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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911470/posttraumatic-rumination-content-correlates-and-processes
#1
Christine E Valdez, Michelle M Lilly
OBJECTIVE: Trauma-related rumination (i.e., repetitive and recurrent thinking about trauma and its consequences) has shown to predict the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, though little is known about its characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine trauma-related ruminative content, correlates, and processes during a trauma-specific repetitive thinking interview. METHOD: A total of 63 female survivors of violence completed questionnaires assessing trauma-related pathology and participated in a trauma-specific repetitive thinking interview, which was qualitatively coded...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908721/stress-response-in-honeybees-is-associated-with-changes-in-task-related-physiology-and-energetic-metabolism
#2
Célia Bordier, Séverine Suchail, Maryline Pioz, Jean Marc Devaud, Claude Collet, Mercedes Charreton, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
In a rapidly changing environment, honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to diverse sources of stress (e.g., new parasites, pesticides, climate warming), which represent a challenge to individual and social homeostasis. However, bee physiological responses to stress remain poorly understood. We therefore exposed bees specialised in different tasks (nurses, guards and foragers) to ancient (immune and heat stress) or historically more recent sources of stress (pesticides), and we determined changes in the expression of genes linked to behavioural maturation (vitellogenin - vg and juvenile hormone esterase - jhe) as well as in energetic metabolism (glycogen level, expression level of the receptor to the adipokinetic hormone - akhr, and endothermic performance)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908627/validation-of-a-two-generational-reproduction-test-in-daphnia-magna-an-interlaboratory-exercise
#3
Carlos Barata, Bruno Campos, Claudia Rivetti, Gerald A LeBlanc, Stephanie Eytcheson, Stephanie McKnight, Marysia Tobor-Kaplon, Selinda de Vries Buitenweg, Suhyon Choi, Jinhee Choi, Elena I Sarapultseva, Marie-Agnès Coutellec, Maïra Coke, Pascal Pandard, Arnaud Chaumot, Hervé Quéau, Nicolas Delorme, Olivier Geffard, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo, Haruna Watanabe, Norihisa Tatarazako, Isabel Lopes, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares, Cecilia Manuela Pereira, Karel De Schamphelaere
Effects observed within one generation disregard potential detrimental effects that may appear across generations. Previously we have developed a two generation Daphnia magna reproduction test using the OECD TG 211 protocol with a few amendments, including initiating the second generation with third brood neonates produced from first generation individuals. Here we showed the results of an inter-laboratory calibration exercise among 12 partners that aimed to test the robustness and consistency of a two generation Daphnia magna reproduction test...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905665/multiple-paternity-in-a-wild-population-of-armadillidium-vulgare-influence-of-infection-with-wolbachia
#4
V Valette, S Durand, N Bech, F Grandjean, S Beltran-Bech
Female multiple mating has been extensively studied to understand how nonobvious benefits, generally thought to be of genetic nature, could overcome heavy costs such as an increased risk of infection during mating. However, the impact of infection itself on multiple mating has rarely been addressed. The interaction between the bacterium Wolbachia and its terrestrial crustacean host, Armadillidium vulgare, is a relevant model to investigate this question. In this association, Wolbachia is able to turn genetic males into functional females (i...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905255/rumination-and-self-reflection-in-stress-narratives-and-relations-to-psychological-functioning
#5
Kelly A Marin, Elena K Rotondo
The longitudinal study aims to expand what is known about the costs and benefits of narrating stressful experiences by exploring changes in rumination within the narrative process and comparing it to changes in self-reflection. Rumination (e.g., brooding, self-criticism, and negative emotions) and self-reflection were measured in stress narratives of 56 college students. There were several goals: (1) examine changes in narrative rumination and narrative self-reflection over 3 days of writing, (2) examine the relations among the changes in narrative rumination variables and narrative self-reflection and (3) examine how changes in narrative rumination and narrative self-reflection relate to multiple measures of psychological functioning...
