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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431082/compositional-differences-among-female-associated-and-embryo-associated-microbiota-of-the-viviparous-pacific-beetle-cockroach-diploptera-punctata
#1
Paul A Ayayee, George Keeney, Zakee L Sabree, Agustí Muñoz-Garcia
All cockroach species, except one, harbor the endosymbiont Blattabacterium, transmitted from females to embryos. Adult cockroaches acquire non-Blattabacterium bacteria as part of their gut microbiota over time, but our knowledge of the possible transmission of these non-Blattabacterium bacteria from females to embryos is rudimentary. We characterized the gut microbiota of gravid viviparous Diploptera punctata females and the non-Blattabacterium microbiota of associated developing embryos, as well as the gut microbiota of non-gravid females, and the microbiota of orphan embryos (females not included), following high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to assess bacterial transference...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430801/honey-bees-preferentially-consume-freshly-stored-pollen
#2
Mark J Carroll, Nicholas Brown, Craig Goodall, Alexandra M Downs, Timothy H Sheenan, Kirk E Anderson
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) collect and store both honey and pollen in preserved forms. Pollen storage involves the addition of honey or nectar and oral secretions to pollen granules. It is controversial whether the duration of pollen storage alters the palatability or nutritive value of the pollen storage medium. We examined how bees utilize different-aged stored pollen during an extended pollen flow. The deposition of pollen into wax cells and subsequent consumption were monitored daily on 18 brood frames from 6 colonies over an 8d observation period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429139/rates-of-parasitism-but-not-allocation-of-egg-resources-vary-among-and-within-hosts-of-a-generalist-avian-brood-parasite
#3
Loren Merrill, Scott J Chiavacci, Ryan T Paitz, Thomas J Benson
Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) deposit their eggs into the nests of other birds, which then raise the cowbird chick. Female cowbirds thus have limited options for impacting their offspring's development via maternal effects compared to most other passerines. Cowbirds can impact their offspring's phenotype by choosing among potential host nests, and by adjusting egg resources based on host characteristics. To examine whether cowbirds exhibit either or both of these strategies, we investigated rates of cowbird parasitism and egg investment (egg size, yolk-to-albumen ratio, and yolk testosterone and androstenedione) among and within host species in a shrubland bird community...
April 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422953/great-spotted-cuckoo-nestlings-have-no-antipredatory-effect-on-magpie-or-carrion-crow-host-nests-in-southern-spain
#4
Manuel Soler, Liesbeth de Neve, María Roldán, Tomás Pérez-Contreras, Juan José Soler
Host defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. Recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. This result was interpreted as a consequence of the antipredatory properties of a fetid cloacal secretion produced by cuckoo nestlings, which presumably deters predators from parasitized host nests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420657/a-neural-basis-for-password-based-species-recognition-in-an-avian-brood-parasite
#5
Kathleen S Lynch, Annmarie Gaglio, Elizabeth Tyler, Joseph Coculo, Matthew I M Louder, Mark E Hauber
Obligate avian brood parasites are raised by heterospecific hosts and therefore, lack critical early exposure to relatives and other conspecifics. Yet, young brood parasites readily recognize and affiliate with others of their own species upon independence. One solution to this social recognition paradox is the ontogenetic password mechanism utilized by obligate parasitic brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), whereby conspecific identification is initially mediated through the cowbird chatter, a non-learned vocal cue...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419339/effect-of-chlorine-treatment-on-inhibition-of-e-coli-serogroup-o2-incorporation-into-7-day-old-biofilm-on-polyvinylchloride-surface
#6
P Maharjan, S Dey, G Huff, W Zhang, G K Phillips, S Watkins
Poultry waterlines are constructed using polyvinylchloride (PVC) material on which bacterial biofilm can easily form. Biofilm can harbor pathogens including avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine if E. coli sero group O2 (avian pathogenic) could attach on a PVC surface that had pre-formed biofilm and if this phenomenon could be affected when water was treated with chlorine. Initially, biofilm growth was induced in PVC test coupons (15.16 cm2) for a 7-day period mimicking the waterline scenario in the first wk of poultry brooding; and then this biofilm was challenged with E...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414773/the-importance-of-calcium-in-improving-resistance-of-daphnia-to-microcystis
#7
Siddiq Akbar, Jingjing Du, Yong Jia, Xingjun Tian
Changing environmental calcium (Ca) and rising cyanobacterial blooms in lake habitats could strongly reduce Daphnia growth and survival. Here, we assessed the effects of maternal Ca in Daphnia on transfer of resistance to their offspring against Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 (M. aeruginosa). Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed to examine effects in Daphnia carinata (D. carinata) and Daphnia pulex (D. pulex), and that how Ca induce responses in their offspring. The results showed that growth and survival were increased in offspring from exposed Daphnia as compared to unexposed, when raised in high Ca and increasing M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410023/timing-of-breeding-in-an-ecologically-trapped-bird
#8
Franck A Hollander, Nicolas Titeux, Marie-Jeanne Holveck, Hans Van Dyck
In human-modified environments, organisms may prefer to use habitats where their reproductive performance is lower compared to alternative options. Many such ecological traps occur in seasonally changing environments. Although the timing of breeding has been shown to impact reproductive performance in a variety of organisms, it has never been considered as a potential mechanism underlying ecological traps. We address this issue with a migratory bird, the red-backed shrike, breeding in a human-modified, farmland-forest landscape...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410022/intraspecific-competition-and-inbreeding-depression-increased-competitive-effort-by-inbred-males-is-costly-to-outbred-opponents
#9
Jon Richardson, Per T Smiseth
A recent theoretical model suggests that intraspecific competition is an important determinant of the severity of inbreeding depression. The reason for this is that intraspecific competition is density dependent, leading to a stronger negative effect on inbred individuals if they are weaker competitors than outbred ones. In support of this prediction, previous empirical work shows that inbred individuals are weaker competitors than outbred ones and that intraspecific competition often exacerbates inbreeding depression...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409503/food-restriction-affects-maternal-investment-but-not-neonate-phenotypes-in-a-viviparous-lizard
