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Arthur M Agnello, Deborah I Breth, Elizabeth M Tee, Kerik D Cox, Sara M Villani, Katrin M Ayer, Anna E Wallis, Daniel J Donahue, David B Combs, Abagail E Davis, Joshua A Neal, Forrest M English-Loeb
Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) has caused increasing damage in high-density New York apple orchards since 2013, resulting in tree decline and death. We documented their occurrence and timing in > 50 orchards using ethanol-baited traps from 2014 to 2016. First captures ranged from 48 to 83 degree days (base 10 °C) from 1 January. Captures were numerically higher at the orchard-woods interface than within the orchard interior, but differences were not significant in locations with lower populations...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Isabel S Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre Jp Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Hongyi Nie, Shupeng Xu, Cuiqin Xie, Haiyang Geng, Yazhou Zhao, Jianghong Li, Wei-Fone Huang, Yan Lin, Zhiguo Li, Songkun Su
Honey bee is a social insect. Its colony is mainly coordinated by the chemical signals such as pheromones produced by queen or brood. Correspondingly, the worker bee developed numerous complicated olfactory sensilla in antennae for detection of these colony chemical signals and nectar/pollen signals in foraging. With the normal development of new emerged workers, young adults (nurse bee) worked in colony at the first 2-3 weeks and then followed by the foraging activity outside of the hive, which give rise to great change of the surrounding chemical signals...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Martin Bulla, Hanna Prüter, Hana Vitnerová, Wim Tijsen, Martin Sládeček, José A Alves, Olivier Gilg, Bart Kempenaers
The relative investment of females and males into parental care might depend on the population's adult sex-ratio. For example, all else being equal, males should be the more caring sex if the sex-ratio is male biased. Whether such outcomes are evolutionary fixed (i.e. related to the species' typical sex-ratio) or whether they arise through flexible responses of individuals to the current population sex-ratio remains unclear. Nevertheless, a flexible response might be limited by the evolutionary history of the species, because one sex may have lost the ability to care or because a single parent cannot successfully raise the brood...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ewa A Zaobidna, Krystyna Żółtowska, Elżbieta Łopieńska-Biernat
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has emerged as the major pest of honeybees. Despite extensive research efforts, the pathogenesis of varroosis has not been fully explained. Earlier studies suggested that V. destructor infestation leads to the suppression of the host's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the immune responses of 14 genes in the Toll signal transduction pathways, including effector genes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in developing Apis mellifera workers and drones infested with V...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
J L Vickruck, M H Richards
How animals recognize conspecific individuals has important outcomes in many contexts, but interactions among group members are particularly important. Two recognition criteria are often implicated in these interactions: kin recognition is based on relatedness cues and nestmate recognition is based on familiarity. For social insects, both types of recognition are possible, as many nestmates are close kin and familiarity can develop among individuals that encounter each other repeatedly. To discern whether social insects use kin or nestmate recognition, it is necessary to simultaneously assess how relatedness and familiarity influence behaviour...
October 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Octavio Menocal, Luisa F Cruz, Paul E Kendra, Jonathan H Crane, Randy C Ploetz, Daniel Carrillo
Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent reports of an association between X. volvulus and Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the cause of the laurel wilt disease of avocado (Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae]), and its potential role as vector of the pathogen merit further investigation...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Yang Yang, Qinghua Liu, Yongshuang Xiao, Xueying Wang, Hao An, Zongcheng Song, Feng You, Yanfeng Wang, Daoyuan Ma, Jun Li
In this study, all genetic female(XX)broods of Japanese flounder were produced artificially by mating the females with sex-reversed males. The proliferation and migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs), formation of ovary and oogenesis were described in detail. After hatching, around 20 individual PGCs migrated from the lateral to the dorsal of trunk region. At 15 days post hatching (dph), a part of PGCs were covered by a single layer somatic cells and formed the genital ridge. By 22 dph, the elongated gonadal primordia appeared under the ventral kidney, where the PGCs were totally enclosed by somatic cells...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Raquel Monclús, Jaime Muriel, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Anders P Møller, Diego Gil
Limited resources trigger trade-offs in resource allocation. Reproduction is one of the most demanding activities in terms of energy, and costs related to reproduction can be apparent either as reduced future reproduction or as survival. However, costs are not always detected, because individual heterogeneity in quality and resource acquisition may explain variation in costs among individuals. We conducted a comprehensive study in spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) nesting in Central Spain to determine whether costs of reproduction could be detectable in the short and/or long term and whether prenatal or postnatal investment were driving these costs...
