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M G Candela, A Caballol, P M Atance
Assessment of the role of wild and domestic hosts as potential reservoirs of misdiagnosed zoonoses, such as Q fever by Coxiella burnetii, is an important public health issue today both for wildlife conservation and management of disease in human-livestock-wildlife interface. This study used ELISA, an indirect antibody, to research (2003-2013) C. burnetii infection in seven free-living wild and domestic ruminant species and in European wildcats (Felis silvestris). The animals studied were 0 European wildcats, 21 Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica), 314 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 556 fallow deer (Dama dama), 211 European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), eight roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 407 bovines (Bos taurus) and 3739 sheep (Ovis aries)...
October 25, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Hui Zhang, Zhihua Sun, Na Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Pengyan Wang, Qiang Fu, Yan Ren, Xuehua Shao, Yu Zhang, Zhiru Guo, Chuangfu Chen
The goat pox chick embryo-attenuated virus (GTPV) has been developed as an effective vaccine that can elicit protective immune responses. It possesses a large genome and a robust ability to express exogenous genes. Thus, this virus is an ideal vector for recombinant live vaccines for infectious diseases in ruminant animals. In this study, we identified a novel bidirectional promoter region of GTPV through screening named PbVV(±). PbVV(±) is located between ETF-l and VITF-3, which are transcribed in opposite directions...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Johannes Charlier, Aklilu H Ghebretinsae, Bruno Levecke, Els Ducheyne, Edwin Claerebout, Jozef Vercruysse
Helminth parasites of grazing ruminants are highly prevalent globally and impact negatively on animal productivity and food security. There is a growing concern that climate change increases helminth disease frequency and intensity. In Europe, these concerns stem from case reports and theoretical life cycle models assessing the effects of climate change scenarios on helminth epidemiology. We believe this study is the first to investigate climate-driven trends in helminth infections of cattle on a cohort of randomly selected farms...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Michael van Straten, Svetlana Bardenstein, Gaby Keningswald, Menachem Banai
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that can cause severe illness in humans and considerable economic loss in the livestock industry. Although small ruminants are the preferential host for Brucella melitensis, this pathogen has emerged as a cause for Brucella outbreaks in cattle. S19 vaccination is implemented in many countries where B. abortus is endemic but its effectiveness against B. melitensis has not been validated. Here we show that vaccine effectiveness in preventing disease transmission between vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, as determined by seroconversion, was 87...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Elena García, Gerardo Espeso, Rocío Fernández, Ángel Gómez-Martín, José María Rodríguez-Linde, Christian De la Fe
Coxiella (C.) burnetii is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease known a Q fever. This agent can infect multiple hosts although its pathogenic potential in wild ruminants has been poorly studied. The polymerase chain reaction and the serological test detected the presence of C. burnetii in a population of North African gazelles (n = 355), comprising dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas neglecta), dama gazelle (Nanger dama mhorr) and Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri) which, some of them, they recently aborted...
September 19, 2016: Theriogenology
D Pantaya, D P Morgavi, M Silberberg, F Chaucheyras-Durand, C Martin, Suryahadi, K G Wiryawan, H Boudra
High-production dairy and beef systems require diets rich in starch. This practice may induce ruminal acidosis and also increase exposure to mycotoxins because starches in starch-rich diets are the main vehicles of mycotoxin contamination. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low ruminal pH on the bioavailability of 4 major mycotoxins [i.e., aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B1 (FB1)]. Eight nonlactating dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a double crossover experiment...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Emeli Torsson, Tebogo Kgotlele, Mikael Berg, Niwael Mtui-Malamsha, Emanuel S Swai, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Gerald Misinzo
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Panat Anuracpreeda, Amaya Watthanadirek, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul, Prasert Sobhon
A number of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against the 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg) were produced in vitro by hybridoma technique. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1D10, 2D7, 3B10, 3D9, 4F1, 4G4, and 5G12. It was found to be IgM and kappa light chain isotypes. By immunoblotting and ELISA, all MoAbs reacted with purified 16 kDaAgPg at molecular weight (MW) of 16 kDa and with the native 16 kDa antigen at MW of 16 kDa in the whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with tegumental antigens (TA) of adult fluke...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Jialin Zhang, Wenxing Liu, Weiye Chen, Cuicui Li, Meimei Xie, Zhigao Bu
From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM) cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations...
2016: PloS One
I Absah, A Rishi, N J Talley, D Katzka, M Halland
BACKGROUND: Rumination syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by effortless and repetitive regurgitation of recently ingested food from the stomach to the oral cavity followed by either re-swallowing or spitting. Rumination is thought to occur due to a reversal of the esophagogastric pressure gradient. This is achieved by a coordinated abdominothoracic maneuver consisting of a thoracic suction, crural diaphragm relaxation and an increase in intragastric pressure...