January 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902754/how-do-growth-and-sibling-competition-affect-telomere-dynamics-in-the-first-month-of-life-of-long-lived-seabird
#6
Yuichi Mizutani, Yasuaki Niizuma, Ken Yoda
Telomeres are nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that promote genome stability. Changes in telomere length (dynamics) are related to fitness or life expectancy, and telomere dynamics during the development phase are likely to be affected by growth and stress factors. Here, we examined telomere dynamics of black-tailed gull chicks (Larus crassirostris) in nests with and without siblings. We found that the initial telomere lengths of singletons at hatching were longer than those of siblings, indicating that singletons are higher-quality chicks than siblings in terms of telomere length...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896480/ultimate-regulation-of-fecundity-in-species-with-precocial-young-declining-marginal-value-of-offspring-with-increasing-brood-size-does-not-explain-maximal-clutch-size-in-black-brent-geese
#7
James S Sedinger, Amanda W VanDellen, Alan G Leach, Thomas V Riecke
Lack 18:125-128 (1967) proposed that clutch size in precocial species was regulated by nutrients available to females during breeding. Drent and Daan 68:225-252 (1980) proposed the individual optimization hypothesis, whereby individual state determines the optimal combination of breeding date and clutch size. Neither hypothesis accounts for variation in nutrients among females at the end of egg laying, strong right truncations in clutch size distributions, or the fact that many species with precocial young are determinate layers...
November 28, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891221/brood-size-moderates-associations-between-relative-size-telomere-length-and-immune-development-in-european-starling-nestlings
#8
Daniel Nettle, Clare Andrews, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Annie Gott, Craig Parker, Claire Kolenda, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
For young birds in a nest, body size may have implications for other aspects of development such as telomere length and immune function. However, it is possible to predict associations in either direction. On the one hand, there may be trade-offs between growth and telomere maintenance, and growth and investment in immune function, suggesting there will be negative correlations. On the other hand, relatively larger individuals might be advantaged in competition with their nest-mates, allowing them to garner more resources overall, leading to positive correlations...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889160/evaluation-of-baker-s-yeast-in-honey-using-a-real-time-pcr-assay
#9
Christina Kast, Alexandra Roetschi
Occasionally, melissopalynological analysis reveals the presence of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in honey sediments. A field experiment reproducing a common spring bee feeding practice, using sugar paste containing baker's yeast, was performed to understand how S. cerevisiae are introduced into honey. Apart from classical microscopy, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) system specific for S. cerevisiae was established for quantification of S. cerevisiae in honeys. Results showed that S. cerevisiae cells are stored in the honey of the brood combs and are also transferred into honey in the supers...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888335/bayesian-inference-supports-the-host-selection-hypothesis-in-explaining-adaptive-host-specificity-by-european-bitterling
#10
Carl Smith
Generalist parasites have the capacity to infect multiple hosts. The temporal pattern of host specificity by generalist parasites is rarely studied, but is critical to understanding what variables underpin infection and thereby the impact of parasites on host species and the way they impose selection on hosts. Here, the temporal dynamics of infection of four species of freshwater mussel by European bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus) was investigated over three spawning seasons. Bitterling lay their eggs in the gills of freshwater mussels, which suffer reduced growth, oxygen stress, gill damage and elevated mortality as a result of parasitism...
November 25, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887566/the-common-redstart-as-a-suitable-model-to-study-cuckoo-host-coevolution-in-a-unique-ecological-context
#11
Peter Samaš, Jarkko Rutila, Tomáš Grim
BACKGROUND: Co-evolutionary arms-races result in spatio-temporally dynamic relationships between interacting species, e.g., brood parasites and their avian hosts. However, majority of avian co-evolutionary studies are limited to "snap-shots" of a single breeding season in an open-nesting host. In a long-term study (11 breeding seasons), we explored a unique system between the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and its host, the common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) which is exceptional among all cuckoo hosts due to being a cavity nester...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881897/elevated-reproduction-does-not-affect-telomere-dynamics-and-oxidative-stress
#12
Joanna Sudyka, Giulia Casasole, Joanna Rutkowska, Mariusz Cichoń
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and telomere dynamics are considered to be powerful biomarkers quantifying a potential trade-off between current reproduction and self-maintenance. Recent studies confirmed the negative impact of elevated reproduction on telomeres, but the evidence for the cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress remains equivocal. In order to induce reproductive costs, we experimentally manipulated reproductive effort by increasing brood size in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and additionally challenged all birds by a low ambient temperature to facilitate detection of these costs...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875589/on-the-effects-of-artificial-feeding-on-bee-colony-dynamics-a-mathematical-model
#13
Juliana Pereira Lisboa Mohallem Paiva, Henrique Mohallem Paiva, Elisa Esposito, Michelle Manfrini Morais
This paper proposes a new mathematical model to evaluate the effects of artificial feeding on bee colony population dynamics. The proposed model is based on a classical framework and contains differential equations that describe the changes in the number of hive bees, forager bees, and brood cells, as a function of amounts of natural and artificial food. The model includes the following elements to characterize the artificial feeding scenario: a function to model the preference of the bees for natural food over artificial food; parameters to quantify the quality and palatability of artificial diets; a function to account for the efficiency of the foragers in gathering food under different environmental conditions; and a function to represent different approaches used by the beekeeper to feed the hive with artificial food...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873065/decline-in-territory-size-and-fecundity-as-a-response-to-carrying-capacity-in-an-endangered-songbird
#14
Stefanie A Hartmann, Steffen Oppel, Gernot Segelbacher, Mery E Juiña, H Martin Schaefer
Density-dependent processes are fundamental mechanisms for the regulation of populations. Ecological theories differ in their predictions on whether increasing population density leads to individual adjustments of survival and reproductive output or to dominance and monopolization of resources. Here, we use a natural experiment to examine which factors limit population growth in the only remaining population of the endangered pale-headed brush finch (Atlapetes pallidiceps). For three distinct phases (a phase of population suppression, 2001-2002; expansion due to conservation management, 2003-2008; and equilibrium phase, 2009-2014), we estimated demographic parameters with an integrated population model using population size, the proportion of successfully breeding pairs and their productivity, territory size, and mark-recapture data of adult birds...
