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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028813/evaluation-of-shedding-tissue-burdens-and-humoral-immune-response-in-goats-after-experimental-challenge-with-the-virulent-brucella-melitensis-strain-16m-and-the-reduced-virulence-vaccine-strain-rev-1
#1
Jennifer L Higgins, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero, Richard A Bowen
Brucella melitensis is the causative agent of brucellosis in small ruminants and is of considerable economic and public health importance in many countries worldwide. The control of disease in humans depends on the control of disease in livestock; however, few counties with endemic B. melitensis infection have been able to successfully eradicate this pathogen. This underscores the need for further research on the pathogenesis of both virulent and vaccine strains of B. melitensis in the small ruminant host. The aim of the present study was to characterize clinical effects, tissue colonization, shedding, and humoral immune response following B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028431/interferon-tau-regulates-cytokine-production-and-cellular-function-in-human-trophoblast-cell-line
#2
Nao Tanikawa, Kotomi Seno, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Koji Kimura, Shuichi Matsuyama, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
Type I interferons (IFN), including IFN-beta (IFNB), activate multiple STAT signaling to drive various biological responses. Another type I IFN, IFN-tau (IFNT), secreted by ruminant embryonic trophoblast cells, has multiple functions with low cytotoxicity. Here, we examined the effects of IFNT on human trophoblast cell functions. First, we performed next-generation sequencing and demonstrated that IFNT-dependent changes in the human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line are partly mediated by proinflammatory as well as IFN signaling...
October 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027705/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-spices-on-forage-degradability-ruminal-fermentation-in-vivo-digestibility-growth-performance-and-nitrogen-balance-in-black-bengal-goat
#3
M R Chowdhury, M M H Khan, S U Mahfuz, M A Baset
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of spices on forage utilization and nitrogen (N) emission using in vitro and in vivo approach. A 6 × 5 factorial triplicate arrangement was used to assess the in vitro degradability of rice straw with control (without spices) and individual (40 mg/g rice straw) spices (cumin, coriander, clove, black cumin, turmeric) at five different incubation times. In vitro dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradability of rice straw were highest in presence of spices except for clove...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027700/increases-in-the-expression-of-na-h-exchanger-1-and-3-are-associated-with-insulin-signalling-in-the-ruminal-epithelium
#4
L Yan, Z Shen, Z Lu
Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE), which catalyses the exchange of extracellular Na(+) for intracellular H(+) , is of importance in the maintenance of Na(+) and pH homoeostasis for rumen epithelial cells. Studies in ruminants showed that high concentrate diets could increase the expression of NHE in ruminal epithelium. Results of recent studies further indicated that insulin, as an important hormone closely related to dietary concentrate, could enhance the expression of NHE. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms of insulin regulating the expression of NHE in rumen epithelial cells and its potential role in dietary modulation of NHE expression in ruminal epithelium of cows...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027596/10-year-parasitological-examination-results-2003-to-2012-of-faecal-samples-from-horses-ruminants-pigs-dogs-cats-rabbits-and-hedgehogs
#5
Katharina Raue, Lea Heuer, Claudia Böhm, Sonja Wolken, Christian Epe, Christina Strube
The results of coproscopical examinations in domestic animals and hedgehogs carried out as routine diagnostics in the years 2003 to 2012 at the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany, are presented. Of 3475 horse faecal samples, 30.1% contained stages of strongyles and 1.3% eggs of Strongyloides westeri and Parascaris equorum, respectively. The most frequently observed parasite stages in 1416 cattle faecal samples were Eimeria oocysts (21.3%) and strongyle eggs or larvae (15...