October 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
N P Soumya, D N Das, S Jeyakumar, S Mondal, A Mor, U T Mundhe
Embryonic mortality is found to be the main source of reproductive wastage in domestic ruminants. Many genes are involved in the growth and development of the embryo, and the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG 15) is one of the major gene stimulated by interferon tau, the maternal recognition of pregnancy signal in ruminants. In this study, both genomic and cDNA sequences of ISG 15 from Bos indicus (Deoni breed) were amplified and characterized. The genomic sequence of Deoni ISG 15 exhibited 99% identity with Bos taurus and 97% identity with that of Bos mutus and Bubalus bubalis...
October 21, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Elisa C K Steinfurth, Manuela G Alius, Julia Wendt, Alfons O Hamm
The current experiments tested neural and physiological correlates of worry and rumination in comparison to thinking about neutral events. According to the avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce intense emotions-physiological and neurobiological activity during worried thinking should not differ from activation during neutral thinking. According to the contrast avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce abrupt shifts of emotions-activity should be increased. To test these competing models, we induced worry and neutral thinking in healthy participants using personal topics...
October 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
Kun Taek Park, Mahmoud M ElNaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, John P Bannantine, Victoria Mack, Lindsay M Fry, William C Davis
Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and monocyte derived DC (MoDC). DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants) can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC)...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan Green
At the outset of the French Revolution John Adams penned a series of Discourses of Davila, philosophical ruminations on the sixteenth-century French Wars of Religion. Recent historians have read these Discourses in terms of Adams's Machiavellianism-his conviction that men's passions lead to violence, if unrestrained. But this reading overlooks the extent to which Adams intended his Discourses as a particular investigation into the French nation's character, and into whether the revolutionaries could lay claim to a native, French tradition of mixed constitutional government...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Martina R Laidemitt, Eva T Zawadzki, Sara V Brant, Martin W Mutuku, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker
Paramphistomoids are ubiquitous and widespread digeneans that infect a diverse range of definitive hosts, being particularly speciose in ruminants. We collected adult worms from cattle, goats and sheep from slaughterhouses, and cercariae from freshwater snails from ten localities in Central and West Kenya. We sequenced cox1 (690 bp) and internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2) (385 bp) genes from a small piece of 79 different adult worms and stained and mounted the remaining worm bodies for comparisons with available descriptions...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
O M Kandil, K A Abdelrahman, H A Fahmy, M S Mahmoud, A H El Namaky, J E Miller
Haemonchus contortus is a major parasite of small ruminants and its blood-feeding behaviour causes effects ranging from mild anaemia to death. Knowledge of the genetic variation within and among H. contortus populations can provide the foundation for understanding transmission patterns and aid in the control of haemonchosis. Adult male H. contortus were collected from three geographical regions in Egypt. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Janine Kamke, Sandra Kittelmann, Priya Soni, Yang Li, Michael Tavendale, Siva Ganesh, Peter H Janssen, Weibing Shi, Jeff Froula, Edward M Rubin, Graeme T Attwood
BACKGROUND: Enteric fermentation by farmed ruminant animals is a major source of methane and constitutes the second largest anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Reducing methane emissions from ruminants is needed to ensure sustainable animal production in the future. Methane yield varies naturally in sheep and is a heritable trait that can be used to select animals that yield less methane per unit of feed eaten. We previously demonstrated elevated expression of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway genes of methanogenic archaea in the rumens of high methane yield (HMY) sheep compared to their low methane yield (LMY) counterparts...
October 19, 2016: Microbiome
Zongze Zhang, Robin B Gasser, Xin Yang, Fangyuan Yin, Guanghui Zhao, Min Bao, Baoliang Pan, Weiyi Huang, Chunren Wang, Fengcai Zou, Yanqin Zhou, Junlong Zhao, Rui Fang, Min Hu
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants around the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The control of haemonchosis relies mainly on anthelmintics, but the excessive and prolonged use of anthelmintics is causing serious drug resistance issues in many countries. As benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics have been broadly used in China, we hypothesized that resistance is widespread. Given the link between three known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, designated F167Y, E198A and F200Y) in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene and BZ resistance, our goal here was to explore the presence of these mutations in H...
October 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Emmanuel Nakouné, Basile Kamgang, Nicolas Berthet, Alexandre Manirakiza, Mirdad Kazanji
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Meredith J Bashaw, Florian Sicks, Rupert Palme, Franz Schwarzenberger, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Andre Ganswindt
BACKGROUND: Numbers of giraffes are declining rapidly in their native habitat. As giraffe research and conservation efforts increase, the demand for more complete measures of the impact of conservation interventions and the effects of captive environments on animal health and welfare have risen. We compared the ability of six different enzyme immunoassays to quantify changes in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) resulting from three sources: adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test, transport, and time of day that samples were collected...
October 18, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
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