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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524249/telomere-attrition-and-growth-a-life-history-framework-and-case-study-in-common-terns
#1
Oscar Vedder, Simon Verhulst, Christina Bauch, Sandra Bouwhuis
The relationship between growth and age-specific telomere length, as a proxy of somatic state, is increasingly investigated, but observed patterns vary and a predictive framework is lacking. We outline expectations based on the assumption that telomere maintenance is costly and argue that individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition is predicted to lead to positive covariance between growth and telomere length. However, canalization of resource allocation to the trait with a larger effect on fitness, rendering that trait relatively invariant, can cause the absence of covariance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518216/queen-presence-mediates-the-relationship-between-collective-behavior-and-disease-susceptibility-in-ant-colonies
#2
Carl N Keiser, Svjetlana Vojvodic, Imani O Butler, Elizabeth Sartain, Volker H W Rudolf, Julia B Saltz
The success of social living can be explained, in part, by a group's ability to execute collective behaviors unachievable by solitary individuals. However, groups vary in their ability to execute these complex behaviors, often because they vary in their phenotypic composition. Group membership changes over time due to mortality or emigration, potentially leaving groups vulnerable to ecological challenges in times of flux. In some societies, the loss of important individuals (e.g., leaders, elites, queens) may have an especially detrimental effect on groups' ability to deal with these challenges...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515202/does-coevolution-with-a-shared-parasite-drive-hosts-to-partition-their-defences-among-species
#3
Eleanor M Caves, Martin Stevens, Claire N Spottiswoode
When mimicry imposes costs on models, selection may drive the model's phenotype to evolve away from its mimic. For example, brood parasitism often drives hosts to diversify in egg appearance among females within a species, making mimetic parasitic eggs easier to detect. However, when a single parasite species exploits multiple host species, parasitism could also drive host egg evolution away from other co-occurring hosts, to escape susceptibility to their respective mimics. This hypothesis predicts that sympatric hosts of the same parasite should partition egg phenotypic space (defined by egg colour, luminance and pattern) among species to avoid one another...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512864/fish-kairomones-induce-spine-elongation-and-reduce-predation-in-marine-crab-larvae
#4
Corie L Charpentier, Alexander J Wright, Jonathan H Cohen
Specialized defense strategies are induced in zooplankton upon detection of predator chemical cues or kairomones. These defenses are well-described for freshwater zooplankters, with morphological defenses being particularly striking, but few studies have reported kairomone-induced morphological defenses in marine zooplankton. Here, we compare morphological responses to kairomones in the larvae of two marine crab species, estuarine mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) and Asian shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sanguineus)...
May 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510601/reproductive-biology-of-the-deep-brooding-coral-seriatopora-hystrix-implications-for-shallow-reef-recovery
#5
Rian Prasetia, Frederic Sinniger, Kaito Hashizume, Saki Harii
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs, between 30 and 150 m depth) are hypothesized to contribute to the recovery of degraded shallow reefs through sexually produced larvae (referred to as Deep Reef Refuge Hypothesis). In Okinawa, Japan, the brooder coral Seriatopora hystrix was reported to be locally extinct in a shallow reef while it was found abundant at a MCE nearby. In this context, S. hystrix represents a key model to test the Deep Reef Refuge Hypothesis and to understand the potential contribution of mesophotic corals to shallow coral reef recovery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502109/reproductive-performance-of-resident-and-migrant-males-females-and-pairs-in-a-partially-migratory-bird
#6
Hannah Grist, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Sarah J Burthe, Mark A Newell, Mike P Harris, Jane M Reid
