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Lu Kong, Xiaojie Gao, Jiaqian Zhu, Ting Zhang, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
To investigate the reproductive toxicity and underlying mechanism of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs), Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with/without 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg cm(-2) of Ni NPs or nickel microparticles (Ni MPs). Generation time, fertilized egg numbers, spermatide activation and motility were detected. Results indicated, under the same treatment doses, that Ni NPs induced higher reproductive toxicity to C. elegans than Ni MPs. Reproductive toxicities observed in C. elegans included a decrease in brood size, fertilized egg and spermatide activation, but an increase in generation time and out-of-round spermatids...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
D Caldwell Hahn, John C Wingfield, David M Fox, Brian G Walker, Jill E Thomley
In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring...
October 13, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Thomas V Vezeteu, Otilia Bobiş, Robin F A Moritz, Anja Buttstedt
Honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera) serve as attractive hosts for a variety of pathogens providing optimal temperatures, humidity, and an abundance of food. Thus, honeybees have to deal with pathogens throughout their lives and, even as larvae they are affected by severe brood diseases like the European Foulbrood caused by Melissococcus plutonius. Accordingly, it is highly adaptive that larval food jelly contains antibiotic compounds. However, although food jelly is primarily consumed by bee larvae, studies investigating the antibiotic effects of this jelly have largely concentrated on bacterial human diseases...
October 14, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Fernando Rafael Barri
Wildlife reintroduction is an increasingly used strategy to reverse anthropocene defaunation. For the purpose of ecosystem restoration, in 2007 the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) was reintroduced to the Quebrada del Condorito National Park, situated in the mountains of central Argentina. With the aim of developing management recommendations, the project included permanently monitoring the population to evaluate its dynamics and the ecological response of the individuals released into the area. Nine years later and after two releases of guanacos (113 individuals in 2007 without and 25 in 2011 with a pre-adaptation period), only 24 individuals, which conform three reproductive groups, and one group of solitary males were settled in the Park...
2016: PloS One
Gaurav V Sanghvi, Praveen Baskaran, Waltraud Röseler, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
Nematodes, the earth's most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey...
2016: PloS One
Natalia Królikowska, Jakub Szymkowiak, Rebecca Anne Laidlaw, Lechosław Kuczyński
Birds exhibit various forms of anti-predator behaviours to avoid reproductive failure, with mobbing-observation, approach and usually harassment of a predator-being one of the most commonly observed. Here, we investigate patterns of temporal variation in the mobbing response exhibited by a precocial species, the northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). We test whether brood age and self-reliance, or the perceived risk posed by various predators, affect mobbing response of lapwings. We quantified aggressive interactions between lapwings and their natural avian predators and used generalized additive models to test how timing and predator species identity are related to the mobbing response of lapwings...
2016: Acta Ethologica
Ana Carolina Ottaviani, Fabiana de Souza Orlandi
Introduction: Losses can be conceptualized as cognitive and affective responses to individual sorrows, characterized by brooding, yearning, disbelief and stunned feelings, being clinically significant in chronic diseases. Objective: The aim of the study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Kidney Disease Loss Scale into Portuguese. Methods: Validation study involving the steps recommended in the literature for healthcare instruments: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, review by a committee of judges and pretest...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Florian Geisler, Harald Gerhardus, Katrin Carberry, Wayne Davis, Erik Jorgensen, Christine Richardson, Olaf Bossinger, Rudolf E Leube
Intermediate filaments are major cytoskeletal components whose assembly into complex networks and isotype-specific functions are still largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans provides an excellent model system to study intermediate filament organization and function in vivo Its intestinal intermediate filaments localize exclusively to the endotube, a circumferential sheet just below the actin-based terminal web. A genetic screen for defects in the organization of intermediate filaments identified a mutation in the catalytic domain of the MAP kinase 7 ortholog sma-5(kc1) In sma-5(kc1) mutants pockets of lumen penetrate the cytoplasm of the intestinal cells...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Zhao-Tian Li, Yan-Qiong Peng, Xiao-Lan Wen, K Charlotte Jandér
Mutualisms play a key role in most ecosystems, yet the mechanisms that prevent overexploitation of the mutualistic relationship are still poorly understood. In the mutualism between fig trees and their pollinating wasps both partners depend on each other. Fig trees benefit from female wasps that disperse their pollen, whereas wasps frequently benefit from a higher ratio of male offspring. Here we use manipulative field experiments to address whether host trees (Ficus racemosa) can influence the offspring sex ratio of the pollinator wasp...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
D J Kemp, F E Thomson, W Edwards, I Iturbe-Ormaetxe
Theory predicts unified sex ratios for most organisms, yet biases may be engendered by selfish genetic elements such as endosymbionts that kill or feminize individuals with male genotypes. Although rare, feminization is established for Wolbachia-infected Eurema butterflies. This paradigm is presently confined to islands in the southern Japanese archipelago, where feminized phenotypes produce viable all-daughter broods. Here, we characterize sex bias for E. hecabe in continental Australia. Starting with 186 wild-caught females, we reared >6000 F1-F3 progeny in pedigree designs that incorporated selective antibiotic treatments...
