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Y van der Steen, I Myin-Germeys, M van Nierop, M Ten Have, R de Graaf, S van Dorsselaer, J van Os, R van Winkel
AIMS: Self-reported psychotic experiences (SRPE) by individuals from the general population are often unconfirmed by clinical interview and referred to as 'false-positive' (FP) SRPE. FP SRPE have been suggested to represent the mildest form of risk along the extended psychosis continuum. However, little is known about their (clinical) outcome and evolution over time. Aims of this study were to prospectively examine, in individuals with FP SRPE, (1) the prevalence of remission, persistence and transition to validated PE at 3-year follow-up; (2) potential baseline psychopathological and psychosocial predictors of persistence of FP SRPE and transition to validated PE; and (3) whether those with persistent FP SRPE and validated PE already differed on psychopathology and psychosocial factors at baseline...
April 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Yuchen Jin, Douglas Van Nostrand, Lingxiao Cheng, Min Liu, Libo Chen
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is usually curable with surgery, radioactive iodine (RAI), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression. However, local recurrence and/or distant metastases occur in approximately 15% of cases during follow-up, and nearly two-thirds of these patients will become RAI-refractory (RR-DTC) with a poor prognosis. This review focuses on the most challenging and rapidly evolving aspects of RR-DTC, and we discuss the considerable improvement in more accurately defining RR-DTC, more effective therapeutic strategies, and describe the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and future prospects of RR-DTC...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Markus Aly, Mahmoud Hashim, Bart Heeg, Johan Liwing, Amy Leval, Maneesha Mehra, Joe Lawson, Sabine D Brookman-May, Olof Akre
CONTEXT: Until recently, there has been a lack of evidence-based treatment alternatives in men with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC). However, new evidence-based treatment alternatives are emerging. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe time-to-event outcomes in NM-CRPC patients based on evidence from both prospective and retrospective studies. Second, we aimed to describe predictors of these outcomes in the same patient population. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was conducted to identify clinical studies (both prospective and retrospective) in NM-CRPC patients...
April 4, 2018: European Urology Focus
Li Lei, Brandon D Ellsworth, Lionel W Young, Albert Kheradpour, Craig W Zuppan
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare entity primarily affecting the craniofacial bones during the first year of life, with only 5 reported cases involving peripheral long bones. We herein present a case of MNTI in the tibia of an infant, with a somewhat atypical presentation, and a noteworthy clinical course characterized by progressive spontaneous resolution without therapy, thus sparing the child the trauma of amputation. There is no evidence of active residual or recurrent disease with 13-year follow-up...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Fei Wang, Lei Shi, Yaonan Zhang, Kunzheng Wang, Fuxing Pei, Hanmin Zhu, Zhanjun Shi, Tianzun Tao, Zhihua Li, Ping Zeng, Xiaobing Wang, Quan Ji, Ling Qin, Qingxun Xue
Evidence of efficacy of a traditional herbal formula Xianlinggubao (XLGB) for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of XLGB in the management of patients with knee and hand OA. This was a multicenter, stratified, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted at six centers in China. People aged 40 or above, diagnosed with OA of the knee or hand, were randomly assigned to the XLGB treatment group or watchful waiting control group. Main outcome measures were the changes in the numeric pain rating scales (NPRS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) or the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN) scores, from baseline to 6 months...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Bryony Sheaves, Louise Isham, Jonathan Bradley, Colin Espie, Alvaro Barrera, Felicity Waite, Allison G Harvey, Caroline Attard, Daniel Freeman
BACKGROUND: Almost all patients admitted at acute crisis to a psychiatric ward experience clinically significant symptoms of insomnia. Ward environments pose challenges to both sleep and the delivery of therapy. Despite this, there is no description of how to adapt cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia to overcome these challenges. AIMS: (i) To describe the key insomnia presentations observed in the Oxford Ward Sleep Solution (OWLS) trial and (ii) outline key adaptations aimed to increase accessibility and hence effectiveness of CBT for insomnia for a ward setting...