1.Quantifying among-individual variation in life-history strategies, and associated variation in reproductive performance and resulting demographic structure, is key to understanding and predicting population dynamics and life-history evolution. Partial migration, where populations comprise a mixture of resident and seasonally-migrant individuals, constitutes a dimension of life-history variation that could be associated with substantial variation in reproductive performance. However, such variation has rarely been quantified due to the challenge of measuring reproduction and migration across a sufficient number of seasonally-mobile males and females...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502082/desynchronizations-in-bee-plant-interactions-cause-severe-fitness-losses-in-solitary-bees
#7
Mariela Schenk, Jochen Krauss, Andrea Holzschuh
1.Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. 2.However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. 3.We tested the effect of temporal mismatches on the fitness of three spring-emerging solitary bee species, including one pollen specialist...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500569/comparison-of-the-chemical-compositions-of-the-cuticle-and-dufour-s-gland-of-two-solitary-bee-species-from-laboratory-and-field-conditions
#8
Theresa L Pitts-Singer, Marcia M Hagen, Bryan R Helm, Steven Highland, James S Buckner, William P Kemp
Species-specific biochemistry, morphology, and function of the Dufour's gland have been investigated for social bees and some non-social bee families. Most of the solitary bees previously examined are ground-nesting bees that use Dufour's gland secretions to line brood chambers. This study examines the chemistry of the cuticle and Dufour's gland of cavity-nesting Megachile rotundata and Osmia lignaria, which are species managed for crop pollination. Glandular and cuticular lipid compositions were characterized and compared to each other and according to the nesting experience of adult females...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493935/reproductive-effort-affects-oxidative-status-and-stress-in-an-antarctic-penguin-species-an-experimental-study
#9
Roger Colominas-Ciuró, Mercedes Santos, Néstor Coria, Andrés Barbosa
The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE), and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483864/multiple-extreme-climatic-events-strengthen-selection-for-earlier-breeding-in-a-wild-passerine
#10
Pascal Marrot, Dany Garant, Anne Charmantier
Global climate warming results in an increase in mean temperatures and in the frequency of extreme climatic events (ECEs), which could both strongly impact ecosystems and populations. Most studies assessing the impact of global warming on ecosystems have focused on warming trends while neglecting ECEs. In particular, the effects of multiple ECEs on fitness, and their consequences for selection, are still missing. Here we explored the effects of daily extreme rainfalls, as well as the occurrence of extremely hot and cold days, on clutch size and laying date in a wild blue tit population (Cyanistes caeruleus) monitored over 25 years...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480002/reduced-reproductive-performance-associated-with-warmer-ambient-temperatures-during-incubation-in-a-winter-breeding-food-storing-passerine
#11
Shannon Whelan, Dan Strickland, Julie Morand-Ferron, D Ryan Norris
Timing of reproduction can influence individual fitness whereby early breeders tend to have higher reproductive success than late breeders. However, the fitness consequences of timing of breeding may also be influenced by environmental conditions after the commencement of breeding. We tested whether ambient temperatures during the incubation and early nestling periods modulated the effect of laying date on brood size and dominant juvenile survival in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis), a sedentary boreal species whose late winter nesting depends, in part, on caches of perishable food...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472747/development-and-validation-of-an-oecd-reproductive-toxicity-test-guideline-with-the-mudsnail-potamopyrgus-antipodarum-mollusca-gastropoda
#12
Katharina Ruppert, Cornelia Geiß, Clare Askem, Rachel Benstead, Rebecca Brown, Maira Coke, Virginie Ducrot, Philipp Egeler, Henrik Holbech, Thomas H Hutchinson, Karin L Kinnberg, Laurent Lagadic, Gareth Le Page, Ailbhe Macken, Peter Matthiessen, Sina Ostermann, Agnes Schimera, Claudia Schmitt, Anne Seeland-Fremer, Andy J Smith, Lennart Weltje, Jörg Oehlmann
Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum reproduction test within the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment. The number of embryos in the brood pouch and adult mortality serve as main endpoints. The experiments are conducted as static systems in beakers filled with artificial medium, which is aerated trough glass pipettes...
