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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334733/mhc-class-i-chain-related-protein-a-and-b-mica-and-micb-are-predominantly-expressed-intracellularly-in-tumour-and-normal-tissue
#1
Hormas Ghadially, Lee Brown, Chris Lloyd, Leeanne Lewis, Arthur Lewis, Janette Dillon, Richard Sainson, Jelena Jovanovic, Natalie J Tigue, David Bannister, Lisa Bamber, Viia Valge-Archer, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A (MICA) and MHC class I chain-related protein B (MICB) are polymorphic proteins that are induced upon stress, damage or transformation of cells which act as a 'kill me' signal through the natural-killer group 2, member D receptor expressed on cytotoxic lymphocytes. MICA/B are not thought to be constitutively expressed by healthy normal cells but expression has been reported for most tumour types. However, it is not clear how much of this protein is expressed on the cell surface...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331779/reply-to-the-efsa-2016-on-the-relevance-of-recent-publications-hofmann-et-al-2014-2016-on-environmental-risk-assessment-and-management-of-bt-maize-events-mon810-bt11-and-1507
#2
EDITORIAL
Maren Kruse-Plass, Frieder Hofmann, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
In this commentary, we respond to a report of the EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA EFSA Supp Publ, 1) that criticises the outcomes of two studies published in this journal (Hofmann et al. Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2; Environ Sci Eur 28: 14, 3). Both publications relate to the environmental risk assessment and management of Bt-maize, including maize events MON810, Bt11 and maize 1507. The results of Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2), using standardised pollen mass filter deposition measurements, indicated that the EFSA Panel model had underestimated pollen deposition and, hence, exposure of non-target organisms to Bt-maize pollen...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328314/from-education-to-practice-addressing-opioid-misuse-through-healthcare-provider-training-a-special-issue-of-saj
#3
Adam J Gordon, John Daniel Harding
Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327186/clinical-behavioural-and-pharmacogenomic-factors-influencing-the-response-to-levothyroxine-therapy-in-patients-with-primary-hypothyroidism-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#4
Rosie Dew, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Colin Dayan, Vinay Eligar, Ishrat Khan, Salman Razvi, Simon Pearce, Scott Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal thyroid hormone therapy including under-replacement and over-replacement is common amongst patients with hypothyroidism. This is a significant health concern as affected patients are at risk of adverse cardiovascular or metabolic consequences. Despite a growing body of evidence on the effects of various factors on thyroid hormone replacement, a systematic appraisal of the evidence is lacking. This review aims to appraise and quantify the extent to which clinical, behavioural and pharmacogenomic factors affect levothyroxine therapy in patients with primary hypothyroidism...
March 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323280/defining-the-functional-traits-that-drive-bacterial-decomposer-community-productivity
#5
Rachael Evans, Anna M Alessi, Susannah Bird, Simon J McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce, Michael A Brockhurst
Microbial communities are essential to a wide range of ecologically and industrially important processes. To control or predict how these communities function, we require a better understanding of the factors which influence microbial community productivity. Here, we combine functional resource use assays with a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiment to determine whether the functional traits of constituent species can be used to predict community productivity. We quantified the abilities of 12 bacterial species to metabolise components of lignocellulose and then assembled these species into communities of varying diversity and composition to measure their productivity growing on lignocellulose, a complex natural substrate...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317006/proteomic-data-on-enzyme-secretion-and-activity-in-the-bacterium-chitinophaga-pinensis
#6
Johan Larsbrink, Tina R Tuveng, Phillip B Pope, Vincent Bulone, Vincent G H Eijsink, Harry Brumer, Lauren S McKee
The secretion of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes by a bacterium sourced from a softwood forest environment has been investigated by mass spectrometry. The findings are discussed in full in the research article "Proteomic insights into mannan degradation and protein secretion by the forest floor bacterium Chitinophaga pinensis" in Journal of Proteomics by Larsbrink et al. ([1], doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.01.003). The bacterium was grown on three carbon sources (glucose, glucomannan, and galactomannan) which are likely to be nutrient sources or carbohydrate degradation products found in its natural habitat...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306613/estimating-local-chlamydia-incidence-and-prevalence-using-surveillance-data
#7
Joanna Lewis, Peter J White
BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of chlamydia prevalence is important for addressing inequalities and planning cost-effective control programs. Population-based surveys are costly; the best data for England come from the Natsal national surveys, which are only available once per decade, and are nationally representative but not powered to compare prevalence in different localities. Prevalence estimates at finer spatial and temporal scales are required. METHODS: We present a method for estimating local prevalence by modeling the infection, testing and treatment processes...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303077/using-response-surface-analysis-to-interpret-the-impact-of-parent-offspring-personality-similarity-on-adolescent-externalizing-problems
#8
Aart Franken, Odillia M Laceulle, Marcel A G Van Aken, Johan Ormel
Personality similarity between parent and offspring has been suggested to play an important role in offspring's development of externalizing problems. Nonetheless, much remains unknown regarding the nature of this association. This study aimed to investigate the effects of parent-offspring similarity at different levels of personality traits, comparing expectations based on evolutionary and goodness-of-fit perspectives. Two waves of data from the TRAILS study (N = 1587, 53% girls) were used to study parent-offspring similarity at different levels of personality traits at age 16 predicting externalizing problems at age 19...
January 2017: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303076/multi-slicing-strategy-for-the-three-dimensional-discontinuity-layout-optimization-3d-dlo
#9
Yiming Zhang
Discontinuity layout optimization (DLO) is a recently presented topology optimization method for determining the critical layout of discontinuities and the associated upper bound limit load for plane two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) problems. The modelling process (pre-processing) for DLO includes defining the discontinuities inside a specified domain and building the target function and the global constraint matrix for the optimization solver, which has great influence on the the efficiency of the computation processes and the reliability of the final results...
March 2017: International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301774/geometric-principles-for-designing-highly-symmetric-self-assembling-protein-nanomaterials
#10
Todd O Yeates
Emerging protein design strategies are enabling the creation of diverse, self-assembling supramolecular structures with precision on the atomic scale. The design possibilities include various types of architectures: finite cages or shells, essentially unbounded two-dimensional and three-dimensional arrays (i.e., crystals), and linear or tubular filaments. In nature, structures of those types are generally symmetric, and, accordingly, symmetry provides a powerful guide for developing new design approaches. Recent design studies have produced numerous protein assemblies in close agreement with geometric specifications...
February 23, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301764/reward-processing-neuroeconomics-and-psychopathology
#11
David H Zald, Michael T Treadway
Abnormal reward processing is a prominent transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. The present review provides a framework for considering the different aspects of reward processing and their assessment, and highlights recent insights from the field of neuroeconomics that may aid in understanding these processes. Although altered reward processing in psychopathology has often been treated as a general hypo- or hyperresponsivity to reward, increasing data indicate that a comprehensive understanding of reward dysfunction requires characterization within more specific reward-processing domains, including subjective valuation, discounting, hedonics, reward anticipation and facilitation, and reinforcement learning...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301758/phospholipid-bilayers-stability-and-encapsulation-of-nanoparticles
#12
Elnaz Alipour, Duncan Halverson, Samantha McWhirter, Gilbert C Walker
Nanoparticles are widely studied for their potential medical uses in diagnostics and therapeutics. The interface between a nanoparticle and its target has been a focus of research, both to guide the nanoparticle and to prevent it from deactivating. Given nature's frequent use of phospholipid vesicles as carriers, much attention has been paid to phospholipids as a vehicle for drug delivery. The physical chemistry of bilayer formation and nanoparticle encapsulation is complex, touching on fundamental properties of hydrophobicity...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301757/random-phase-approximation-methods
#13
Guo P Chen, Vamsee K Voora, Matthew M Agee, Sreeganesh Balasubramani, Filipp Furche
Random-phase approximation (RPA) methods are rapidly emerging as costeffective validation tools for semilocal density functional computations. We present the theoretical background of RPA in an intuitive rather than formal fashion, focusing on the physical picture of screening and simple diagrammatic analysis. A new decomposition of the RPA correlation energy into plasmonic modes leads to an appealing visualization of electron correlation in terms of charge density fluctuations. Recent developments in the areas of beyond-RPA methods, RPA correlation potentials, and efficient algorithms for RPA energy and property calculations are reviewed...