April 4, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Denise Feierabend, Salah Maksoud, Aaron Lawson McLean, Arend Koch, Rolf Kalff, Jan Walter
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial chondroma is a rare and benign tumor with usual onset in young adulthood. The skull base is the most common site of occurrence although, less often, the tumors can appear at the falx cerebri or at the dural convexity. The differentiation of these lesions from meningiomas through imaging is generally difficult. PATIENT AND METHODS: Clinical case presentation and review of the current literature. RESULTS / CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 25-year-old male patient with a giant convexity chondroma with meningeal attachment in the right frontal lobe that was detected after a first generalized seizure...
March 27, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Lena Ansmann, Nicola Winter, Nicole Ernstmann, Axel Heidenreich, Lothar Weissbach, Jan Herden
OBJECTIVES: To compare Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL) between patients with localized Prostate Cancer (PCa) in the active surveillance (AS) group and the radical prostatectomy (RP) group, since evidence shows that both groups have similar oncological outcomes. Thus, comparative findings on the patients' HRQOL are becoming even more important to allow for informed treatment decision-making. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HAROW (Hormonal therapy, Active Surveillance, Radiation, Operation, Watchful Waiting) is a prospective, observational study designed to collect data for different treatment options for newly diagnosed patients with localised prostate cancer under real-life conditions...
March 30, 2018: BJU International
Carla Minoia, Emanuele Zucca, Annarita Conconi
Follicular lymphoma (FL) generally has an indolent clinical course, but in some patients, a histological transformation (HT) into aggressive entities may take place and often lead to a poorer survival. The rituximab era has seen an improved outcome of FL, including those with HT. The current treatment strategies for transformed FL are based on immunochemotherapy for the cases with HT at the time of diagnosis or as the first event after watchful waiting. Patients transforming after prior treatment of FL usually benefit from autologous stem cell transplant...
March 30, 2018: Hematological Oncology
Yoji Kishi, Satoshi Nara, Minoru Esaki, Kazuaki Shimada
BACKGROUND: Whether repeat hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases should be performed after chemotherapy or observation is unclear. METHODS: We selected patients with resectable hepatic recurrence after their first hepatectomies performed between 2000 and 2015. They were classified according to the further treatment: Group A, prompt repeat hepatectomy; Group B, observation; and Group C, ≤6 months of chemotherapy. In Group B/C, patients who later underwent hepatectomy and those who did not due to disease progression were classified as B1/C1 and B2/C2, respectively...
March 29, 2018: Digestive Surgery
Frank-Jan H Drost, Antti Rannikko, Riccardo Valdagni, Tom Pickles, Yoshiyuki Kakehi, Sebastiaan Remmers, Henk G van der Poel, Chris H Bangma, Monique J Roobol
Background: Active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) appears to provide excellent long-term PCa-specific and overall survival. The choice for AS as initial treatment is mainly based on avoiding side effects from invasive treatment; but AS entails regular check-ups and the possibility of still having to switch or deciding to switch to invasive treatment. Here, we assessed the long-term follow-up data from AS in real life clinical practices. Methods: Data from the first 500 men, enrolled in PRIAS before July 2008 by 30 centers across 8 countries, were analyzed to provide long-term follow-up results...
February 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Thomas Kühne
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder of heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms. Treatment endpoints include elevation of platelets and reduction of bleeding risk, elevation of quality of life, reduction of concomitant therapies and prevention from bleeding. Persistent and chronic ITP is more common in adults but occurs in children. Standard therapies include corticosteroids and immunoglobulins, both associated with side effects. There are new treatments, such as thrombopoietin-receptor agonists and promising investigational drugs...
March 28, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Laurence Bernier, Svetlana Balyasnikova, Diana Tait, Gina Brown
Purpose of Review: Pathological complete response is seen in approximately one fifth of rectal cancer patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Since these patients have excellent oncological outcomes, there has been a rapidly growing interest in organ preservation for those who develop a clinical complete response. We review the watch-and-wait strategy and focus on all aspects of this hot topic, including who should be considered for this approach, how should we identify treatment response and what are the expected outcomes...
