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G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Leo H Wang, Michael A Elliott, Lily Jung Henson, Elba Gerena-Maldonado, Susan Strom, Sharon Downing, Jennifer Vetrovs, Paige Kayihan, Piper Paul, Kate Kennedy, Joshua O Benditt, Michael D Weiss
OBJECTIVES: To describe the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients who sought medication under the Washington State Death with Dignity (DWD) Act since its inception in 2009. METHODS: Chart review at 3 tertiary medical centers in the Seattle/Puget Sound region and comparison to publicly available data of ALS and all-cause DWD cohorts from Washington and Oregon. RESULTS: In Washington State, 39 patients with ALS requested DWD from the University of Washington, Virginia Mason, and Swedish Medical Centers beginning in 2009...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
P Jennings, A Lotito, H Baysson, E Pineau-Blondel, J Berlioz
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to evaluate physician's satisfaction with the clinical pharmacy activities in a French regional hospital. METHODS: Data were collected by face-to-face interviews carried out by a public health intern with physicians from 14 different departments of medicine and surgery. A specifically designed questionnaire was used for this study. This contained 18 closed-ended questions, 3 open-ended questions and 6 questions relating to the multidisciplinary analysis of prescriptions of elderly patients...
October 18, 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
F P An, A B Balantekin, H R Band, M Bishai, S Blyth, D Cao, G F Cao, J Cao, W R Cen, Y L Chan, J F Chang, L C Chang, Y Chang, H S Chen, Q Y Chen, S M Chen, Y X Chen, Y Chen, J-H Cheng, J Cheng, Y P Cheng, Z K Cheng, J J Cherwinka, M C Chu, A Chukanov, J P Cummings, J de Arcos, Z Y Deng, X F Ding, Y Y Ding, M V Diwan, M Dolgareva, J Dove, D A Dwyer, W R Edwards, R Gill, M Gonchar, G H Gong, H Gong, M Grassi, W Q Gu, M Y Guan, L Guo, R P Guo, X H Guo, Z Guo, R W Hackenburg, R Han, S Hans, M He, K M Heeger, Y K Heng, A Higuera, Y K Hor, Y B Hsiung, B Z Hu, T Hu, W Hu, E C Huang, H X Huang, X T Huang, P Huber, W Huo, G Hussain, D E Jaffe, P Jaffke, K L Jen, S Jetter, X P Ji, X L Ji, J B Jiao, R A Johnson, J Joshi, L Kang, S H Kettell, S Kohn, M Kramer, K K Kwan, M W Kwok, T Kwok, T J Langford, K Lau, L Lebanowski, J Lee, J H C Lee, R T Lei, R Leitner, J K C Leung, C Li, D J Li, F Li, G S Li, Q J Li, S Li, S C Li, W D Li, X N Li, Y F Li, Z B Li, H Liang, C J Lin, G L Lin, S Lin, S K Lin, Y-C Lin, J J Ling, J M Link, L Littenberg, B R Littlejohn, D W Liu, J L Liu, J C Liu, C W Loh, C Lu, H Q Lu, J S Lu, K B Luk, Z Lv, Q M Ma, X Y Ma, X B Ma, Y Q Ma, Y Malyshkin, D A Martinez Caicedo, K T McDonald, R D McKeown, I Mitchell, M Mooney, Y Nakajima, J Napolitano, D Naumov, E Naumova, H Y Ngai, Z Ning, J P Ochoa-Ricoux, A Olshevskiy, H-R Pan, J Park, S Patton, V Pec, J C Peng, L Pinsky, C S J Pun, F Z Qi, M Qi, X Qian, N Raper, J Ren, R Rosero, B Roskovec, X C Ruan, H Steiner, G X Sun, J L Sun, W Tang, D Taychenachev, K Treskov, K V Tsang, C E Tull, N Viaux, B Viren, V Vorobel, C H Wang, M Wang, N Y Wang, R G Wang, W Wang, X Wang, Y F Wang, Z Wang, Z Wang, Z M Wang, H Y Wei, L J Wen, K Whisnant, C G White, L Whitehead, T Wise, H L H Wong, S C F Wong, E Worcester, C-H Wu, Q Wu, W J Wu, D M Xia, J K Xia, Z Z Xing, J Y Xu, J L Xu, Y Xu, T Xue, C G Yang, H Yang, L Yang, M S Yang, M T Yang, M Ye, Z Ye, M Yeh, B L Young, Z Y Yu, S Zeng, L Zhan, C Zhang, H H Zhang, J W Zhang, Q M Zhang, X T Zhang, Y M Zhang, Y X Zhang, Y M Zhang, Z J Zhang, Z Y Zhang, Z P Zhang, J Zhao, Q W Zhao, Y B Zhao, W L Zhong, L Zhou, N Zhou, H L Zhuang, J H Zou
