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Shang-Wei Li, Chun Ming How, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an emerging organic contaminant that has represented a risk for organisms present in the environment. However, there is still limited information regarding DEHP-induced multigenerational toxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study we investigated the multigenerational toxic effects including locomotive behaviors and reproduction upon prolonged DEHP exposure (from larval L1 to adult) and the underlying mechanisms in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Saemi-Komsari, H Mousavi-Sabet, C F Kratochwil, M Sattari, S Eagderi, A Meyer
The electric yellow cichlid Labidochromis caeruleus is a mouth-brooding haplochromine cichlid from Lake Malawi and one of the most popular cichlids in the ornamental fish industry. To investigate the early development of L. caeruleus from hatching until the juvenile stage, we studied its morphological development and allometric growth patterns. In newly-hatched larvae, most organs and body parts were not yet differentiated and continued to develop until 15 days post hatching (dph). The yolk sac was depleted at 13 dph...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Kat Bebbington, Eleanor A Fairfield, Lewis G Spurgin, Sjouke A Kingma, Hannah Dugdale, Jan Komdeur, David S Richardson
Competition between offspring can greatly influence offspring fitness and parental investment decisions, especially in communal breeders where unrelated competitors have less incentive to concede resources. Given the potential for escalated conflict, it remains unclear what mechanisms facilitate the evolution of communal breeding among unrelated females. Resolving this question requires simultaneous consideration of offspring in noncommunal and communal nurseries, but such comparisons are missing. In the Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, we compare nestling pairs from communal nests (2 mothers) and noncommunal nests (1 mother) with singleton nestlings...
January 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
J P Lawrence, Michael Mahony, Brice P Noonan
Anti-predator signaling is highly variable with numerous examples of species employing cryptic coloration to avoid detection or conspicuous coloration (often coupled with a secondary defense) to ensure detection and recollection. While the ends of this spectrum are clear in their function, how species use intermediate signals is less clear. Australian Brood Frogs (Pseudophryne) display conspicuous coloration on both their dorsum and venter. Coupled with the alkaloid toxins these frogs possess, this coloration may be aposematic, providing a protective warning signal to predators...
2018: PloS One
Bart Linden, Jef Huisman, Baruch Rinkevich
Larval release by brooding corals is often assumed to display lunar periodicity. Here, we show that larval release of individual Stylophora pistillata colonies does not comply with the assumed tight entrainment by the lunar cycle, and can better be classified as a circatrigintan pattern. The colonies exhibited three distinct reproductive patterns, characterized by short intervals, long intervals and no periodicity between reproductive peaks, respectively. Cross correlation between the lunar cycle and larval release of the periodic colonies revealed an approximately 30-day periodicity with a variable lag of 5 to 10 days after full moon...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Duur K Aanen
Workers in an ant colony can kill fungus-infected brood, thereby protecting the rest of the colony from fungal infection. This form of social immunity is analogous to the immune system of multicellular organisms where immune cells kill infected cells.
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and response inhibition...
March 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Hiromi Mukai, Mantaro Hironaka, Sumio Tojo, Shintaro Nomakuchi
Sibling cannibalism-the killing and consumption of conspecifics within broods-carries a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for parents and offspring. We reported previously that a unique vibrational behavior shown by the mother of the subsocial burrower bug, Adomerus rotundus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), induced synchronous hatching. Maternal regulation may be one of the most effective mechanisms for preventing or limiting sibling cannibalism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synchronous hatching induced by maternal vibration in A...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ronel Pienaar, Daniel G de Klerk, John F Putterill, Ben J Mans
Maternal behaviour (carrying of larvae on the opisthosoma) in ticks has thus far only been observed in Antricola (Parantricola) marginatus and was considered a unique derived adaptation of this genus. The authors extend this observation to two additional argasid species, namely Argas (Argas) striatus and Argas (Secretargas) transgariepinus. In addition, brooding behaviour over eggs were observed with A. (S.) transgariepinus. Maternal behaviour may be an evolutionary adaptation to ecological challenges in habitats unsuited for larval survival and may be related to the presence of pulvilli in larvae...
March 21, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
M Dolores Hernando, Victoria Gámiz, Sergio Gil-Lebrero, Inmaculada Rodríguez, Ana I García-Valcárcel, V Cutillas, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba, José M Flores
In this study, honeybee colonies were monitored in a field study conducted on sunflowers grown from seeds treated with the systemic neonicotinoids thiamethoxam or clothianidin. This field trial was carried out in different representative growing areas in Spain over a beekeeping season. The health and development of the colonies was assessed by measuring factors that have a significant influence on their strength and overwintering ability. The parameters assessed were: colony strength (adult bees), brood development, amount of pollen and honey stores and presence and status of the queen...