#10
Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Ma, Shu-Ran Li, Wei-Guo Du
Food availability significantly affects an animal's energy metabolism, and thus its phenotype, survival, and reproduction. Maternal and offspring responses to food conditions are critical for understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution of a species. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments in field enclosures to identify the effect of food restriction on female reproductive traits and postpartum body condition, as well as on hatchling phenotypes, in a lacertid viviparous lizard from the Inner Mongolian desert steppe of China...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405376/a-test-of-male-infanticide-as-a-reproductive-tactic-in-a-cichlid-fish
#11
Shagun Jindal, Aneesh P H Bose, Constance M O'Connor, Sigal Balshine
Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405295/flight-performance-in-the-altricial-zebra-finch-developmental-effects-and-reproductive-consequences
#12
Ondi L Crino, Brett Klaassen van Oorschot, Kristen E Crandell, Creagh W Breuner, Bret W Tobalske
The environmental conditions animals experience during development can have sustained effects on morphology, physiology, and behavior. Exposure to elevated levels of stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) during development is one such condition that can have long-term effects on animal phenotype. Many of the phenotypic effects of GC exposure during development (developmental stress) appear negative. However, there is increasing evidence that developmental stress can induce adaptive phenotypic changes. This hypothesis can be tested by examining the effect of developmental stress on fitness-related traits...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405278/seasonal-patterns-in-reproductive-success-of-temperate-breeding-birds-experimental-tests-of-the-date-and-quality-hypotheses
#13
Vanessa B Harriman, Russell D Dawson, Lauren E Bortolotti, Robert G Clark
For organisms in seasonal environments, individuals that breed earlier in the season regularly attain higher fitness than their late-breeding counterparts. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these patterns: The quality hypothesis contends that early breeders are of better phenotypic quality or breed on higher quality territories, whereas the date hypothesis predicts that seasonally declining reproductive success is a response to a seasonal deterioration in environmental quality. In birds, food availability is thought to drive deteriorating environmental conditions, but few experimental studies have demonstrated its importance while also controlling for parental quality...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403555/seasonal-fecundity-and-costs-to-%C3%AE-are-more-strongly-affected-by-direct-than-indirect-predation-effects-across-species
#14
Joseph A LaManna, Thomas E Martin
Increased perceived predation risk can cause behavioral and physiological responses to reduce direct predation mortality, but these responses can also cause demographic costs through reduced reproductive output. Such indirect costs of predation risk have received increased attention in recent years, but the relative importance of direct versus indirect predation costs to population growth (λ) across species remains unclear. We measured direct nest predation rates as well as indirect benefits (i.e. reduced predation rates) and costs (i...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403519/decadal-declines-in-avian-herbivore-reproduction-density-dependent-nutrition-and-phenological-mismatch-in-the-arctic
#15
Megan V Ross, Ray T Alisauskas, David C Douglas, Dana K Kellett
A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992-2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's geese (Chen rossii) and lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central arctic...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403152/linking-phenological-events-in-migratory-passerines-with-a-changing-climate-50-years-in-the-laurel-highlands-of-pennsylvania
#16
Molly E McDermott, Lucas W DeGroote
Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1) how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2) if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3) whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401572/morphological-structures-for-potential-sperm-storage-in-poeciliid-fishes-does-superfetation-matter
#17
Claudia Olivera-Tlahuel, Maricela Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Norma A Moreno-Mendoza, J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega
Sperm storage within the female reproductive tract has been reported as a reproductive strategy in several species of vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the morphological structures that allow for sperm to be stored and kept viable for long periods are relatively unknown in osteichthyes. We use histological and stereological tools to identify and quantify sperm storage structures (spermathecae) in 12 species of viviparous Poeciliidae. We found spermathecae in nine species, six of which exhibit superfetation (the ability of females to simultaneously carry within the ovary two or more broods of embryos at different stages of development)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398581/agricultural-landscape-and-pesticide-effects-on-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-biological-traits
#18
Mohamed Alburaki, Sandra J Steckel, Matthew T Williams, John A Skinner, David R Tarpy, William G Meikle, John Adamczyk, Scott D Stewart
Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392984/non-native-molluscan-colonizers-on-deliberately-placed-shipwrecks-in-the-florida-keys-with-description-of-a-new-species-of-potentially-invasive-worm-snail-gastropoda-vermetidae
#19
Rüdiger Bieler, Camila Granados-Cifuentes, Timothy A Rawlings, Petra Sierwald, Timothy M Collins
Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390221/overarousal-as-a-mechanism-of-the-relation-between-rumination-and-suicidality
#20
Megan L Rogers, Matthew E Schneider, Raymond P Tucker, Keyne C Law, Michael D Anestis, Thomas E Joiner
Rumination, particularly brooding, is associated with suicidal ideation and attempts; however, mechanisms of these associations have not been identified. The present study examined manifestations of overarousal-agitation, insomnia, and nightmares-that have been linked to both rumination and suicide as indirect indicators of the link between brooding and suicidal ideation/attempts. A sample of 492 psychiatric outpatients (64.2% female), aged 17-65 years (M = 26.75, SD = 10.32), completed self-report measures before their intake appointments with a therapist...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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