March 16, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301706/facts-values-and-journalism
#14
Susan Gilbert
At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300127/announcement-transparency-upgrade-for-nature-journals
#15
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296961/correction-gaussian-binary-restricted-boltzmann-machines-for-modeling-natural-image-statistics
#16
Jan Melchior, Nan Wang, Laurenz Wiskott
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171015.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291233/lysogeny-in-nature-mechanisms-impact-and-ecology-of-temperate-phages
#17
Cristina Howard-Varona, Katherine R Hargreaves, Stephen T Abedon, Matthew B Sullivan
Viruses that infect bacteria (phages) can influence bacterial community dynamics, bacterial genome evolution and ecosystem biogeochemistry. These influences differ depending on whether phages establish lytic, chronic or lysogenic infections. Although the first two produce virion progeny, with lytic infections resulting in cell destruction, phages undergoing lysogenic infections replicate with cells without producing virions. The impacts of lysogeny are numerous and well-studied at the cellular level, but ecosystem-level consequences remain underexplored compared to those of lytic infections...
March 14, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288805/humoral-immunity-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Keith Fluegge
Abnormal immune activation, particularly of a humoral nature, has consistently been described in the etiopathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this journal, Mead and Ashwood (2015) reviewed immune abnormalities in autism and linked them to severity of classic autistic symptoms. However, there remains a lack of clarity as to how environmental risk factors in ASD may contribute to such immunophenotypes. The evidence presented herein highlights these immune deficits of a humoral nature in ASD. Moreover, aligned with prior research showing a link between chronic air pollution and suppression of humoral immunity, the author of this commentary has proposed that environmental exposure to pervasive air pollutants, particularly nitrous oxide (N2O), may target several anti-inflammatory biomarkers, including alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) inhibition and stimulation of kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activity...
March 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282042/divergent-extremes-but-convergent-recovery-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-soil-communities-to-an-ongoing-subterranean-coal-mine-fire
#19
Sang-Hoon Lee, Jackson W Sorensen, Keara L Grady, Tammy C Tobin, Ashley Shade
Press disturbances are stressors that are extended or ongoing relative to the generation times of community members, and, due to their longevity, have the potential to alter communities beyond the possibility of recovery. They also provide key opportunities to investigate ecological resilience and to probe biological limits in the face of prolonged stressors. The underground coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania has been burning since 1962 and severely alters the overlying surface soils by elevating temperatures and depositing coal combustion pollutants...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281722/intracranial-region-of-the-vertebral-artery-morphometric-study-in-the-context-of-clinical-usefulness
#20
Jarosław Dzierżanowski, Arkadiusz Szarmach, Bartosz Baścik, Piotr Czapiewski, Adam Muc, Maciej Piskunowicz, Mateusz Krakowiak, Tomasz Szmuda, Paweł Słoniewski, Edyta Szurowska, Paweł J Winklewski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the morphometry of the intracranial segment of the vertebral artery in the context of clinical usefulness. The results were compared with published data available in full-text archived medical journals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: More than 100 DSA (digital subtraction angiography) and 3D angio-CT (computed tomography) examinations were used to measure the following parameters: the whole and partial length of V4 in characteristic anatomical points, the diameter in three places (on the level of foramen magnum, in point of exit to the PICA, and in the vertebro-basilar junction), the angle of connection to the VAs, and all anatomical variations including fenestration, duplication, dolichoectasia or absent artery...
March 10, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
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