November 21, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867763/sexual-reproduction-in-the-caribbean-coral-genus-isophyllia-scleractinia-mussidae
#15
Derek Soto, Ernesto Weil
The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000-2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865886/social-regulation-of-ageing-by-young-workers-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#16
Michael Eyer, Benjamin Dainat, Peter Neumann, Vincent Dietemann
Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864914/the-lek-mating-system-of-the-worm-pipefish-nerophis-lumbriciformis-a-molecular-maternity-analysis-and-test-of-the-phenotype-linked-fertility-hypothesis
#17
N M Monteiro, D Carneiro, A Antunes, N Queiroz, M N Vieira, A G Jones
The origin and maintenance of mating preferences continues to be an important and controversial topic in sexual selection research. Leks and lek-like mating systems, where individuals gather in particular spots for the sole purpose of mate choice, are particularly puzzling, because the strong directional selection imposed by mate choice should erode genetic variation among competing individuals and negate any benefit for the choosing sex. Here, we take advantage of the lek-like mating system of the worm pipefish (Nerophis lumbriciformis) to test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis for the maintenance of mating preferences...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864585/changes-in-glutathione-s-transferase-activity-and-parental-care-patterns-in-a-catfish-pisces-ariidae-as-a-biomarker-of-anthropogenic-impact-in-a-brazilian-harbor
#18
Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho Neta, Gleyciane Lobato Barbosa, Hetty Salvino Torres, Débora Batista Pinheiro Sousa, Jonatas da Silva Castro, Débora Martins Silva Santos, Lígia Tchaicka, Zafira da Silva de Almeida, Erivania Gomes Teixeira, Audalio Rebelo Torres
Catfish have been used as a model system for studying biochemical mechanisms of biotransformation. The main goal of this study was to identify alterations in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and changes in the parental care pattern of a mouth-brooding catfish, Sciades herzbergii, as a biomarker of anthropogenic impact in a port area on the northeastern coast of Brazil. The fish were sampled from a natural reserve (A1 = reference site) and from an industrialized port area (A2 = impacted site)...
November 18, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862964/morphological-and-molecular-analyses-of-an-anatomical-novelty-the-pelvic-fin-filaments-of-the-south-american-lungfish
#19
Sergio Q Lima, Carinne M Costa, Chris T Amemiya, Igor Schneider
The pelvic fins of male South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, are adorned with a distinctive array of filaments, which grow and become highly vascularized during the breeding season. The resemblance between these pelvic fin filaments (PFFs) and external gills of other vertebrates suggested that this gill-like structure was used for physiological gas exchange. It has been proposed that the unique pelvic fin of male L. paradoxa is used for release of oxygen from its blood into the environment in order to aerate its nesting brood, or, conversely, as an auxiliary respiratory organ by absorbing oxygen from the environment into its bloodstream...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861777/direct-benefits-and-indirect-costs-of-warm-temperatures-for-high-elevation-populations-of-a-solitary-bee
#20
Jessica R K Forrest, Sarah P M Chisholm
Warm temperatures are required for insect flight. Consequently, warming could benefit many high-latitude and high-altitude insects by increasing opportunities for foraging or oviposition. However, warming can also alter species interactions, including interactions with natural enemies, making the net effect of rising temperatures on population growth rate difficult to predict. We investigated the temperature-dependence of nesting activity and lifetime reproductive output over three years in subalpine populations of a pollen-specialist bee, Osmia iridis...
November 14, 2016: Ecology
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