March 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Meiru Wang, Wen Zhao, Xuying Jia, Jie Wei, Shan Wang
As one of the most important contaminants, heavy metals can seriously influence human health via the food chain. In this study, the eco-toxicological effects of Cd2+ , Pb2+ , and Hg2+ on Moina mongolica Daday were investigated by feeding them Chlorella sp. that contained heavy metals. The relative body lengths of the M. mongolica changed rapidly, peaking at 2 days for Hg2+ , 6 days for Cd2+ , and 8 days for Pb2+ . Moreover, grazing and clearance rates of the experimental group were apparently lower than those of the control group after immersion in heavy metals...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Janina Kay, Pamela Menegazzi, Stephanie Mildner, Flavio Roces, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
The circadian clock of social insects has become a focal point of interest for research, as social insects show complex forms of timed behavior and organization within their colonies. These behaviors include brood care, nest maintenance, foraging, swarming, defense, and many other tasks, of which several require social synchronization and accurate timing. Ants of the genus Camponotus have been shown to display a variety of daily timed behaviors such as the emergence of males from the nest, foraging, and relocation of brood...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Aaron Mullins, Nan-Yao Su
Colony foundation and early growth is a critical period in the life-cycle of a termite colony, as the initial family unit is resource limited. One such resource is nitrogen, which is essential for initial colony growth. This study examined the whole-colony nitrogen inventory during foundation and early growth of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki colonies. It was hypothesized that termite colonies would go through an initial period of parental investment, representing a transfer of nitrogen to the first brood, and that once a functional worker caste was present, further provisioning in the form of intrinsic N₂ fixation would occur...
March 26, 2018: Insects
Jim N Underwood, Zoe T Richards, Karen J Miller, Marji L Puotinen, James P Gilmour
The predominance of self-recruitment in many reef-building corals has fundamental and complex consequences for their genetic diversity, population persistence and responses to climate change. Knowledge of genetic structure over local scales needs to be placed within a broad spatial context, and also integrated with genetic monitoring through time to disentangle these consequences. Here, we examined patterns of genetic diversity over multiple spatio-temporal scales across tropical Australia in the ubiquitous brooding coral, Seriatopora hystrix...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Eva M Keppner, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Parental care is thought to be costly, as it consumes time and energy. Such costs might be reduced in animal parents that raise their young on valuable food sources such as dung or carcasses, as parents are able to invest in self-maintenance by feeding from the same resource. However, this might lower the nutritional value for other family members and, as a consequence, food competition might arise. To promote our understanding of the outcome of such competition, we manipulated the necessity of parents to feed from the resource...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
H Bjørgen, E O Koppang, G Gunnes, I Hordvik, T Moldal, M Kaldhusdal, O B Dale
An epizootic incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was reported in brood fish of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in 2009. The condition was associated with a specific diet inducing enteritis and morphological changes. Here, two field trials of fish up to slaughter size were initiated. In Trial 1, two different feed recipes were used. Feed I was predominantly based on marine ingredients, whereas plant ingredients were limited to soy protein concentrate and wheat. Feed II was lower in fishmeal and without soya protein, which was substituted with plant proteins from other sources...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Paula Sá-Pereira, Mário S Diniz, Liliana Moita, Teresa Pinheiro, Elsa Mendonça, Susana M Paixão, Ana Picado
The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO2 -NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch...
March 23, 2018: Ecotoxicology
P J Davison, J Field
Abstract: Eusociality is characterised by a reproductive division of labour, where some individuals forgo direct reproduction to instead help raise kin. Socially polymorphic sweat bees are ideal models for addressing the mechanisms underlying the transition from solitary living to eusociality, because different individuals in the same species can express either eusocial or solitary behaviour. A key question is whether alternative social phenotypes represent environmentally induced plasticity or predominantly genetic differentiation between populations...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Eliaber B Santos, Sue Shemilt, Carlos A L de Carvalho, Stephen J Martin
Swarm-founding 'Warrior wasps' (Synoeca spp.) are found throughout the tropical regions of South America, are much feared due to their aggressive nest defence and painful sting. There are only five species of Synoeca, all construct distinctive nests that consist of a single sessile comb built onto the surface of a tree or rock face, which is covered by a ribbed envelope. Although locally common, research into this group is just starting. We studied eight colonies of Synoeca septentrionalis, a species recently been described from Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Fengwei Pan, Liying Zhang, Min Li, Yingxin Hu, Benhua Zeng, Huijuan Yuan, Liping Zhao, Chenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Calorie restriction (CR), which has a potent anti-inflammaging effect, has been demonstrated to induce dramatic changes in the gut microbiota. Whether the modulated gut microbiota contributes to the attenuation of inflammation during CR is unknown, as are the members of the microbial community that may be key mediators of this process. RESULTS: Here, we report that a unique Lactobacillus-predominated microbial community was rapidly attained in mice within 2 weeks of CR, which decreased the levels of circulating microbial antigens and systemic inflammatory markers such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
March 21, 2018: Microbiome
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