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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447650/announcement-nature-journals-support-the-san-francisco-declaration-on-research-assessment
#1
EDITORIAL
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447363/tobacco-packaging-design-for-reducing-tobacco-use
#2
REVIEW
Ann McNeill, Shannon Gravely, Sara C Hitchman, Linda Bauld, David Hammond, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446524/experiences-attitudes-and-possibilities-for-improvement-concerning-the-cooperation-between-occupational-physicians-rehabilitation-physicians-and-general-practitioners-in-germany-from-the-perspectives-of-the-medical-groups-and-rehabilitation-patients-a-protocol
#3
Susanne Voelter-Mahlknecht, Jan M Stratil, Rainer Kaluscha, Gert Krischak, Monika A Rieger
INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation measures for patients in the working age primarily aim at maintaining employability, restoring fitness for work or timely return to work (RTW). To facilitate RTW after long sick leave in Germany, both rehabilitation physicians' knowledge about the patients' workplace and communication between the rehabilitation physician and the occupational physician need to be improved. This research will record the experiences and attitudes of occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians and general practitioners, as well as of rehabilitation patients, to indicate barriers and possibilities for improvement concerning the intersection between workplace and rehabilitation institution...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442735/novel-antibiotic-screening-methods-to-awaken-silent-or-cryptic-secondary-metabolic-pathways-in-actinomycetes
#4
REVIEW
Hiroyasu Onaka
Streptomyces have the potential to produce more than 30 secondary metabolites; however, the expression of most metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters is cryptic or silent. Indeed, the expression of these genes is conditional and dependent on culture conditions. To activate such gene clusters, many methods have been developed. In this review, I describe two activation approaches developed in my laboratory: use of the activation mediator goadsporin and combined-culture. Goadsporin is a chemical substance isolated from Streptomyces sp...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440802/genetic-hurdles-limit-the-arms-race-between-prochlorococcus-and-the-t7-like-podoviruses-infecting-them
#5
Daniel A Schwartz, Debbie Lindell
Phages and hosts coexist in nature with a high degree of population diversity. This is often explained through coevolutionary models, such as the arms race or density-dependent fluctuating selection, which differ in assumptions regarding the emergence of phage mutants that overcome host resistance. Previously, resistance in the abundant marine cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, was found to occur frequently. However, little is known about the ability of phages to overcome this resistance. Here we report that, in some cases, T7-like cyanophage mutants emerge to infect resistant Prochlorococcus strains...
April 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440800/the-trichodesmium-consortium-conserved-heterotrophic-co-occurrence-and-genomic-signatures-of-potential-interactions
#6
Michael D Lee, Nathan G Walworth, Erin L McParland, Fei-Xue Fu, Tracy J Mincer, Naomi M Levine, David A Hutchins, Eric A Webb
The nitrogen (N)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is globally distributed in warm, oligotrophic oceans, where it contributes a substantial proportion of new N and fuels primary production. These photoautotrophs form macroscopic colonies that serve as relatively nutrient-rich substrates that are colonized by many other organisms. The nature of these associations may modulate ocean N and carbon (C) cycling, and can offer insights into marine co-evolutionary mechanisms. Here we integrate multiple omics-based and experimental approaches to investigate Trichodesmium-associated bacterial consortia in both laboratory cultures and natural environmental samples...
April 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438190/very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells-vsels-in-adult-mouse-uterine-perimetrium-and-myometrium
#7
Deepa Bhartiya, Kreema James
We have earlier reported the presence of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in adult mouse uterus along with slightly bigger progenitors termed endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) and their regulation by ovarian hormones thus demonstrating a crucial role played by them during proliferation, differentiation and remodeling of the endometrium. Present study is a brief communication wherein we have examined the effect of higher dose of estrogen (E, 2 μg/day), progesterone (P, 1 mg/day) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 5 IU/day for 5 days) specifically on the myometrium and perimetrium surrounding the endometrium in bilaterally ovariectomized mice...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433238/pulmonary-rehabilitation-referral-and-participation-are-commonly-influenced-by-environment-knowledge-and-beliefs-about-consequences-a-systematic-review-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework
#8
Narelle S Cox, Cristino C Oliveira, Aroub Lahham, Anne E Holland
QUESTION: What are the barriers and enablers of referral, uptake, attendance and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative or quantitative studies reporting data relating to referral, uptake, attendance and/or completion in pulmonary rehabilitation. PARTICIPANTS: People aged >18years with a diagnosis of COPD and/or their healthcare professionals...
