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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453966/gamma-irradiation-inactivates-honey-bee-fungal-microsporidian-and-viral-pathogens-and-parasites
#1
Michael Simone-Finstrom, Kate Aronstein, Michael Goblirsch, Frank Rinkevich, Lilia de Guzman
Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations are currently facing unsustainable losses due to a variety of factors. Colonies are challenged with brood pathogens, such as the fungal agent of chalkbrood disease, the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema sp., and several viruses. These pathogens may be transmitted horizontally from worker to worker, vertically from queen to egg and via vectors like the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Despite the fact that these pathogens are widespread and often harbored in wax comb that is reused from year to year and transferred across beekeeping operations, few, if any, universal treatments exist for their control...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453423/unexpected-mixed-mode-transmission-and-moderate-genetic-regulation-of-symbiodinium-communities-in-a-brooding-coral
#2
Kate M Quigley, Patricia A Warner, Line K Bay, Bette L Willis
Determining the extent to which Symbiodinium communities in corals are inherited versus environmentally acquired is fundamental to understanding coral resilience and to predicting coral responses to stressors like warming oceans that disrupt this critical endosymbiosis. We examined the fidelity with which Symbiodinium communities in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix are vertically transmitted and the extent to which communities are genetically regulated, by genotyping the symbiont communities within 60 larvae and their parents (9 maternal and 45 paternal colonies) using high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 locus...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453176/toxicological-interactions-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-gold-nanoparticles-and-microplastics-mixtures-in-daphnia-magna
#3
Alexandre Pacheco, Alexandra Martins, Lúcia Guilhermino
The effects of emerging environmental contaminants on human and environmental health is of high concern, especially those potentially induced by mixtures. The main goal of the present study was to assess the chronic effects of mixtures of citrate stabilized ≈5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and 1-5μm microplastics (MP) on Daphnia magna. A 21-day bioassay was carried out. The effect criteria were parental mortality, somatic growth and several reproductive parameters. AuNP induced parental mortality, reduced the total offspring and caused immobile juveniles and aborted eggs...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452311/phylogenetic-relationships-and-cryptic-species-diversity-in-the-brazilian-egg-brooding-tree-frog-genus-fritziana-mello-leit%C3%A3-o-1937-anura-hemiphractidae
#4
Marina Walker, Mariana L Lyra, Célio F B Haddad
The genus Fritziana (Anura: Hemiphractidae) comprises six described species (F. goeldii, F. ohausi, F. fissilis, F. ulei, F. tonimi, and F. izecksohni) that are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although the genus has been the subject of studies dealing with its taxonomy, phylogeny, and systematics, there is considerable evidence for cryptic diversity hidden among the species. The present study aims to understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the species of Fritziana, as well as the relationships among populations within species...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447162/early-experiences-mediate-distinct-adult-gene-expression-and-reproductive-programs-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Maria C Ow, Kirill Borziak, Alexandra M Nichitean, Steve Dorus, Sarah E Hall
Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444076/fragmentation-of-nest-and-foraging-habitat-affects-time-budgets-of-solitary-bees-their-fitness-and-pollination-services-depending-on-traits-results-from-an-individual-based-model
#6
Jeroen Everaars, Josef Settele, Carsten F Dormann
Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness), number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies) with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study), for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441720/identification-and-characterization-of-homeobox-hox-genes-and-conservation-of-the-single-hox-cluster-324-6%C3%A2-kb-in-the-water-flea-daphnia-magna
#7
Duck-Hyun Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Hui-Su Kim, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Il-Chan Kim, Jae-Seong Lee
We report the complete sequence analysis of the entire complement of eight typical homeobox (Hox) genes (Lab, Pb, Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and two other genes (Hox3 and Ftz) in a 324.6-kb region in the water flea Daphnia magna. In the cluster of D. magna Hox genes, we found one long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)/R2-NeSL between Ubx and Abd-A that was not present in Daphnia pulex Hox genes. In basal expression of Hox genes at different developmental stages, biothorax complex genes (Ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and some antennapedia complex genes (Lab, Scr, Antp) were moderately expressed, but the Hox3 gene was barely expressed...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439493/beyond-brooding-on-oncometabolic-havoc-in-idh-mutant-gliomas-and-aml-current-and-future-therapeutic-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Hanumantha Rao Madala, Surendra R Punganuru, Viswanath Arutla, Subhasis Misra, T J Thomas, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1,2), the key Krebs cycle enzymes that generate NADPH reducing equivalents, undergo heterozygous mutations in >70% of low- to mid-grade gliomas and ~20% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and gain an unusual new activity of reducing the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) in a NADPH-consuming reaction. The oncometabolite D-2HG, which accumulates >35 mM, is widely accepted to drive a progressive oncogenesis besides exacerbating the already increased oxidative stress in these cancers...
