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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150676/severe-pollution-in-china-amplified-by-atmospheric-moisture
#1
Xuexi Tie, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Di Chang, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Uli Dusek, Guohui Li, Douglas R Worsnop, Colin D O'Dowd
In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL)...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150535/disparities-in-management-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-rural-south-africa-data-from-the-haalsi-study-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-international-network-for-the-demographic-evaluation-of-populations-and-their-health-communities
#2
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Nigel J Crowther, Alisha Wade, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, Thomas A Gaziano
BACKGROUND: Optimal secondary prevention is critical for the reduction of repeated cardiovascular events, and the control of cardiovascular risk factors in this context is essential. Data on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to inform intervention strategies with a particular focus on local disparities. The aim of this study was to assess CVD management in a rural community in northeast South Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited adults aged ≥40 years residing in the Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga province...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150269/potential-role-of-the-virchow-robin-space-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis
#3
Patrick Chan, Denis J Meerdink, James A Uchizono
Meningitis is an infectious disease commonly arising from a bacterial etiology. The rapid progression of morbidity and mortality due to bacterial meningitis requires critical and imminent time-dependent clinical intervention. Although it is unambiguously clear that bacteria must infiltrate the cerebrospinal fluid, the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis has not been fully elucidated. Most reviews of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis do not specify the anatomical location of bacteria following BBB traversal...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149418/randomized-multicenter-trial-of-lateral-trendelenburg-versus-semirecumbent-body-position-for-the-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#4
Gianluigi Li Bassi, Mauro Panigada, Otavio T Ranzani, Alberto Zanella, Lorenzo Berra, Massimo Cressoni, Vieri Parrini, Hassan Kandil, Giovanni Salati, Paola Selvaggi, Alessandro Amatu, Miquel Sanz-Moncosi, Emanuela Biagioni, Fernanda Tagliaferri, Mirella Furia, Giovanna Mercurio, Antonietta Costa, Tullio Manca, Simone Lindau, Jaksa Babel, Marco Cavana, Chiara Chiurazzi, Joan-Daniel Marti, Dario Consonni, Luciano Gattinoni, Antonio Pesenti, Janine Wiener-Kronish, Cecilia Bruschi, Andrea Ballotta, Pierpaolo Salsi, Sergio Livigni, Giorgio Iotti, Javier Fernandez, Massimo Girardis, Maria Barbagallo, Gabriella Moise, Massimo Antonelli, Maria Luisa Caspani, Antonella Vezzani, Patrick Meybohm, Vladimir Gasparovic, Edoardo Geat, Marcelo Amato, Michael Niederman, Theodor Kolobow, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE: The lateral Trendelenburg position (LTP) may hinder the primary pathophysiologic mechanism of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We investigated whether placing patients in the LTP would reduce the incidence of VAP in comparison with the semirecumbent position (SRP). METHODS: This was a randomized, multicenter, controlled study in invasively ventilated critically ill patients. Two preplanned interim analyses were performed. Patients were randomized to be placed in the LTP or the SRP...
November 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149412/the-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-and-the-cellular-response-to-ionizing-radiation-induced-dna-damage
#5
Jie Zhang, Grace Shim, Sonia M de Toledo, Edouard I Azzam
The absorption of ionizing radiation by living cells can directly disrupt atomic structures, producing chemical and biological changes. It can also act indirectly through radiolysis of water, thereby generating reactive chemical species that may damage nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. Together, the direct and indirect effects of radiation initiate a series of biochemical and molecular signaling events that may repair the damage or culminate in permanent physiological changes or cell death. In efforts to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these effects, we observed a prominent upregulation of the Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) in low dose/low dose rate (137)Cs γ-irradiated cells that was associated with adaptive responses that reduced chromosomal damage to a level lower than what occurs spontaneously...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149178/drivers-of-genetic-diversity-in-secondary-metabolic-gene-clusters-within-a-fungal-species
#6
Abigail L Lind, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Catarina Lameiras, Philipp Wiemann, Jonathan M Palmer, Nancy P Keller, Fernando Rodrigues, Gustavo H Goldman, Antonis Rokas
Filamentous fungi produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) critical for defense, virulence, and communication. The metabolic pathways that produce SMs are found in contiguous gene clusters in fungal genomes, an atypical arrangement for metabolic pathways in other eukaryotes. Comparative studies of filamentous fungal species have shown that SM gene clusters are often either highly divergent or uniquely present in one or a handful of species, hampering efforts to determine the genetic basis and evolutionary drivers of SM gene cluster divergence...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149162/-switching-from-one-drug-therapy-to-another-with-the-same-therapeutic-indication-without-harms
#7
Valeria Belleudi, Antonio Addis
The loss of exclusivity from several drug therapies largely used bring new attention the issues of safety, efficacy and following the switch from one drug to another (i.e., biosimilar and/or generics) with the same indication. This is not a problem that can be related to regulatory or economical factors. The increase of patients exposed to chronic conditions and the introductions or more pharmaceutical alternatives with same therapeutic indications yield for studies able to verify the effectiveness and safety even when switch from more drugs is considered by practitioners...