October 12, 2016: Heredity
Eduardo S A Santos, Pedro P Bueno, James D J Gilbert, Glauco Machado
The intensity of biotic interactions varies around the world, in such a way that mortality risk imposed by natural enemies is usually higher in the tropics. A major role of offspring attendance is protection against natural enemies, so the benefits of this behaviour should be higher in tropical regions. We tested this macroecological prediction with a meta-regression of field experiments in which the mortality of guarded and unguarded broods was compared in arthropods. Mortality of unguarded broods was higher, and parental care was more beneficial, in warmer, less seasonal environments...
October 10, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Laura Pacholski, Peter Chapman, Alexandra Hood, Michelle Peters
An inter-laboratory comparison of the three-brood survival and reproduction Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity test was conducted involving three toxicity testing laboratories. This comparison was initiated due to sporadic toxicity with this test related to discharge of a mine effluent, which some regulators believed indicated adverse effects in the receiving environment. One mine effluent and two receiving water samples were evaluated. There were no adverse effects on C. dubia survival in any tests. However, sublethal effects on reproduction (i...
October 8, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
C S Hou, B B Li, S Deng, Q Y Diao
Varroa destructor mites pose an increasing global threat to the apicultural industry and agricultural ecology; however, the issue of whether certain environmental factors reflect the level of mite infection is far from resolved. Here, a wireless sensor network (WSN) system was used to examine how V. destructor, which has vital impacts on honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and survival, affects the temperature and humidity of honeybee hives in a field experiment. This approach may facilitate early identification of V...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Tingting Lin, Dong Zhang, Xin Liu, Dongxue Xiao
In the present study, the sexual dimorphism in immune response in the seahorse Hippocampus erectus in which males compete for mates and invest heavily in parental care was assessed. Variability in immunocompetence in virginal seahorses with differing levels of sexual maturity (i.e., immaturity, early maturity and maturity) and with different mating statuses (i.e., virginal, experienced mating failure and experienced mating success) were analyzed by evaluating immune parameters in the plasma. Additionally, ultrastructural characteristics of the inner epithelium of the brood pouch were compared between males that had experienced mating failure and those that had succeeded...
October 1, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Wei Luo, Xin Wang, Hongyue Qu, Geng Qin, Huixian Zhang, Qiang Lin
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are crucial in the adaptive immune system, and the gene duplication of MHC in animals can generally result in immune flexibility. In this study, we found that the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) has only one gene copy number (GCN) of MHC IIα and IIβ, which is different from that in other teleosts. Together with the lack of spleen and gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT), the seahorse may be referred to as having a partial but natural "immunodeficiency"...
September 30, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lisa N Taylor, Lesley Novak
Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) has developed a 42 day sediment toxicity test that includes a reproduction endpoint with the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. The new methodology conducts the entire exposure in sediment; in contrast to existing standardized methods where adults are transferred to a water-only exposure before release of their first brood at Day 28. This mid-test transfer to clean water was due to the results of a juvenile H. azteca recovery trial conducted in the 1990s which concluded that reproductive endpoints could be biased because of low recovery of young amphipods from sediment...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sophia Schneider, Stefanie Brassen
Brooding rumination is considered a central aspect of depression in midlife. As older people tend to review their past, rumination tendency might be particularly crucial in late life since it might hinder older adults to adequately evaluate previous events. We scanned 22 non-depressed older adults with varying degrees of brooding tendency with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while they performed the construction and elaboration of autobiographical memories. Behavioral findings demonstrate that brooders reported lower mood states, needed more time for memory construction and rated their memories as less detailed and less positive...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lillian Polanco-Roman, Judelysse Gomez, Regina Miranda, Elizabeth Jeglic
There is a growing body of literature suggesting that reactions to stressful life events, such as intrusive thoughts, physiological hyperarousal, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance (i.e., stress-related symptoms) may increase risk for thinking about and attempting suicide. Cognitive vulnerability models have identified rumination (i.e., perseverating on a negative mood) as a maladaptive response that may increase risk for suicidal behavior, as it has also been linked to depression. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress-related symptoms on suicidal ideation through rumination and depressive symptoms...
October 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Fanny Ruhland, Violette Chiara, Marie Trabalon
Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Janina Stauffer, Bineet Panda, Tapio Eeva, Miia Rainio, Petteri Ilmonen
Telomere length may reflect the expected life span and possibly individual quality. Environmental stressors are known to increase oxidative stress and accelerate telomere attrition: however the interactions between redox status and telomere dynamics are not fully understood. We investigated whether exposure to heavy metal pollution is associated with oxidative stress and telomere damage in two insectivorous passerines, the Great tit (Parus major) and the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). We were also interested to know whether within-brood competition could influence the nestling redox status or telomere length...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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