February 11, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436765/cognition-and-the-brain-of-brood-parasitic-cowbirds
#9
David F Sherry, Mélanie F Guigueno
Cowbirds are brood parasites. Females lay their eggs in the nests of other species which then incubate the cowbird eggs and raise the young cowbirds. Finding and returning to heterospecific nests presents cowbirds with a number of cognitive challenges. In some species, such as brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), females but not males, search for and remember the locations of potential host nests. We describe recent research on sex differences in cognition and the hippocampus associated with this sex difference in search for host nests...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435675/transfer-of-plant-protection-products-from-raspberry-crops-of-laszka-and-seedling-varieties-to-beehives
#10
Bartosz Piechowicz, Karolina Mróz, Ewa Szpyrka, Aneta Zwolak, Przemysław Grodzicki
Field studies were conducted to evaluate the transfer of active ingredients (AIs) of plant protection products (PPPs) to beehives. They were applied in two commodity red raspberry plantations of two varieties: Laszka (experiment 1) and Seedling (experiment 2). Samples of flowers, leaves, bees, brood, and honey were examined for the presence of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, difenoconazole, cyprodinil, and trifloxystrobin (experiment 1) and chlorpyrifos, boscalid, pyraclostrobin, cypermethrin, difenoconazole, and azoxystrobin (experiment 2)...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435242/which-egg-features-predict-egg-rejection-responses-in-american-robins-replicating-rothstein-s-1982-study
#11
Alec B Luro, Branislav Igic, Rebecca Croston, Analía V López, Matthew D Shawkey, Mark E Hauber
Rothstein (Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 11, 1982, 229) was one of the first comprehensive studies to examine how different egg features influence egg rejection behaviors of avian brood parasite-hosts. The methods and conclusions of Rothstein (1982) laid the foundation for subsequent experimental brood parasitism studies over the past thirty years, but its results have never been evaluated with replication. Here, we partially replicated Rothstein's (1982) experiments using parallel artificial model egg treatments to simulate cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism in American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435240/gut-microbiota-in-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-provide-colonization-resistance-against-larval-bacterial-pathogens
#12
Yin Wang, Daniel E Rozen
Carrion beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, are reared on decomposing carrion where larvae are exposed to high populations of carcass-derived bacteria. Larvae do not become colonized with these bacteria but instead are colonized with the gut microbiome of their parents, suggesting that bacteria in the beetle microbiome outcompete the carcass-derived species for larval colonization. Here, we test this hypothesis and quantify the fitness consequences of colonization with different bacterial symbionts. First, we show that beetles colonized by their endogenous microbiome produce heavier broods than those colonized with carcass-bacteria...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427871/reproduction-in-the-freshwater-crustacean-asellus-aquaticus-along-a-gradient-of-radionuclide-contamination-at-chernobyl
#13
Neil Fuller, Alex T Ford, Liubov L Nagorskaya, Dmitri I Gudkov, Jim T Smith
Nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima have led to contamination of the environment that will persist for many years. The consequences of chronic low-dose radiation exposure for non-human organisms inhabiting contaminated environments remain unclear. In radioecology, crustaceans are important model organisms for the development of environmental radioprotection. Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated deleterious effects of radiation exposure on crustacean reproduction. However, no studies have documented the effects of chronic radiation exposure on the reproduction of natural crustacean populations...
February 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426323/assessment-of-grief-related-rumination-validation-of-the-german-version-of-the-utrecht-grief-rumination-scale-ugrs
#14
Bettina K Doering, Antonia Barke, Thilo Friehs, Maarten C Eisma
BACKGROUND: Bereavement can result in severe mental health problems, including persistent, severe and disabling grief symptoms, termed complicated grief. Grief rumination (i.e., repetitive thought about the causes and consequences of the loss) is a malleable cognitive risk-factor in adjustment to bereavement. The Utrecht Grief Rumination Scale (UGRS) was recently developed to assess grief rumination. The present study aimed to develop and validate a German version of the UGRS. METHODS: An online survey including measures of demographic and loss-related variables, grief rumination (UGRS), depressive rumination (brooding and reflection), and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and complicated grief, was administered online among 159 persons (87% women) who had lost a first-degree relative in the past three years...
