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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453765/statistical-assessment-of-dna-extraction-methodology-for-culture-independent-analysis-of-microbial-community-associated-with-diverse-environmental-samples
#1
Rishi Mahajan, Sampan Attri, Kavita Sharma, Niharika Singh, Deepika Sharma, Gunjan Goel
Cost-effectiveness, quality, time-effectiveness and ease of the methodology are the most crucial factors in isolating quality DNA from wide variety of samples. Thus, research efforts focusing on the development of an efficient DNA extraction protocol is the need of the hour. The present study therefore, focuses on development of an efficient, rapid and free of inhibitory substances based methodology for extracting metagenomic DNA from diverse environmental samples viz. anaerobic biogas digesta, ruminant stomach, human feces, soil, and microbial starter cultures used for preparation of fermented food...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449940/effects-of-fumaric-acid-supplementation-on-methane-production-and-rumen-fermentation-in-goats-fed-diets-varying-in-forage-and-concentrate-particle-size
#2
Zongjun Li, Nannan Liu, Yangchun Cao, Chunjia Jin, Fei Li, Chuanjiang Cai, Junhu Yao
Background: In rumen fermentation, fumaric acid (FA) could competitively utilize hydrogen with methanogenesis to enhance propionate production and suppress methane emission, but both effects were diet-dependent. This study aimed to explore the effects of FA supplementation on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size. Methods: Four rumen-cannulated goats were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: low or high ratio of forage particle size: concentrate particle size (Fps:Cps), without or with FA supplementation (24 g/d)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448874/autobiographical-memory-functions-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-across-adulthood
#3
Adriana Del Palacio-Gonzalez, Lynn A Watson, Dorthe Berntsen
Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age. In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20-70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448169/molecular-spectroscopic-features-of-protein-in-newly-developed-chickpea-relationship-with-protein-chemical-profile-and-metabolism-in-the-rumen-and-intestine-of-dairy-cows
#4
Baoli Sun, Nazir Ahmad Khan, Peiqiang Yu
The first aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of crude protein (CP) in CDC [Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan] chickpea varieties (Frontier kabuli and Corinne desi) in comparison with a CDC barley variety in terms of: 1) CP chemical profile and subfractions; (2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal digestibility of CP; 2) metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cows; and (3) protein molecular structure characteristics using advanced molecular spectroscopy...
February 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448003/increased-hippocampal-prefrontal-functional-connectivity-in-insomnia
#5
Jeanne Leerssen, Rick Wassing, Jennifer R Ramautar, Diederick Stoffers, Oti Lakbila-Kamal, Joy Perrier, Jessica Bruijel, Jessica C Foster-Dingley, Moji Aghajani, Eus J W van Someren
Insomnia Disorder (ID) is the second-most common mental disorder and has a far-reaching impact on daytime functioning. A meta-analysis indicates that, of all cognitive domains, declarative memory involving the hippocampus is most affected in insomnia. Hippocampal functioning has consistently been shown to be sensitive to experimental sleep deprivation. Insomnia however differs from sleep deprivation in many aspects, and findings on hippocampal structure and function have been equivocal. The present study used both structural and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a larger sample than previously reported to evaluate hippocampal volume and functional connectivity in ID...
February 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447354/creb3-regulatory-factor-mtor-autophagy-regulates-goat-endometrial-function-during-early-pregnancy
#6
Diqi Yang, Tingting Jiang, Jianguo Liu, Beibei Zhang, Pengfei Lin, Huatao Chen, Dong Zhou, Keqiong Tang, Aihua Wang, Yaping Jin
In domestic ruminants, a receptive endometrium is crucial for successful pregnancy. Although many essential molecular modulators and pathways have been identified during early pregnancy, the precise mechanisms regulating goat endometrial function remains largely unknown. Here, we describe a novel regulator during early pregnancy, whereby hormones increased CREB3 Regulatory Factor (CREBRF) expression and act as a potential activator of autophagy in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) via the mTOR pathway. Our results showed that knockdown of CREBRF via shCREBRF hampered EECs proliferation by S-phase cell cycle arrest and significantly inhibited endometrial function...