This Letter reports an improved search for light sterile neutrino mixing in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with the full configuration of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. With an additional 404 days of data collected in eight antineutrino detectors, this search benefits from 3.6 times the statistics available to the previous publication, as well as from improvements in energy calibration and background reduction. A relative comparison of the rate and energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos in the three experimental halls yields no evidence of sterile neutrino mixing in the 2×10^{-4}≲|Δm_{41}^{2}|≲0...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lucy Handscomb, Deborah A Hall, Gillian W Shorter, Derek J Hoare
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe data collection considerations, methods, and response rates for a survey available both online and on paper. Methodological issues in the design of online data collection, and advantages and disadvantages of different data collection methods are discussed. Method: A survey was compiled that included 9 full or partial clinical questionnaires designed to measure different components relevant to tinnitus distress...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Rabeea'h W Aslam, Vickie Bates, Yenal Dundar, Juliet Hounsome, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Eleanor Kotas, Joanne Fisher, Sudip Sikdar, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Ambily Sivadas, Parul Sharma, Vinod Scaria
AIM: Pharmacogenetic landscapes of commonly used antiplatelet drugs, warfarin and clopidogrel have been studied in-depth in many countries. However, there is a paucity of data to understand their patterns in the Arab populations. MATERIALS & METHODS: We analyzed the whole exome sequencing datasets of 100 Qatar individuals available in public domain with this perspective. RESULTS: We characterized the allelic distribution of variants routinely tested for warfarin and clopidogrel...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
T Fatima Mitterboeck, Jinzhong Fu, Sarah J Adamowicz
Insect lineages have crossed between terrestrial and aquatic habitats many times, for both immature and adult life stages. We explore patterns in molecular evolutionary rates between 42 sister pairs of related terrestrial and freshwater insect clades using publicly available protein-coding DNA sequence data from the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, and Neuroptera. We furthermore test for habitat-associated convergent molecular evolution in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in general and at a particular amino acid site previously reported to exhibit habitat-linked convergence within an aquatic beetle group...
August 19, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Chris R Triggle, David J Triggle
Preclinical Research With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding. Currently this is not the case. In this Commentary we discuss access to this knowledge, the politics that govern peer review and publication, and the role of this knowledge as a public good in medicine. With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding...
October 21, 2016: Drug Development Research
Leah J Hauser, Grant M Gebhard, Rachel Blumhagen, Nichole E Carlson, Cristina Cabrera-Muffly
OBJECTIVE: To identify resident applicant characteristics that increase the odds of matching to otolaryngology residency. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. METHODS: Residency applications to our institution from 2009 through 2013 were reviewed. The available data represented 81.1% of applicants to otolaryngology programs nationwide. Online public records were searched to determine whether an applicant matched to an otolaryngology residency position...