October 10, 2017: Oecologia
Moshe Nagari, Paul Szyszka, Giovanni Galizia, Guy Bloch
The insect antennae receive olfactory information from the environment. In some insects, it has been shown that antennal responsiveness is dynamically regulated by circadian clocks. However, it is unknown how general this phenomenon is and what functions it serves. Circadian regulation in honeybee workers is particularly interesting in this regard because they show natural task-related chronobiological plasticity. Forager bees show strong circadian rhythms in behavior and brain gene expression, whereas nurse bees tend brood around-the-clock and have attenuated circadian rhythms in activity and whole-brain gene expression...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Margot Bastin, Janne Vanhalst, Filip Raes, Patricia Bijttebier
Co-rumination has been shown advantageous for friendship quality, but disadvantageous for mental health. Recently, two components have been distinguished, with co-brooding predicting increases in depressive symptoms and co-reflection decreases. The current study aimed to replicate these findings and investigated whether both components also show differential relations with friendship quality. Gender was investigated as a moderator. Path analyses were used on data of 313 adolescents aged 9-17 (50.5% girls). Co-brooding was related to more concurrent and prospective depressive symptoms in girls...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Jason P Chan, Jaylene Brown, Brandon Hark, Abby Nolan, Dustin Servello, Hannah Hrobuchak, Trisha A Staab
Sphingolipid metabolism is important to balance the abundance of bioactive lipid molecules involved in cell signaling, neuronal function, and survival. Specifically, the sphingolipid sphingosine mediates cell death signaling, whereas its phosphorylated form, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), mediates cell survival signaling. The enzyme sphingosine kinase produces S1P, and the activity of sphingosine kinase impacts the ability of cells to survive under stress and challenges. To examine the influence of sphingolipid metabolism, particularly enzymes regulating sphingosine and S1P, in mediating aging, neuronal function and stress response, we examined life history traits, locomotor capacities and heat stress responses of young and old animals using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
Jessica R Peters, Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, Brian T Upton, Nina A Talavera, Jacob J Folsom, Ruth A Baer
Increased ruminative style of thought has been well documented in borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, less is known about how the content of rumination relates to domains of BPD features. Relationships between forms of rumination and BPD features were examined in an undergraduate sample with a wide range of BPD features. Participants completed self-report measures of rumination and a free-writing task about their repetitive thought. Rumination on specific themes, including anger rumination, depressive brooding, rumination on interpersonal situations, anxious rumination, and stress-reactive rumination were significantly associated with most BPD features after controlling for general rumination...
September 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Jacqueline R Dillard, Thomas A Maigret
Delayed juvenile dispersal is an important prerequisite for the evolution of family-based social systems, such as cooperative breeding and eusociality. In general, young adults forego dispersal if there are substantial benefits to remaining in the natal nest and/or the likelihood of dispersing and breeding successfully is low. We investigate some general factors thought to drive delayed juvenile dispersal in the horned passalus beetle, a family-living beetle in which young adults remain with their families in their natal nest for several months before dispersing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Katherine R Goodrich, Andreas Jürgens
Floral mimicry of nonfloral resources is found across many angiosperm families, with mimicry of varied models including carrion, dung, fungi, insects and fruit. These systems provide excellent models to investigate the role of visual and olfactory cues for the ecology and evolution of plant-animal interactions. Interestingly, floral mimicry of fruit is least documented in the literature, although ripe or rotting fruits play an important role as a food or brood site in many insect groups such as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, and frugivorous vertebrates such as bats and birds...
October 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Tina Harrison, Jason Gibbs, Rachael Winfree
Anthropogenic landscapes are associated with biodiversity loss and large shifts in species composition and traits. These changes predict the identities of winners and losers of future global change, and also reveal which environmental variables drive a taxon's response to land use change. We explored how the biodiversity of native bee species changes across forested, agricultural, and urban landscapes. We collected bee community data from 36 sites across a 75,000 km(2) region, and analyzed bee abundance, species richness, composition, and life history traits...
October 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
Tomas Erban, Ondrej Ledvinka, Martin Kamler, Bronislava Hortova, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Tyl, Dalibor Titera, Martin Markovic, Jan Hubert
BACKGROUND: Melissococcus plutonius is an entomopathogenic bacterium that causes European foulbrood (EFB), a honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) disease that necessitates quarantine in some countries. In Czechia, positive evidence of EFB was absent for almost 40 years, until an outbreak in the Krkonose Mountains National Park in 2015. This occurrence of EFB gave us the opportunity to study the epizootiology of EFB by focusing on the microbiome of honeybee workers, which act as vectors of honeybee diseases within and between colonies...
2017: PeerJ
Zoltán Soltész, Károly Erdélyi, Tamás Bakonyi, Mónika Barna, Katalin Szentpáli-Gavallér, Szabolcs Solt, Éva Horváth, Péter Palatitz, László Kotymán, Ádám Dán, László Papp, Andrea Harnos, Péter Fehérvári
BACKGROUND: Avian host species have different roles in the amplification and maintenance of West Nile virus (WNV), therefore identifying key taxa is vital in understanding WNV epidemics. Here, we present a comprehensive case study conducted on red-footed falcons, where host-vector, vector-virus and host-virus interactions were simultaneously studied to evaluate host species contribution to WNV circulation qualitatively. RESULTS: Mosquitoes were trapped inside red-footed falcon nest-boxes by a method originally developed for the capture of blackflies and midges...
September 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Julia D Fine, Christopher A Mullin, Maryann T Frazier, Ryan D Reynolds
Owing to the recent declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations, there is a need for field and laboratory studies to investigate threats to pollinator health. This study examines the hypothesis that the organophosphate alternative, Rimon 0.83EC, can have consequences to honey bee health by combining newly acquired field residue data, laboratory bioassays, and colony level feeding studies. Following label rate applications of Rimon 0.83EC to apple trees, average residue concentrations of the active ingredient, novaluron, were found to be 3...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Andria P Beal, F Douglas Martin, Matthew C Hale
Sex-bias in gene expression is a widespread mechanism for controlling the development of phenotypes that differ between males and females. Most studies on sex-bias in gene expression have focused on species that exhibit traditional sex-roles (male-male competition and female parental care). By contrast the Syngnathid fishes (sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons) are a group of organisms where many species exhibit male brooding and sex-role reversal (female-female competition for mates and paternal parental care), and little is known about how patterns of sex-bias in gene expression vary in species with sex-role reversal...
September 22, 2017: Marine Genomics
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