February 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447249/a-paralogous-pair-of-mammalian-host-restriction-factors-form-a-critical-host-barrier-against-poxvirus-infection
#7
Xiangzhi Meng, Fushun Zhang, Bo Yan, Chuanping Si, Hiroaki Honda, Akiko Nagamachi, Lu-Zhe Sun, Yan Xiang
Host restriction factors constitute a formidable barrier for viral replication to which many viruses have evolved counter-measures. Human SAMD9, a tumor suppressor and a restriction factor for poxviruses in cell lines, is antagonized by two classes of poxvirus proteins, represented by vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 and C7. A paralog of SAMD9, SAMD9L, is also encoded by some mammals, while only one of two paralogs is retained by others. Here, we show that SAMD9L functions similarly to SAMD9 as a restriction factor and that the two paralogs form a critical host barrier that poxviruses must overcome to establish infection...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446933/dietary-sodium-butyrate-supplementation-reduces-high-concentrate-diet-feeding-induced-apoptosis-in-mammary-cells-in-dairy-goats
#8
Guangjun Chang, Jinyu Yan, Nana Ma, Xinxin Liu, Hongyu Dai, Muhammad Shaid Bilal, Xiangzhen Shen
Eighteen lactating goats (38.86 ± 2.06 kg) were randomly allocated to three groups. One group was fed a low-concentrate (LC) diet (forage:concentrate = 6:4, LC), while the other two groups were fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet (forage:concentrate = 4:6, HC) or an HC diet supplemented with sodium butyrate (BHC) for 20 weeks. Samples of ruminal fluid, milk, hepatic blood plasma, and mammary gland tissue were prepared for the experimental analysis. The LPS concentration, caspase-3 and -8 enzymatic activity, caspase-3 and -8 mRNA expression, and NF-κB (p65), phosphorylated-p65, bax, cytochrome C, and caspase-3 protein expression were higher in the HC group than those in the LC group; however, the levels of these parameters were lower in the BHC group than those in the HC group...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445978/positive-developmental-changes-after-transition-to-high-school-is-retrospective-growth-correlated-with-measured-changes-in-current-status-of-personal-growth
#9
Shuhei Iimura, Kanako Taku
The transition to high school is generally considered as a stressful turning point in adolescent development, but some students experience personal growth (i.e., positive developmental changes) through that experience. It is important to examine the mechanism behind such positive changes to understand various developmental patterns of adolescents during the transition. However, the concept of growth in this research area remains unexplored. Some researchers have questioned whether retrospective, self-reported growth reflects actual positive changes in the perception of personal growth...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445454/rumen-protected-methionine-during-the-peripartal-period-in-dairy-cows-and-its-effects-on-abundance-of-major-species-of-ruminal-bacteria
#10
Mohamed K Abdelmegeid, Ahmed A Elolimy, Zheng Zhou, Vincenzo Lopreiato, Joshua C McCann, Juan J Loor
Background: Extensive degradation of amino acids in the rumen via microbial deamination decreases the post-ruminal availability of dietary indispensable amino acids. Together with the normal decrease in voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) around parturition in dairy cows, microbial metabolism contributes to a markedly negative balance of indispensable amino acids, including methionine which may be the first-limiting for milk production. The main objective of the current study was to profile changes in major bacterial species with key functions in cellulose and hemicellulose digestion, xylan breakdown, proteolytic action, propionic acid production, lactate utilization and ruminal biohydrogenation in cows supplemented with rumen-protected Methionine (SM; Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA, USA) from -23 through 30 d relative to parturition...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444098/integrating-nutrient-bioavailability-and-co-production-links-when-identifying-sustainable-diets-how-low-should-we-reduce-meat-consumption
#11
Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442205/antibacterial-and-immunomodulatory-activities-of-bovine-lactoferrin-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infections-in-cattle
#12
Evelien Kieckens, Joanna Rybarczyk, Eric Cox, Daisy Vanrompay
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne disease in humans ranging from watery diarrhea to bloody diarrhea and severe hemorrhagic colitis, renal failure and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Cattle, the most important source of E. coli O157:H7 transmission to humans, harbor the bacteria in their gastrointestinal tract without showing clinical symptoms. Prevention of E. coli O157:H7 infections in ruminants could diminish the public health risk. However, there is no specific treatment available nor a vaccine or a therapeutic agent which completely prevents E...
February 13, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433780/nutritional-enhancement-of-sheep-meat-fatty-acid-profile-for-human-health-and-wellbeing
#13
Obert C Chikwanha, Payam Vahmani, Voster Muchenje, Michael E R Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
Dietary fatty acids (FA) consumed by sheep, like other ruminants, can undergo biohydrogenation resulting in high proportions of saturated FA (SFA) in meat. Biohydrogenation is typically less extensive in sheep than cattle, and consequently, sheep meat can contain higher proportions of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and PUFA biohydrogenation intermediates (PUFA-BHI) including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-monounsaturated FAs (t-MUFA). Sheep meat is also noted for having characteristically higher contents of branched chain FA (BCFA)...