October 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026537/negative-effects-of-long-term-feeding-of-high-grain-diets-to-lactating-goats-on-milk-fat-production-and-composition-by-regulating-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-in-the-mammary-gland
#6
Ping Tian, Yanwen Luo, Xian Li, Jing Tian, Shiyu Tao, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
BACKGROUND: It is well known that feeding a high concentrate (HC) diet to lactating ruminants likely induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat production. However, the effects of feeding a HC diet for long periods on milk fatty acids composition and the mechanism behind the decline of milk fat still remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of feeding a HC diet to lactating dairy goats on milk fat yield and fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the mechanisms underlying the milk fat depression...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026442/variation-across-a-wheat-genetic-diversity-panel-for-saccharification-of-hydrothermally-pretreated-straw
#7
Samuel R A Collins, David R Wilson, Graham K Moates, Andrea L Harper, Ian Bancroft, Keith W Waldron
BACKGROUND: Wheat straw forms an important, reliable source of lignocellulosic biomass for use in second-generation ethanol production. However, there is limited understanding of the variation in quality of straw from current breeding cultivars, and studies on such variation have generally employed suboptimal pretreatments. There is also a degree of confusion regarding phenotypic characteristics relevant to optimising the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose after suitable pretreatments for biorefining compared with those which determine good ruminant digestibility...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026096/plane-of-nutrition-affects-the-phylogenetic-diversity-and-relative-abundance-of-transcriptionally-active-methanogens-in-the-bovine-rumen
#8
Emily McGovern, Matthew S McCabe, Paul Cormican, Milka Popova, Kate Keogh, Alan K Kelly, David A Kenny, Sinead M Waters
Methane generated during enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock species is a major contributor to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. A period of moderate feed restriction followed by ad libitum access to feed is widely applied in cattle management to exploit the animal's compensatory growth potential and reduce feed costs. In the present study, we utilised microbial RNA from rumen digesta samples to assess the phylogenetic diversity of transcriptionally active methanogens from feed-restricted and non-restricted animals...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025946/complete-genome-sequence-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-from-georgia-2016
#9
Paulina Z Rajko-Nenow, Tabitha G Cunliffe, John T Flannery, Honorata M Ropiak, Lasha Avaliani, Marina Donduashvili, Michael D Baron, Carrie A Batten
We report here the complete genome sequence of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from the first outbreak of the disease in Georgia in January 2016. Genome sequencing was performed using Illumina next-generation sequencing technology in conjunction with Sanger sequencing. This PPRV/Georgia/Tbilisi/2016 genome sequence clustered within lineage IV PPRV viruses.
October 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024616/investigation-of-infectious-reproductive-pathogens-of-large-ruminants-are-neosporosis-brucellosis-leptospirosis-and-bvdv-of-relevance-in-lao-pdr
#10
L Olmo, M T Dye, M P Reichel, J R Young, S Nampanya, S Khounsy, P C Thomson, P A Windsor, R D Bush
N. caninum, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo are globally significant reproductive pathogens that cause abortion and reproductive loss in large ruminants. Prevalence information is lacking in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) despite the poor reproductive performance of cattle and buffalo. Serological examination of frozen cattle (n=90) and buffalo (n=61) sera by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays provided the first reported screening of some of these pathogens in Laos...
October 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024226/anger-and-depressive-ruminations-as-predictors-of-dysregulated-behaviours-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
Francesca Martino, Gabriele Caselli, Jessica Di Tommaso, Sandra Sassaroli, Marcantonio M Spada, Barbara Valenti, Domenico Berardi, Anna Sasdelli, Marco Menchetti
BACKGROUND: Anger and depressive ruminations have recently received empirical attention as processes related to borderline personality disorder (BPD). The Emotional Cascade Model (Selby, Anestis, & Joiner, 2008) suggests that negative affect (such as anger and sadness) may trigger rumination, which in turn may increase the duration and extent of negative affect, leading to dysregulated behaviours aimed at reducing such intense and unpleasant emotions. AIM: The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between emotional dysregulation, anger and depressive ruminations, and their role in predicting dysregulated behaviours (such as aggression and self-harm) in a clinical sample of patients with BPD...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024106/nutritional-evaluation-of-the-legume-macrotyloma-axillare-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-bioassays-in-sheep
#12
P M T Lima, G D Moreira, G Z Sakita, A S Natel, W T Mattos, F M A Gimenes, L Gerdes, C McManus, A L Abdalla, H Louvandini
This study consisted of two experiments with the following objectives: to evaluate the effects of tannins from the tropical legume macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare) on total gas and methane (CH4 ) production, as well as on ruminal fermentation parameters by performing an in vitro bioassay, with samples incubated with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a semi-automatic system; and secondly in a 17 day in vivo experiment, to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary nutrients and ruminal fermentation parameters of 12 intact 8- to 9-month-old Santa Inês (averaging 24...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024063/influence-of-ration-composition-on-nutritive-and-digestive-variables-in-captive-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-indicating-the-appropriateness-of-feeding-practice
#13
I Gussek, C Große-Brinkhaus, K-H Südekum, J Hummel
