory impairments and induce oxidative stress. However, there is a lack of safe and effective long-term therapeutic agents for stress-related injuries. Fresh ginseng (FG), an unprocessed raw root of ginseng, has antioxidant and neuroprotective activities and has been used as functional health food in Asian countries for many years. The aim of this study was to verify the protective effects of FG on chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced learning and memory impairments as well as oxidative stress damage in mice...
September 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910377/parametric-analysis-of-occupant-ankle-and-tibia-injuries-in-frontal-impact
#18
Fuhao Mo, Xiaoqing Jiang, Shuyong Duan, Zhi Xiao, Sen Xiao, Wei Shi
OBJECTIVE: Non-fatal tibia and ankle injuries without proper protection from the restraint system has gotten wide attention from researchers. This study aimed to investigate occupant tibia and ankle injuries under realistic frontal impact environment that is rarely considered in previous experimental and simulant studies. METHODS: An integrated occupant-vehicle model was established by coupling an isolated car cab model and a hybrid occupant model with a biofidelic pelvis-lower limb model, while its loading conditions were extracted from the realistic full-frontal impact test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905719/consequences-of-oral-gavage-during-gestation-and-lactation-on-rat-dams-and-the-neurodevelopment-and-behavior-of-their-offspring
#19
Kate McDonnell-Dowling, Silke Kleefeld, John P Kelly
Oral gavage is a popular route of drug administration during preclinical testing. Despite the growing body of information regarding the effects of oral gavage and the stress associated with this technique, the consequences of such exposure during pregnancy or lactation have rarely been investigated. Therefore, we sought to determine the consequences of oral gavage exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the neurodevelopment and behavior of rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams underwent either no treatment or oral gavage of distilled water once daily from gestational day 7 until postnatal day 21...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903543/biosimilars-in-rheumatology-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-their-place-in-the-treatment-algorithm
#20
Hendrik Schulze-Koops, Alla Skapenko
Determining biosimilarity involves a comprehensive exercise with a focus on determining the comparability of the molecular characteristics and preclinical profile of the biosimilar and reference product, such that there is less need for extensive clinical testing to assure comparability of clinical outcomes. Three anti-TNF biosimilar agents are approved for patients with rheumatic diseases in the European Union. The infliximab (Remicade®) biosimilars CT-P13 (Remsima® and Inflectra®) and SB2 (Flixabi®) and the etanercept (Enbrel®) biosimilar SB4 (Benepali®) have shown close comparability to their reference medicinal products, having undergone extensive evaluations...
August 1, 2017: Rheumatology
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