February 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433340/worry-and-rumination-do-they-prolong-physiological-and-affective-recovery-from-stress
#14
Lora Capobianco, Julie A Morris, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression have been linked to repetitive negative self-regulation styles in the form of worry and rumination respectively. Following predictions of the metacognitive model [Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1994). Attention and emotion: A clinical perspective. Hove: Erlbaum], the current study compared the effect on recovery from stress of three strategies: worry, rumination, and distraction using a stress exposure paradigm. It was predicted that worry and/or rumination would be associated with delayed recovery on physiological and/or self-report indices when compared to distraction...
February 12, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433008/molecular-characterization-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-gene-in-holstein-cows
#15
Mayar O Ali, Mohamed A El-Adl, Hussam M M Ibrahim, Youssef Y Elseedy, Mohamed A Rizk, Sabry A El-Khodery
Vitamin D plays a vital role in calcium homeostasis, growth, and immunoregulation. Because little is known about the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in cattle, the aim of the present investigation was to present the molecular characterization of exons 5 and 6 of the VDR gene in Holstein cows. DNA extraction, genomic sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, synteny mapping and single nucleotide gene polymorphism analysis of the VDR gene were performed to assess blood samples collected from 50 clinically healthy Holstein cows...
February 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432586/effects-of-different-starch-source-of-starter-on-small-intestinal-growth-and-endogenous-glp-2-secretion-in-pre-weaned-lambs
#16
Daming Sun, Hongwei Li, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu, Junhua Liu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different source of starch in starter feed on small intestinal growth and endogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) secretion in pre-weaned lambs. Twenty-four 10-day-old lambs were divided into three groups that were treated with different iso-starch diets containing purified cassava starch (CS, n = 8), maize starch (MS, n = 8) and pea starch (PS, n = 8). At 56 days old, there was no significant difference in final body weight (BW) of lambs among the three groups...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430258/mindfulness-and-psychological-health-outcomes-a-latent-profile-analysis-among-military-personnel-and-college-students
#17
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Michelle L Kelley
Previous research on trait mindfulness facets using person-centered analyses (e.g., latent profile analysis [LPA]) has identified four distinct mindfulness profiles among college students: a high mindfulness group (high on all facets of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ]), a judgmentally observing group (highest on observing, but low on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness), a non-judgmentally aware group (high on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness, but very low on observing), and a low mindfulness group (low on all facets of the FFMQ)...
February 2018: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429486/use-of-rumination-and-activity-data-as-health-status-and-performance-indicators-in-beef-cattle-during-the-early-fattening-period
#18
Giorgio Marchesini, Davide Mottaran, Barbara Contiero, Eliana Schiavon, Severino Segato, Elisabetta Garbin, Sandro Tenti, Igino Andrighetto
The aim of this study was to measure the level of activity and rumination in young bulls and to assess whether these data can be used as indicators of health status and average daily weight gain (ADG). Two groups of animals (period 1: n=108 animals; period 2: n=106 animals) were fitted with sensors to measure daily activity and rumination, were weighed on arrival and at the end of the trial (70 days) and were checked twice daily to verify their health condition. Any clinical signs and therapies were recorded...
January 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429072/an-ex-vivo-ruminal-ovine-model-to-study-the-immediate-immune-response-in-the-context-of-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide
#19
Fathi Abouhajer, Saeed El-Ashram, Musafiri Karama, Shujian Huang, Jian-Feng Liu
We have set up an ex vivo ovine ruminal model, which can mimic the multicellular process to explore the early steps in Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation using RNA-seq technology. Ovine ruminal explants were collected for histological and transcriptional analysis and supernatants collected to quantitate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes. A total of 8 and 523 genes were significantly over-expressed between LPS-treated and control tissues at 6 and 12 h, respectively. However, six and seven hundred and thirteen genes were substantially repressed between the aforementioned tissues, correspondingly...
February 10, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428766/short-communication-field-study-to-investigate-the-associations-between-herd-level-risk-factors-for-milk-fat-depression-and-bulk-tank-milk-fat-percent-in-dairy-herds-feeding-monensin
#20
M M McCarthy, T R Overton, G D Mechor, D E Bauman, T C Jenkins, D V Nydam
Fat is the most variable milk component, and maintaining milk fat continues to be a challenge on commercial dairy farms. Our objectives were to establish associations between herd-level risk factors for milk fat depression and bulk tank milk fat content in commercial dairy herds feeding monensin. Seventy-nine Holstein commercial dairy herds in the northeast and upper Midwestern United States were enrolled in an observational study. Data were collected on herd characteristics, total mixed ration (TMR) samples, all component silage samples, and bulk tank milk samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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