April 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467676/impacts-of-temperature-and-lunar-day-on-gene-expression-profiles-during-a-monthly-reproductive-cycle-in-the-brooding-coral-pocillopora-damicornis
#13
Camerron M Crowder, Eli Meyer, Tung-Yung Fan, Virginia M Weis
Reproductive timing in brooding corals has been correlated to temperature and lunar irradiance, but the mechanisms by which corals transduce these environmental variables into molecular signals is unknown. To gain insight into these processes, global gene expression profiles in the coral Pocillopora damicornis were examined (via RNA-Seq) across lunar phases and between temperature treatments, during a monthly planulation cycle. The interaction of temperature and lunar day together had the largest influence on gene expression...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467471/multilocus-sequence-typing-biochemical-and-antibiotic-resistance-characterizations-reveal-diversity-of-north-american-strains-of-the-honey-bee-pathogen-paenibacillus-larvae
#14
Sasiprapa Krongdang, Jay D Evans, Jeffery S Pettis, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Paenibacillus larvae is a Gram positive bacterium and the causative agent of the most widespread fatal brood disease of honey bees, American foulbrood (AFB). A total of thirty-three independent Paenibacillus larvae isolates from various geographical origins in North America and five reference strains were investigated for genetic diversity using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). This technique is regarded to be a powerful tool for epidemiological studies of pathogenic bacteria and is widely used in genotyping assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457952/the-adaptive-significance-of-phasic-colony-cycles-in-army-ants
#15
Simon Garnier, Daniel J C Kronauer
Army ants are top arthropod predators in tropical forests around the world. The colonies of many army ant species undergo stereotypical behavioral and reproductive cycles, alternating between brood care and reproductive phases. In the brood care phase, colonies contain a cohort of larvae that are synchronized in their development and have to be fed. In the reproductive phase larvae are absent and oviposition takes place. Despite these colony cycles being a striking feature of army ant biology, their adaptive significance is unclear...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455796/effect-of-brood-pheromone-on-survival-and-nutrient-intake-of-african-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-scutellata-under-controlled-conditions
#16
Fabien J Démares, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Susan W Nicolson, Christian W W Pirk
The influence of pheromones on insect physiology and behavior has been thoroughly reported for numerous aspects, such as attraction, gland development, aggregation, mate and kin recognition. Brood pheromone (BP) is released by honey bee larvae to indicate their protein requirements to the colony. Although BP is known to modulate pollen and protein consumption, which in turn can affect physiological and morphological parameters, such as hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development and ovarian activation, few studies have focused on the effect of BP on nutritional balance...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451434/a-few-long-versus-many-short-foraging-trips-different-foraging-strategies-of-lesser-kestrel-sexes-during-breeding
#17
Jesús Hernández-Pliego, Carlos Rodríguez, Javier Bustamante
BACKGROUND: In species with biparental care both members of the breeding pair cooperate to raise the offspring either by assisting each other in every reproductive task or by specializing in different ones. The latter case is known as reproductive role specialization. Raptors are considered one of the most role-specialized groups, but little is known about parental behavior away from the nest. Until the advent of biologgers, avian role specialization was traditionally studied with direct observations at the nest because of the difficulties of following and recording the behavior of free-ranging individuals...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446699/polydomy-enhances-foraging-performance-in-ant-colonies
#18
N Stroeymeyt, P Joye, L Keller
Collective foraging confers benefits in terms of reduced predation risk and access to social information, but it heightens local competition when resources are limited. In social insects, resource limitation has been suggested as a possible cause for the typical decrease in per capita productivity observed with increasing colony size, a phenomenon known as Michener's paradox. Polydomy (distribution of a colony's brood and workers across multiple nests) is believed to help circumvent this paradox through its positive effect on foraging efficiency, but there is still little supporting evidence for this hypothesis...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446698/adaptation-to-a-latitudinal-thermal-gradient-within-a-widespread-copepod-species-the-contributions-of-genetic-divergence-and-phenotypic-plasticity
#19
Ricardo J Pereira, Matthew C Sasaki, Ronald S Burton
Understanding how populations adapt to heterogeneous thermal regimes is essential for comprehending how latitudinal gradients in species diversification are formed, and how taxa will respond to ongoing climate change. Adaptation can occur by innate genetic factors, by phenotypic plasticity, or by a combination of both mechanisms. Yet, the relative contribution of such mechanisms to large-scale latitudinal gradients of thermal tolerance across conspecific populations remains unclear. We examine thermal performance in 11 populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, ranging from Baja California Sur (Mexico) to British Columbia (Canada)...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431082/compositional-differences-among-female-associated-and-embryo-associated-microbiota-of-the-viviparous-pacific-beetle-cockroach-diploptera-punctata
#20
Paul A Ayayee, George Keeney, Zakee L Sabree, Agustí Muñoz-Garcia
All cockroach species, except one, harbor the endosymbiont Blattabacterium, transmitted from females to embryos. Adult cockroaches acquire non-Blattabacterium bacteria as part of their gut microbiota over time, but our knowledge of the possible transmission of these non-Blattabacterium bacteria from females to embryos is rudimentary. We characterized the gut microbiota of gravid viviparous Diploptera punctata females and the non-Blattabacterium microbiota of associated developing embryos, as well as the gut microbiota of non-gravid females, and the microbiota of orphan embryos (females not included), following high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to assess bacterial transference...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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