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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887201/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-antimicrobial
#1
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden
The main solution to the global antibiotic resistance crisis is reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. However there is also a pressing need for novel antimicrobials. Despite much rhetoric, there are few entirely novel agents in development. One such therapy to reach clinical use is an agent using Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), oxygen radicals, as an antimicrobial mechanism. ROS can be delivered to the site of infection in various formats. ROS is highly antimicrobial against Gram positive and negative bacteria, viruses and fungi...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827631/improved-efficacy-and-in-vivo-cellular-properties-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derivative-in-a-preclinical-model-of-bladder-pain-syndrome
#2
Aram Kim, Hwan Yeul Yu, Jisun Lim, Chae-Min Ryu, Yong Hwan Kim, Jinbeom Heo, Ju-Young Han, Seungun Lee, Yoon Sung Bae, Jae Young Kim, Dong-Jun Bae, Sang-Yeob Kim, Byeong-Joo Noh, Ki-Sung Hong, Ji-Yeon Han, Sang Wook Lee, Miho Song, Hyung-Min Chung, Jun Ki Kim, Dong-Myung Shin, Myung-Soo Choo
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is an intractable disease characterized by severe pelvic pain and urinary frequency. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a promising approach to treat incurable IC/BPS. Here, we show greater therapeutic efficacy of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived multipotent stem cells (M-MSCs) than adult bone-marrow (BM)-derived counterparts for treating IC/BPS and also monitor long-term safety and in vivo properties of transplanted M-MSCs in living animals. Controlled hESC differentiation and isolation procedures resulted in pure M-MSCs displaying typical MSC behavior...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826558/elucidating-mechanisms-of-bladder-repair-after-hyaluronan-instillation-in-ketamine-induced-ulcerative-cystitis-in-animal-model
#3
Yi-Lun Lee, Kun-Ling Lin, Shu-Mien Chuang, Yung-Chin Lee, Mei-Chin Lu, Bin-Nan Wu, Wen-Jeng Wu, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan, Wan-Ting Ho, Yung-Shun Juan
Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis (KIC) initially damaged the bladder mucosa and induced contracted bladder thereafter. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid; HA) instillation to the bladder has been used to treat KIC. The present study investigated bladder injury by urothelial defect and HA degeneration and bladder repair by urothelium proliferation and differentiation. This work was based on the hypothesis that HA treatment altered the bladder urothelial layer and the expression of hyaluronan-metabolizing enzymes and/or HA receptors in KIC...
September 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729638/inhibition-of-microrna-214-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-process-and-induces-interstitial-cystitis-in-postmenopausal-women-by-upregulating-mfn2
#4
Jian-Wei Lv, Wei Wen, Chen Jiang, Qi-Bo Fu, Yin-Jun Gu, Ting-Ting Lv, Zhen-Dong Li, Wei Xue
Our study aims to investigate the roles that microRNA-214 (miR-214) plays in the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and the development of interstitial cystitis (IC) in postmenopausal women by targeting Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). IC bladder tissues and adjacent normal bladder tissues were collected from postmenopausal women. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was conducted. The target relationship between miR-214 and Mfn2 was determined by a dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) were extracted from postmenopausal rats and assigned to the blank, mimics, miR-214 inhibitors, mimics negative control (NC), inhibitors NC, Mfn2 siRNA, miR-214 inhibitors and Mfn2 siRNA groups...
July 21, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725616/chronic-orchialgia-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-evaluation
#5
REVIEW
John T Sigalos, Alexander W Pastuszak
Chronic orchialgia is a vexing condition defined as chronic or intermittent scrotal pain lasting at least three months that significantly interferes with daily activities. There are currently no guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of this condition despite it being the cause of 2.5-4.8% of urologic clinic visits. Men often present with chronic orchialgia in their mid to late 30s, although the condition can present at any age. A broad differential diagnosis of chronic orchialgia includes epididymitis, testicular torsion, tumors, obstruction, varicocele, epididymal cysts, hydrocele, iatrogenic injury following vasectomy or hernia repair, and referred pain from a variety of sources including mid-ureteral stone, indirect inguinal hernia, aortic or common iliac artery aneurysms, lower back disorders, interstitial cystitis, and nerve entrapment due to perineural fibrosis; approximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopathic in nature...