October 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
J Brindley
Aim The focus of this review was to identify the role of reflection in continuing dental education. By understanding the expectations that our statutory regulative authority has of their registrants there is an opportunity to help to shape the continued professional development activities undertaken by current registrants in the future.Objective Conduct a review of General Dental Council (GDC) Fitness to Practise cases which were given conditions (restrictions) between February 2012 and November 2015, identifying relevant emergent outcomes in relation the Fitness to Practise (FTP) process...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Jianguo Zhu, Jukun Song, Zezhen Liu, Jin Han, Heng Luo, Yunlin Liu, Zhenyu Jia, Yuanbo Dong, Wei Zhang, Funeng Jiang, Chinlee Wu, Zaolin Sun, Weide Zhong
Association between allergic conditions and prostate cancer risk has been investigated for many years. However, the results from available evidence for the association are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between allergic conditions (asthma, atopy, hay fever and "any allergy") and risk of prostate cancer. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched to screen observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. Study selection and data extraction from included studies were independently performed by two authors...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sonia Duarte de Azevedo Bittencourt, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis, Márcia Melo Ramos, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. METHODS: Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study "Birth in Brazil: national survey into labor and birth" conducted in 2011-2012...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Michael P Thompson, Cameron M Kaplan, Yu Cao, Gloria J Bazzoli, Teresa M Waters
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) for medical conditions and surgical procedures used in the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP). DATA SOURCES: State Inpatient Databases for six states from 2011 to 2013 were used to identify patient cohorts for the six conditions used in the HRRP, which was augmented with hospital characteristic and HRRP penalty data. STUDY DESIGN: Hierarchical logistic regression models estimated hospital-level RSRRs for each condition, the reliability of each RSRR, and the extent to which socioeconomic and hospital factors further explain RSRR variation...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
J Danielle Sharpe, Richard S Hopkins, Robert L Cook, Catherine W Striley
BACKGROUND: Traditional influenza surveillance relies on influenza-like illness (ILI) syndrome that is reported by health care providers. It primarily captures individuals who seek medical care and misses those who do not. Recently, Web-based data sources have been studied for application to public health surveillance, as there is a growing number of people who search, post, and tweet about their illnesses before seeking medical care. Existing research has shown some promise of using data from Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia to complement traditional surveillance for ILI...
October 20, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Joseph E Tanenbaum, Vincent J Alentado, Jacob A Miller, Daniel Lubelski, Edward C Benzel, Thomas E Mroz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Lumbar fusion is a common and costly procedure in the United States. Reimbursement for surgical procedures is increasingly tied to care quality and patient safety as part of value-based reimbursement programs. The incidence of adverse quality events among lumbar fusion patients is unknown using the definition of care quality (patient safety indicators [PSI]) utilized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The association between insurance status and the incidence of PSI is similarly unknown in lumbar fusion patients...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Eric Vallabh Minikel, Daniel G MacArthur
It has recently been reported that an NR1H3 missense variant, R415Q, causes a novel familial form of multiple sclerosis (Wang et al., 2016a). This claim is at odds with publicly available data from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC; The allele frequency of R415Q is not significantly higher in cases (0.024%-0.049%) than in ExAC population controls (0.031%), whereas if R415Q conferred even 50% lifetime risk of developing MS, it would be hundreds of times more common in cases than in controls...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Sarah C Bath, Victor J M Pop, Victoria L Furmidge-Owen, Maarten Broeren, Margaret P Rayman
Background Though iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a matter of public-health concern, a functional measure of iodine status is lacking. The thyroid-specific protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), which reflects thyroid size, has shown promise as a functional measure in studies of children and adults, but data in pregnancy are sparse. In a cohort of mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women, we aimed to explore whether serum Tg is a sensitive functional biomarker of iodine status and to examine longitudinal change in Tg with gestational age...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Joanna Malukiewicz, Crystal M Hepp, Katerina Guschanski, Anne C Stone
OBJECTIVES: Two subgroups make up the marmoset genus Callithrix. The "aurita" group is composed of two species, whereas evolutionary relationships among the four species of the "jacchus" group remain unclear. To uncover these relationships, we first sequenced mitochondrial genomes for C. kuhlii and C. penicillata to complement data available for congeners. We then constructed a phylogenetic tree based on mtDNA heavy chain protein coding genes from several primates to untangle species relationships and estimate divergence times of the jacchus group...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
C O'Connor, M G Kiernan, C Finnegan, J Powell, L Power, N H O'Connell, C P Dunne
BACKGROUND: The Mid-West of Ireland has higher than average national rates of invasive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) bloodstream infections and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), with increasing numbers of ESBL isolates detected in community-dwelling patients. AIMS: To conduct a point prevalence study in a convenience sample of the Mid-West population with the aim of determining the extent of ESBL colonisation. METHODS: Utilising anonymised community stool samples that had completed routine analysis, we conducted a point prevalence study over a 4-week period on all samples that met defined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 24, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
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