November 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#8
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146414/predicting-chronic-climate-driven-disturbances-and-their-mitigation
#9
REVIEW
Nate G McDowell, Sean T Michaletz, Katrina E Bennett, Kurt C Solander, Chonggang Xu, Reed M Maxwell, Craig D Allen, Richard S Middleton
Society increasingly demands the stable provision of ecosystem resources to support our population. Resource risks from climate-driven disturbances, including drought, heat, insect outbreaks, and wildfire, are growing as a chronic state of disequilibrium results from increasing temperatures and a greater frequency of extreme events. This confluence of increased demand and risk may soon reach critical thresholds. We explain here why extreme chronic disequilibrium of ecosystem function is likely to increase dramatically across the globe, creating no-analog conditions that challenge adaptation...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#10
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145394/unc-16-jip3-regulates-early-events-in-synaptic-vesicle-protein-trafficking-via-lrk-1-lrrk2-and-ap-complexes
#11
Bikash Choudhary, Madhushree Kamak, Neena Ratnakaran, Jitendra Kumar, Anjali Awasthi, Chun Li, Ken Nguyen, Kunihiro Matsumoto, Naoki Hisamoto, Sandhya P Koushika
JIP3/UNC-16/dSYD is a MAPK-scaffolding protein with roles in protein trafficking. We show that it is present on the Golgi and is necessary for the polarized distribution of synaptic vesicle proteins (SVPs) and dendritic proteins in neurons. UNC-16 excludes Golgi enzymes from SVP transport carriers and facilitates inclusion of specific SVPs into the same transport carrier. The SVP trafficking roles of UNC-16 are mediated through LRK-1, whose localization to the Golgi is reduced in unc-16 animals. UNC-16, through LRK-1, also enables Golgi-localization of the μ-subunit of the AP-1 complex...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144871/consistency-ensured-parametric-tests-for-critical-events-of-composite-endpoints
#12
Mohammad F Huque, Mohamed Alosh, Matthew Guerra
Composite endpoints (CEs) are commonly used in clinical trials when clinically important events are rare or when the disease is multifaceted. However, components of a CE often differ markedly in their clinical importance. The overall treatment effect on the composite can be driven by less-important, yet more frequently occurring, components, with no effects on some clinically important components. These situations create difficulties in interpreting the results of the CE. The literature has proposed several approaches for handling these conditions, for example, by setting requirements on the results of the clinically important components...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144298/flood-forecasting-within-urban-drainage-systems-using-narx-neural-network
#13
Yves Abou Rjeily, Oras Abbas, Marwan Sadek, Isam Shahrour, Fadi Hage Chehade
Urbanization activity and climate change increase the runoff volumes, and consequently the surcharge of the urban drainage systems (UDS). In addition, age and structural failures of these utilities limit their capacities, and thus generate hydraulic operation shortages, leading to flooding events. The large increase in floods within urban areas requires rapid actions from the UDS operators. The proactivity in taking the appropriate actions is a key element in applying efficient management and flood mitigation...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142580/medical-education-journal-club-two-years-experience-at-king-saud-university
#14
Samina A Khan, Mona M Soliman
Objective: Medical Education Journal Club is an evidence-based approach to teach and learn critical appraisal techniques on available literature. This study evaluates the implementation and experience of two academic years of Journal club at Medical Education Department, King Saud University. Methods: We started JC in 2015 at medical education department, KSU. An invitation with a published paper and event poster were sent 2 weeks prior of the session to participants...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142217/fbxo32-promotes-microenvironment-underlying-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-ctbp1-during-tumour-metastasis-and-brain-development
#15
Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu, Neha Tiwari, Abhijeet Pataskar, Yuan Zhuang, Marina Borisova, Mustafa Diken, Susanne Strand, Petra Beli, Vijay K Tiwari
The set of events that convert adherent epithelial cells into migratory cells are collectively known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is involved during development, for example, in triggering neural crest migration, and in pathogenesis such as metastasis. Here we discover FBXO32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to be critical for hallmark gene expression and phenotypic changes underlying EMT. Interestingly, FBXO32 directly ubiquitinates CtBP1, which is required for its stability and nuclear retention...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141932/umbilical-artery-perforation-a-potentially-life-threatening-complication-of-umbilical-artery-catheterisation