April 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423844/identifying-emerging-trends-in-medical-informatics-a-synthesis-approach
#9
Yasmin Van Kasteren, Patricia A H Williams, Anthony Maeder
Medical informatics is a young and rapidly evolving field, influenced by and impacting on many different knowledge domains. Recent contributions on scoping the associated body of knowledge are confounded both by variations in popular use of terminology for established areas, and by the advent of new areas without yet established terminology. Determining the scope of a topic through online bibliographic search filters is a well-established approach in scientific research and has been developed as a human-directed task...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422118/nutrient-regulation-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-what-do-islet-cell-animal-studies-tell-us
#10
REVIEW
R Carlessi, K N Keane, C Mamotte, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is widely recognised as one of the most serious metabolic diseases worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is growing at an alarming rate. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with age, sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. In T2DM, β-cell dysfunction will occur before hyperglycaemia develops. Excessive levels of glucose, lipid and various inflammatory factors interact at the level of the pancreatic islet to promote β-cell dysfunction. Pancreatic β-cell lines have been widely utilised since the early 1980s and have contributed a large volume of important information regarding molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms that regulate insulin secretion...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422058/melatonin-a-review-of-its-potential-functions-and-effects-on-dental-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Maria Permuy, Mónica López-Peña, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra, Fernando Muñoz
Melatonin is a hormone synthesised and secreted by the pineal gland and other organs. Its secretion, controlled by an endogenous circadian cycle, has been proven to exert immunological, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects that can be beneficial in the treatment of certain dental diseases. This article is aimed at carrying out a review of the literature published about the use of melatonin in the dental field and summarising its potential effects. In this review article, an extensive search in different databases of scientific journals was performed with the objective of summarising all of the information published on melatonin use in dental diseases, focussing on periodontal diseases and dental implantology...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411483/guidelines-for-consistent-characterisation-and-documentation-of-plant-source-materials-for-studies-in-phytochemistry-and-phytopharmacology
#12
EDITORIAL
Christian Zidorn
Plants are still by far the most important source of natural products. For higher plants as source materials identification and documentation are less challenging than for many other groups of organisms such as microorganisms or marine invertebrates. Nonetheless, many studies in natural products chemistry and phytopharmacology involving higher plants are flawed because the plant material is erroneously assigned, inaccurately documented, untraceable, or not named in accordance with the rules of nomenclature...
April 12, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402326/chocolate-intake-and-diabetes-risk-in-postmenopausal-american-women
#13
J A Greenberg, J E Manson, L Tinker, M L Neuhouser, L Garcia, M Z Vitolins, L S Phillips
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399988/youth-social-behaviour-and-network-therapy-y-sbnt-adaptation-of-a-family-and-social-network-intervention-for-young-people-who-misuse-alcohol-and-drugs-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial
#14
Judith Watson, Paul Toner, Ed Day, Donna Back, Louca-Mai Brady, Caroline Fairhurst, Charlotte Renwick, Lorna Templeton, Shabana Akhtar, Charlie Lloyd, Jinshuo Li, Kim Cocks, Sangeeta Ambegaokar, Steve Parrott, Paul McArdle, Eilish Gilvarry, Alex Copello
BACKGROUND: Family interventions appear to be effective at treating young people's substance misuse. However, implementation of family approaches in UK services is low. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting young people to an intervention based on an adaptation of adult social behaviour and network therapy. It also sought to involve young people with experience of using substance misuse services in the research process. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting young people to family and social network therapy and to explore ways in which young people with experience of using substance misuse services could be involved in a study of this nature...