May 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394416/histopathological-characteristics-of-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-without-hunner-lesion
#6
Aram Kim, Ju-Young Han, Chae-Min Ryu, Hwan Yeul Yu, Seungun Lee, YongHwan Kim, Se Un Jeong, Yong Mee Cho, Dong-Myung Shin, Myung-Soo Choo
AIMS: To assess the distinct histopathological characteristics and their clinical significance between non-Hunner-type and Hunner-type interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled and classified IC/BPS patients, on the basis of cystoscopic findings, as having non-Hunner-type IC and Hunner-type IC. Specimens obtained from the posterior wall in non-Hunner-type IC cases during hydrodistension or from Hunner/non-Hunner lesions in Hunner-type IC cases during transurethral resection were evaluated...
September 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331066/ketamine-induced-bladder-fibrosis-involves-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-mediated-by-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#7
Junpeng Wang, Yang Chen, Di Gu, Guihao Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Jie Zhao, Peng Wu
Bladder wall fibrosis is a major complication of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC), but the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of ketamine-induced fibrosis in association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups, which received saline, ketamine, ketamine combined with a TGF-β receptor (TβR) inhibitor (SB505124) for 16 weeks, or 12 weeks of ketamine and 4 weeks of abstinence...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217761/modeling-of-chronic-radiation-induced-cystitis-in-mice
#8
Bernadette M M Zwaans, Sarah Krueger, Sarah N Bartolone, Michael B Chancellor, Brian Marples, Laura E Lamb
PURPOSE: Radiation cystitis (RC), a severe inflammatory bladder condition, develops as a side-effect of pelvic radiation therapy in cancer patients. There are currently no effective therapies to treat RC, in part due to the lack of preclinical model systems. In this study, we developed a mouse model for RC and used a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) to simulate the targeted delivery of radiation as used with human patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To induce RC, C3H mice received a single radiation dose of 20Gy delivered through two beams...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184272/treatment-of-radiation-induced-cystitis-and-vulvodynia-via-a-ganglion-impar-block-using-a-lateral-approach-under-computed-tomography-guidance-a-case-report
#9
Jeong-Eun Lee, Kyung-Hwa Kwak, Seong Wook Hong, Hoon Jung, Seung-Yeon Chung, Jun-Mo Park
Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after colorectal cancer surgery can prevent local recurrence, but has several side effects. Precise injection of drugs into the affected areas is complicated by radiation-induced fibrosis of soft or connective tissue. A 48-year-old woman experienced severe intractable perineal pain, dysuria, urinary urgency, and frequent urination after rectal cancer surgery and adjuvant RT, and was diagnosed with radiation-induced cystitis and vulvodynia. Her symptoms persisted despite two fluoroscopy-guided ganglion impar blocks...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106785/ketamine-analog-methoxetamine-induced-inflammation-and-dysfunction-of-bladder-in-rats
#10
Qiang Wang, Qinghui Wu, Junpeng Wang, Yang Chen, Guihao Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Jie Zhao, Peng Wu
The novel synthetic psychoactive ketamine analog methoxetamine is reportedly being used for recreational purposes. As ketamine use can result in urinary dysfunction, we conducted the present study to investigate how methoxetamine affects the bladder. A cystometry investigation showed that female Sprague-Dawley rats experienced increased micturition frequency bladder dysfunction after receiving a daily intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg methoxetamine or ketamine for periods of 4 or 12 weeks. Histologic examinations of rat bladder tissue revealed damaged urothelium barriers, as well as evidence of inflammatory cell infiltration and matrix deposition...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034833/hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-reverses-radiation-induced-pro-fibrotic-and-oxidative-stress-responses-in-a-rat-model
#11
N Oscarsson, L Ny, J Mölne, F Lind, S-E Ricksten, H Seeman-Lodding, D Giglio
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is effective in the treatment of tumors in the pelvic area but is associated with side effects such as cystitis and proctitis. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) has emerged as a treatment modality for radiation-induced side effects. In a rat model for radiation cystitis, we studied the effects of HBOT on oxidative stress and pro-fibrotic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sedated Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bladder irradiation of 20Gy with and without 20 sessions of HBOT during a fortnight...
December 27, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805245/active-schistosomiasis-severe-hypereosinophilia-and-rapid-progression-of-chronic-endomyocardial-fibrosis
#12
A O Mocumbi, C Goncalves, A Damasceno, C Carrilho
Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a neglected restrictive cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology and unclear natural history, which causes premature deaths in endemic areas. We present the case of a 13-year-old boy from a highly endemic area, presenting with concurrent signs of chronic EMF and severe hypereosinophilia associated with active schistosomal cystitis. We discuss the possible role of this parasitic infection in determining the progression of EMF in endemic areas for both conditions.