#16
Daniel Molanus, Machteld van Scherpenzeel, Joep Derikx, Frank van den Dungen
Umbilical artery catheterisation is frequently performed in preterm or critically ill newborn infants for invasive monitoring of blood pressure and blood sampling for laboratory tests. It is associated with well-known complications like catheter-related infections, thromboembolic events and aneurysmal formation of the aorta. In this report, we present another major complication of umbilical artery catheterisation: umbilical artery perforation. This complication occurred in a prematurely born infant and resulted in severe haemorrhagic shock, subsequent renal failure and severe periventricular leukomalacia...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141762/efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cruzeiro-do-sul-brazil-2016
#17
Megumi Itoh, Suiane Negreiros do Valle, Sâmela Farias, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Naomi Lucchi, Stella Chenet, Paola Marchesini, Marinete Póvoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) fixed-dose combination to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Between December 2015 and May 2016, we enrolled 79 patients, 5-79 years old with fever or history of fever in the previous 48 hours and P. falciparum monoinfection confirmed by microscopy. Attempts were made to provide direct observation or phone reminders for all six doses of AL, and patients were followed-up for 28 days...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141694/the-icu-diary-study-prospective-multicenter-comparative-study-of-the-impact-of-an-icu-diary-on-the-wellbeing-of-patients-and-families-in-french-icus
#18
Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Cécile Flahault, Léonor Fasse, Stéphane Ruckly, Nora Amdjar-Badidi, Laurent Argaud, Julio Badie, Amélie Bazire, Naike Bige, Eric Boulet, Lila Bouadma, Cédric Bretonnière, Bernard Floccard, Alain Gaffinel, Xavier de Forceville, Hubert Grand, Rebecca Halidfar, Olfa Hamzaoui, Mercé Jourdain, Paul-Henri Jost, Eric Kipnis, Audrey Large, Alexandre Lautrette, Olivier Lesieur, Virginie Maxime, Emmanuelle Mercier, Jean Paul Mira, Yannick Monseau, Erika Parmentier-Decrucq, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, Antoine Rouget, François Santoli, Georges Simon, Fabienne Tamion, Nathalie Thieulot-Rolin, Marina Thirion, Sandrine Valade, Isabelle Vinatier, Christel Vioulac, Sebastien Bailly, Jean-François Timsit
BACKGROUND: Post-intensive care syndrome includes the multiple consequences of an intensive care unit (ICU) stay for patients and families. It has become a new challenge for intensivists. Prevention programs have been disappointing, except for ICU diaries, which report the patient's story in the ICU. However, the effectiveness of ICU diaries for patients and families is still controversial, as the interpretation of the results of previous studies was open to criticism hampering an expanded use of the diary...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140969/risk-factors-for-ventilator-associated-events-in-a-picu
#19
Raeley Guess, Jarin Vaewpanich, Jorge A Coss-Bu, Siriporn Phongjitsiri, Curtis Kennedy, Jeffrey Starke, Satid Thammasitboon
OBJECTIVE: The term ventilator-associated events includes ventilator-associated condition, infection-related ventilator-associated complication, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. We sought to identify potential new risk factors for ventilator-associated condition and infection-related ventilator-associated complication in the PICU population. DESIGN: Matched case control study. SETTING: Children's hospital at a tertiary care academic medical center...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139608/current-state-of-screening-high-ace-youth-and-emerging-adults-in-primary-care
#20
Michelle Pardee, Elizabeth Kuzma, Chin Hwa Gina Y Dahlem, Nicole Boucher, Cynthia S Darling-Fisher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trauma comes in many forms, including interpersonal, community, and institutional trauma. The adverse childhood event (ACE) studies demonstrated that adverse experiences in childhood can have a profound, cumulative impact on the course of health and development over a lifetime. It is critical for healthcare providers, such as nurse practitioners (NPs), working in primary care to screen adolescents and emerging adults for a history of ACEs and trauma. A review of current assessment tools used in assessing this population in health settings is needed to determine how screening for ACEs is being performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
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