March 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399512/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-of-existing-policies-on-the-prevention-and-control-of-obesity-across-countries-in-africa
#15
Theodosia Adom, Thandi Puoane, Anniza De Villiers, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: The obesity epidemic is a public health challenge for all, including low-income countries. The behavioural patterns known to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence occur in an environmental context which is not conducive for healthy choices. A policy approach to obesity prevention constitutes a form of public intervention in that it extends beyond individuals to influence entire populations and is a mechanism for creating healthier environments. Little is known about obesity prevention policies in Africa...
February 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390583/a-systematic-review-of-food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-from-the-last-40-years
#16
REVIEW
Sara Manti, Salvatore Leonardi, Annamaria Salpietro, Giuliana Del Campo, Carmelo Salpietro, Caterina Cuppari
OBJECTIVE: To provide a complete, exhaustive summary of current literature relevant to food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). DATA SOURCES: Data have been extracted from PubMed and Science Direct databases. STUDY SELECTIONS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines, a literature search for peer-reviewed journal articles in English through January 1975 with updates through October 2016 was conducted...
April 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387774/bacterial-carbon-use-plasticity-phylogenetic-diversity-and-the-priming-of-soil-organic-matter
#17
Ember M Morrissey, Rebecca L Mau, Egbert Schwartz, Theresa A McHugh, Paul Dijkstra, Benjamin J Koch, Jane C Marks, Bruce A Hungate
Microorganisms perform most decomposition on Earth, mediating carbon (C) loss from ecosystems, and thereby influencing climate. Yet, how variation in the identity and composition of microbial communities influences ecosystem C balance is far from clear. Using quantitative stable isotope probing of DNA, we show how individual bacterial taxa influence soil C cycling following the addition of labile C (glucose). Specifically, we show that increased decomposition of soil C in response to added glucose (positive priming) occurs as a phylogenetically diverse group of taxa, accounting for a large proportion of the bacterial community, shift toward additional soil C use for growth...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387770/amphibian-skin-microbiota-exhibits-temporal-variation-in-community-structure-but-stability-of-predicted-bd-inhibitory-function
#18
Molly C Bletz, R G Bina Perl, Bianca Tc Bobowski, Laura M Japke, Christoph C Tebbe, Anja B Dohrmann, Sabin Bhuju, Robert Geffers, Michael Jarek, Miguel Vences
Host-associated microbiomes are increasingly recognized to contribute to host disease resistance; the temporal dynamics of their community structure and function, however, are poorly understood. We investigated the cutaneous bacterial communities of three newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris, Lissotriton vulgaris and Triturus cristatus, at approximately weekly intervals for 3 months using 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing. We hypothesized cutaneous microbiota would vary across time, and that such variation would be linked to changes in predicted fungal-inhibitory function...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386153/does-an-expert-based-evaluation-allow-us-to-go-beyond-the-impact-factor-experiences-from-building-a-ranking-of-national-journals-in-poland
#19
Emanuel Kulczycki, Ewa A Rozkosz
This article discusses the Polish Journal Ranking, which is used in the research evaluation system in Poland. In 2015, the ranking, which represents all disciplines, allocated 17,437 journals into three lists: A, B, and C. The B list constitutes a ranking of Polish journals that are indexed neither in the Web of Science nor the European Reference Index for the Humanities. This ranking was built by evaluating journals in three dimensions: formal, bibliometric, and expert-based. We have analysed data on 2035 Polish journals from the B list...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381377/current-technical-aspects-of-oncological-hepatic-surgery
#20
Ahmed I Salem, Emily R Winslow
BACKGROUND: With the recent advances in oncological hepatic surgery, major liver resections became more widely utilized procedures. The era of modern hepatic surgery witnessed improvements in patients care in preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative aspects. This significantly improved surgical outcomes regarding morbidity and mortality. This review article focuses on the recent advances in oncological hepatic surgery. DATA SOURCES: This review includes only data from peer-reviewed articles and journals...
April 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
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