2018: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Katarina L Matthes, Giulia Pestoni, Dimitri Korol, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Sabine Rohrmann
PURPOSE: To assess the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) specific mortality (PCSM) compared to cardiovascular disease mortality (CVDM), or other-cause mortality (OCM) of men with nonmetastatic PCa according to PCa risk groups, primary treatment, and age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study identified 1,908 nonmetastatic PCa patients in the cancer registry Zurich and Zug, diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 living in the City of Zurich...
March 22, 2018: Urologic Oncology
William Wung, Shubha Ananthakrishnan, Brian A Jonas
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a chronic, progressive lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by a monoclonal population of functionally incompetent lymphocytes. Renal involvement is rare and poorly described. A 57-year-old male with no prior medical history was diagnosed with CLL and followed with a watch and wait approach. He was referred to our institution several months later due to concern for Richter's transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan showed no evidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; however, the patient was noted to have hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic range proteinuria, an acute left renal vein thrombus, and a right pulmonary embolus...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Etan Marks, Yang Shi
Duodenal-type follicular lymphoma (D-FL) is a newly recognized entity in the 2016 World Health Organization classification update. It has an immunophenotype similar to that of other FLs and usually carries the typical t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. However, unlike other FLs, D-FL is almost always diagnosed at a low stage and stays localized to the small intestine, most commonly the second portion of the duodenum, whereas the vast majority of other FLs are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Additionally, D-FL gene expression and pathogenesis appear to be more closely related to extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue than to other types of FL...
April 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Callum G Fraser
Colonoscopy is a relatively scarce resource in many countries, including Scotland, and a simple investigation which would aid general practitioners in particular in decision-making as to which patients presenting with lower bowel symptoms warranted referral would be of much help. Faecal immunochemical tests for haemoglobin (FIT) have many advantageous characteristics and are now proven to be of considerable value in the timely assessment of patients with symptoms of lower bowel disease. Quantitative FIT provide numerical estimates of faecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb) and, at low f-Hb cut-off, FIT have high sensitivity for colorectal cancer (CRC) and could be used as a rule-in test to stimulate rapid referral, especially when symptoms are suggestive of serious bowel disease...
March 13, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Ari Rosenberg, Mark Agulnik
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare sarcoma, as such it can pose a clinical dilemma based solely on its rarity. Also, the spectrum of disease varies greatly between an indolent disease and aggressive disease with widespread metastases. In our clinical practice, the primary focus has been to get a handle on the aggressive nature of the disease, which will then dictate how urgently one needs to treat the patient. Pathological review with immunohistochemistry and molecular characterization is paramount...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Eirini Karyotaki, Lise Kemmeren, Heleen Riper, Jos Twisk, Adriaan Hoogendoorn, Annet Kleiboer, Adriana Mira, Andrew Mackinnon, Björn Meyer, Cristina Botella, Elizabeth Littlewood, Gerhard Andersson, Helen Christensen, Jan P Klein, Johanna Schröder, Juana Bretón-López, Justine Scheider, Kathy Griffiths, Louise Farrer, Marcus J H Huibers, Rachel Phillips, Simon Gilbody, Steffen Moritz, Thomas Berger, Victor Pop, Viola Spek, Pim Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions...
March 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Hisanori Fukunaga, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Hideo Shimomura, Shuzo Yamamoto, Chiaki Terao, Tomoko Totsune, Manabu Nakagawa, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Primary cardiac lymphoma is rare and can be an aggressive disease, depending on the grade. A case is reported of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma associated with a pericardial effusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging was useful in the diagnosis and in evaluating the disease activity in this case. CASE REPORT A 72-year-old Japanese woman visited a general practitioner, complaining of dyspnea associated with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and Group V malignant cells were identified by cytology, suspicious for malignant lymphoma...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
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