The nutrition of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), a browsing ruminant, is challenging because browse availability is limited in zoos and rations need to be composed of compensatory feeds. In this study, ration composition for giraffes in 12 German zoos was documented and linked to animal variables that indicate suitability of nutrition. Rations differed in proportion of ration items and chemical composition resulting in various grades of accordance with feeding recommendations. An estimated daily metabolisable energy (ME) intake (MEI; mean ± SD) of 0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023541/improved-influenza-viral-vector-based-brucella-abortus-vaccine-induces-robust-b-and-t-cell-responses-and-protection-against-brucella-melitensis-infection-in-pregnant-sheep-and-goats
#14
Aigerim Mailybayeva, Bolat Yespembetov, Sholpan Ryskeldinova, Nadezhda Zinina, Abylai Sansyzbay, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Nikolai Petrovsky, Kaissar Tabynov
We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA). Our success in the Flu-BA vaccine trial in cattle and results of a pilot study in non-pregnant small ruminants prompted us in the current study to test its efficacy against B. melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. In this study, we improved the Flu-BA vaccine formulation and immunization method to achieve maximum efficacy and safety...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023528/evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-bacterial-population-for-the-production-of-holocellulose-enzymes-for-biomass-deconstruction
#15
Dhaneshwaree Asem, Vincent Vineeth Leo, Ajit Kumar Passari, Mary Vanlalhruaii Tonsing, J Beslin Joshi, Sivakumar Uthandi, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Bhim Pratap Singh
The gastrointestinal (GI) habitat of ruminant and non-ruminant animals sustains a vast ensemble of microbes that are capable of utilizing lignocellulosic plant biomass. In this study, an indigenous swine (Zovawk) and a domesticated goat (Black Bengal) were investigated to isolate bacteria having plant biomass degrading enzymes. After screening and enzymatic quantification of eighty-one obtained bacterial isolates, Serratia rubidaea strain DBT4 and Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain DBT87 were revealed as the most potent strains, showing both cellulase and xylanase production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022862/future-research-to-underpin-successful-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-pprv-eradication
#16
Michael D Baron, Bouna Diop, Felix Njeumi, Brian J Willett, Dalan Bailey
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a significant pathogen of small ruminants and is prevalent in much of Africa, the Near and Middle East and Asia. Despite the availability of an efficacious and cheap live-attenuated vaccine, the virus has continued to spread, with its range stretching from Morocco in the west to China and Mongolia in the east. Some of the world's poorest communities rely on small ruminant farming for subsistence and the continued endemicity of PPRV is a constant threat to their livelihoods...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022742/culture-based-quantification-with-molecular-characterization-of-non-o157-and-o157-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-rectoanal-mucosal-swabs-of-feedlot-cattle
#17
Zachary R Stromberg, Gentry L Lewis, Liesel G Schneider, Galen E Erickson, Isha R Patel, David R Smith, Rodney A Moxley
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are foodborne pathogens carried in the intestinal tracts of ruminants and shed in the feces. High concentrations (≥10(4) colony-forming units [CFU]/g) of EHEC in cattle feces are associated with contamination of hides, and subsequently, carcasses and beef. Several studies using agar media have quantified O157 but few have quantified non-O157 EHEC in samples from cattle. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the concentration of O157 and non-O157 EHEC in cattle, and to characterize the associated EHEC isolates for their virulence potential...
October 12, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022731/meta-analyses-of-cardiovascular-reactivity-to-rumination-a-possible-mechanism-linking-depression-and-hostility-to-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Lorna Y Busch, Patrick Pössel, Jeffrey C Valentine
Rumination is a way of cognitive coping associated with depression and hostility that prolongs cardiovascular responses to stress. If repeated over time, the associated autonomic dysregulation may be 1 mechanism linking depression and hostility to cardiovascular disease. The current meta-analyses investigate the magnitude of cardiovascular responses (heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure) to induced state sadness and angry rumination which are associated with depression and hostility, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022513/discrepancies-in-animal-models-of-preterm-birth
#19
Clarence R Manuel, Charles R Ashby, Sandra E Reznik
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a multifactorial syndrome occurring before the 37th week of full-term pregnancy [1]. Babies delivered preterm experience short-term and long-term complications affecting multiple organ systems, and serious maternal complications include hemorrhage and infection. Each year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and complications from prematurity are the leading cause of death among children up to 5 years of age [2]. With another increase in PTB rates over the last several years, the United States continues to have the highest incidence of any industrialized country [3]...
October 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021180/bluetongue-virus-spread-in-europe-is-a-consequence-of-climatic-landscape-and-vertebrate-host-factors-as-revealed-by-phylogeographic-inference
#20
Maude Jacquot, Kyriaki Nomikou, Massimo Palmarini, Peter Mertens, Roman Biek
Spatio-temporal patterns of the spread of infectious diseases are commonly driven by environmental and ecological factors. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases because vector populations can be strongly affected by host distribution as well as by climatic and landscape variables. Here, we aim to identify environmental drivers for bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of a major vector-borne disease of ruminants that has emerged multiple times in Europe in recent decades. In order to determine the importance of climatic, landscape and host-related factors affecting BTV diffusion across Europe, we fitted different phylogeographic models to a dataset of 113 time-stamped and geo-referenced BTV genomes, representing multiple strains and serotypes...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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