February 9, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424386/the-effect-of-agaricus-brasiliensis-extract-supplementation-on-honey-bee-colonies
#15
Jevrosima Stevanovic, Zoran Stanimirovic, Predrag Simeunovic, Nada Lakic, Ivica Radovic, Marina Sokovic, Leo J L D VAN Griensven
This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421484/winter-honey-bee-colony-losses-varroa-destructor-control-strategies-and-the-role-of-weather-conditions-results-from-a-survey-among-beekeepers
#16
Marco Beyer, Jürgen Junk, Michael Eickermann, Antoine Clermont, François Kraus, Carlo Georges, Andreas Reichart, Lucien Hoffmann
Sets of treatments that were applied against varroa mites in the Luxembourgish beekeeper community were surveyed annually with a questionnaire between the winters 2010/11 and 2014/15. The average temperature and the precipitation sum of the month, when the respective varroa control method was applied were considered as co-variables when evaluating the efficacy of varroa control regimes. Success or failure of control regimes was evaluated based on the percentage of colonies lost per apiary in the winter following the treatment(s)...
February 1, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420669/insights-into-the-reproduction-of-some-antarctic-dendroceratid-poecilosclerid-and-haplosclerid-demosponges
#17
Vasiliki Koutsouveli, Sergi Taboada, Juan Moles, Javier Cristobo, Pilar Ríos, Andrea Bertran, Joan Solà, Conxita Avila, Ana Riesgo
Sponges are a dominant element of the Antarctic benthic communities, posing both high species richness and large population densities. Despite their importance in Antarctic ecosystems, very little is known about their reproductive patterns and strategies. In our study, we surveyed the tissue of six different species for reproductive elements, namely, Dendrilla antarctica Topsent, 1905 (order Dendroceratida), Phorbas areolatus (Thiele, 1905), Kirkpatrickia variolosa (Kirkpatrick, 1907), and Isodictya kerguelenensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (order Poecilosclerida), and Hemigellius pilosus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) and Haliclona penicillata (Topsent, 1908) (Haplosclerida)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415100/litter-type-and-number-of-flocks-affect-sex-hormones-in-broiler-litter
#18
M L Cabrera, D E Kissel, S Hassan, J A Rema, K Cassity-Duffey
Broiler litter contains 17β-estradiol, estrone, and testosterone, which can contaminate surface waters when surface applied to grasslands and no-till fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of litter type (full or cake cleanout), litter treatment (none or sodium bisulfate), and number of flocks raised on the litter (1-5) on sex hormone concentrations. Our results showed that in untreated broiler litter, cake cleanout had greater concentrations of 17β-estradiol, estrone, and testosterone than full cleanout, whereas in litter treated with sodium bisulfate, only the concentration of 17β-estradiol was greater in cake than in full cleanout...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413080/rumination-social-problem-solving-and-suicide-intent-among-egyptians-with-a-recent-suicide-attempt
#19
Amira Y Sharaf, Ola A Lachine, Elaine A Thompson
The more complex influences of social problem-solving abilities and rumination-specifically brooding and reflection-on suicide intent is not well understood. We hypothesized that social problem solving would moderate the association between reflection and suicide intent, and mediate the influence of brooding on suicide intent. A convenience sample (N=186) of individuals hospitalized for recent suicide attempt was interviewed, assessing suicide intent, social problem solving, brooding, reflection and depression...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407924/effects-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-on-fat-accumulation-activity-and-proteomics-analysis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Peiyi Shen, Jonathan C Kershaw, Yiren Yue, Ou Wang, Kee-Hong Kim, D Julian McClements, Yeonhwa Park
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to reduce fat storage in cell culture and animal models. In the current study, the effects of CLA on the fat accumulation, activities, and proteomics were investigated using Caenorhabditis elegans. 100 µM CLA-TG nanoemulsion significantly reduced fat accumulation by 29% compared to linoleic acid (LA)-TG treatment via sir-2.1 (the ortholog of Sirtuin 1), without altering the worm size, growth rate, and pumping rate of C. elegans. CLA significantly increased moving speed and amplitude (the average centroid displacement over the entire track) of wild type worms compared to the LA group and these effects were dependent on aak-2 (AMPKα ortholog) and sir-2...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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