October 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431428/evaluation-of-urinary-bladder-fibrogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-long-term-ketamine-injection
#13
Cheng-Huang Shen, Shou-Chieh Wang, Shou-Tsung Wang, Shu-Mei Lin, Jiann-Der Wu, Chang-Te Lin, Yi-Wen Liu
Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine‑associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907915/botulinum-toxin-confers-radioprotection-in-murine-salivary-glands
#14
Youssef H Zeidan, Nan Xiao, Hongbin Cao, Christina Kong, Quynh-Thu Le, Davud Sirjani
PURPOSE: Xerostomia is a common radiation sequela, which has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer. Current treatment strategies offer only partial relief. Botulinum toxins (BTX) have been successfully used in treating a variety of radiation sequelae such as cystitis, proctitis, fibrosis, and facial pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BTX on radiation-induced salivary gland damage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We used a previously established model for murine salivary gland irradiation (IR)...
April 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760149/a-new-experimental-model-for-inducing-interstitial-cystitis-by-oxidative-stress-using-intravesical-instillation-of-a-nitric-oxide-donor-gel
#15
Thais Figueiredo Palma, Márcia Lanzoni de Alvarenga, Amedea Barozzi Seabra, Marcelo Ganzarolli de Oliveira, Cássio Luis Zanettini Riccetto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of inducing interstitial cystitis through intravesical instillation of a polymeric solution containing the NO donor S-nitrousglutathione (GSNO) and to compare it to the experimental interstitial cystitis induced by vesical instillation of protamine and potassium chloride. METHODS: A total of 40 female Wistar rats were used and divided into four groups: 1 - ten rats treated with saline solution + GSNO; 2 - ten rats treated with saline solution + polymeric solution (without GNSO); 3 - ten rats treated with protamine sulphate + KCl; 4 - ten rats treated with protamine sulphate + GSNO...
September 2010: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26704279/-treatment-of-long-term-radiation-injuries-in-the-urinary-tract
#16
REVIEW
A Kocot, H Riedmiller
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy plays a substantial role in the treatment of malignancies. The side effects and long-term sequelae of radiotherapy are manifold and depend on the single doses and the total dosage, the time interval between two doses, the size of the irradiated tissue area and the radiation sensitivity of individual tissues. The urological complications following radiotherapy include inflammatory alterations of the bladder (radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis), fibrosis with subsequent radiogenic shrunken bladder, stenosis of the ureter and formation of secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis...
December 2015: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26675710/ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-hemorrhagic-cystitis-a-complication-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#17
Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz, Anna Biel, Dąbrówka Sokołowska-Dąbek, Cyprian Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic cystitis following bone marrow transplantation in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved an analysis of clinical material and the results of imaging tests performed in 334 patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation. Ultrasonographic findings in 42 patients with hemorrhagic cystitis were analyzed in detail. The ultrasound images served to assess the severity of hemorrhagic cystitis and the results were compared with the clinical assessment of the disease on the Droller scale, as well as the laboratory and endoscopic tests...
September 2014: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401845/urine-stasis-predisposes-to-urinary-tract-infection-by-an-opportunistic-uropathogen-in-the-megabladder-mgb-mouse
#18
Brian Becknell, Ahmad Z Mohamed, Birong Li, Michael E Wilhide, Susan E Ingraham
PURPOSE: Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. METHODS: Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26337167/-urethral-pain-syndrome-fact-or-fiction-an-update
#19
REVIEW
N M Dreger, S Degener, S Roth, A S Brandt, D A Lazica
BACKGROUND: Urethral pain syndrome is a symptom complex including dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, nocturia and persistent or intermittent urethral and/or pelvic pain in the absence of proven infection. These symptoms overlap with several other conditions, such as interstitial cystitis bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder. Urethral pain syndrome may occur in men but is more frequent in women. DIAGNOSTIC: The exact etiology is unknown but infectious and psychogenic factors, urethral spasms, early interstitial cystitis, hypoestrogenism, squamous metaplasia as well as gynecological risk factors are discussed...
September 2015: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26324997/the-fibrosis-of-ketamine-a-noncompetitive-n-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-receptor-antagonist-dose-dependent-change-in-a-ketamine-induced-cystitis-rat-model
#20
Miho Song, Hwan Yeul Yu, Ji-Youn Chun, Dong-Myung Shin, Soo Hyun Song, Myung-Soo Choo, Yun Seob Song
Ketamine abusers have greatly increased in number worldwide during recent years. The consumption of ketamine has increased, as have the number of published accounts of devastating urological sequelae. However, the mechanism of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction remains unclear. This study was to evaluate the ketamine dose-dependency of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) in a rat model. A total of 42 Sprague-Dawley rats (female, 10-week-old) were used. Each of the 7 KC rat models were induced by 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg ketamine intravenous injection for two weeks...
2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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