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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241030/expression-profiles-of-genes-involved-in-tlrs-and-nlrs-signaling-pathways-of-water-buffaloes-infected-with-fasciola-gigantica
#1
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240834/discovery-of-carbamate-degrading-enzymes-by-functional-metagenomics
#2
Lisa Ufarté, Elisabeth Laville, Sophie Duquesne, Diego Morgavi, Patrick Robe, Christophe Klopp, Angeline Rizzo, Sandra Pizzut-Serin, Gabrielle Potocki-Veronese
Bioremediation of pollutants is a major concern worldwide, leading to the research of new processes to break down and recycle xenobiotics and environment contaminating polymers. Among them, carbamates have a very broad spectrum of uses, such as toxinogenic pesticides or elastomers. In this study, we mined the bovine rumen microbiome for carbamate degrading enzymes. We isolated 26 hit clones exhibiting esterase activity, and were able to degrade at least one of the targeted polyurethane and pesticide carbamate compounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239789/anterior-cingulate-volume-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-and-functional-connectivity-with-the-inferior-parietal-cortex-in-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Fabio Sambataro, Nadja Doerig, Jürgen Hänggi, Robert Christian Wolf, Janis Brakowski, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz, Simona Spinelli
In major depressive disorder (MDD), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been associated with clinical outcome as well as with antidepressant treatment response. Nonetheless, the association between individual differences in ACC structure and function and the response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is still unexplored. For this aim, twenty-five unmedicated patients with MDD were scanned with structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before the beginning of CBT treatment. ACC morphometry was correlated with clinical changes following psychotherapy...
November 24, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239640/bad-behavior-keeps-you-up-at-night-counterproductive-work-behaviors-and-insomnia
#4
Zhenyu Yuan, Christopher M Barnes, Yongjuan Li
Drawing from recent research on counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and moral self-regulation literature, we examine the intraindividual consequences of engaging in CWB. We posit that CWB represents morally discrediting work behaviors that can lead to moral deficits, create distress for perpetrators and ultimately result in insomnia. Specifically, we hypothesized that on days in which employees engage in CWB, they will tend to experience moral deficits and heightened levels of rumination that undermine their sleep that night...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239565/spatio-temporal-analysis-and-visualisation-of-the-anthrax-epidemic-situation-in-livestock-in-kazakhstan-over-the-period-1933-2016
#5
Sarsenbay K Abdrakhmanov, Yersyn Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, Fedor I Korennoy, Bolat Sh Karatayev, Aizada A Mukhanbetkaliyeva, Aruzhan S Abdrakhmanova
An analysis of the anthrax epidemic situation among livestock animals in the Republic of Kazakhstan over the period 1933-2016 is presented. During this time, 4,064 anthrax outbreaks (mainly in cattle, small ruminants, pigs and horses) were recorded. They fall into five historical periods of increase and decrease in the annual anthrax incidence (1933-1953; 1954-1968; 1969-1983; 1984- 2001; and 2002-2016), which has been associated with changes in economic activity and veterinary surveillance. To evaluate the temporal trends of incidence variation for each of these time periods, the following methods were applied: i) spatio-temporal analysis using a space-time cube to assess the presence of hotspots (i...
November 13, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239298/optimized-conditions-for-the-in-vitro-excystment-of-calicophoron-daubneyi-metacercariae
#6
Kathryn M Huson, Charlotte Wild, Caroline Fenn, Mark W Robinson
Paramphistomosis, caused by Calicophoron daubneyi, is an emerging infection of ruminants throughout Western Europe. Despite its prevalence, many questions remain regarding the basic biology of this parasite and how it interacts with its host. Consequently, there is a need to develop methods to study C. daubneyi in vitro to improve our understanding of rumen fluke biology. Towards this, we aimed to identify a suitable protocol for in vitro excystment of C. daubneyi metacercariae. Six methods that have been used to excyst metacercariae from a number of trematode species were tested with C...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238497/the-role-of-anxiety-and-depression-on-acceptance-and-action-considering-emotional-schemas-in-diabetics-of-birjand-iran
#7
Elham Imani, Fatemeh Shahabizadeh, Alireza Mahmoodirad
Background: Diabetes is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases around the world that accompanies assorted psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression due to being chronic. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anxiety and depression on acceptance and action, considering emotional schemas of diabetics referring to diabetes clinics of health centers in Birjand, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in 2016 and was a correlational study with a structural equation modeling approach...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236246/multimycotoxin-analysis-of-south-african-aspergillus-clavatus-isolates
#8
C J Botha, M Truter, M Sulyok
Aspergillus clavatus poisoning is a neuromycotoxicosis of ruminants that occurs sporadically across the world after ingestion of infected feedstuffs. Although various toxic metabolites are synthesized by the fungus, it is not clear which specific or group of mycotoxins induces the syndrome. A. clavatus isolates were deposited in the culture collection of the Biosystematics Division, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council during incidences of livestock poisoning (1988-2016). Six isolates were still viable and these plus three other South African isolates that were also previously deposited in the collection were positively identified as A...
December 13, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235046/efficiency-of-nitrogen-metabolism-in-beef-cattle-grazing-pasture-and-supplemented-with-different-protein-levels-in-the-rainy-season
#9
Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques, Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis, Luciana Keiko Hatamoto-Zervoudakis, Pedro Ivo José Lopes da Rosa E Silva, Núbia Bezerra do Nascimento Matos, Andresa Lazzarotto Feliciano, Rones Goulart de Paula Júnior, Luciano da Silva Cabral
Supplementation of animals in the rainy season is essential to maximise weight gain. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with low-, medium- and high-protein levels on nutritional parameters of grazing beef cattle in the rainy season. Eight rumen-cannulated Nellore bulls (437 kg body weight) were used in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design with four supplements and four experimental periods. The treatments were mineral supplement (ad libitum) and supplements with low-protein (LPSU), medium-protein (MPS) and high-protein (HPS) levels, providing 106, 408 and 601 g/day of crude protein (CP), respectively...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234237/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-r-sulfolactate-dehydrogenase-comc-from-the-rumen-methanogen-methanobrevibacter-millerae-sm9
#10
Yanli Zhang, Linley R Schofield, Carrie Sang, Debjit Dey, Ron S Ronimus
(R)-Sulfolactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.337), termed ComC, is a member of an NADH/NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of 2-hydroxyacids into their corresponding 2-oxoacids. The ComC reaction is reversible and in the biosynthetic direction causes the conversion of (R)-sulfolactate to sulfopyruvate in the production of coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid). Coenzyme M is an essential cofactor required for the production of methane by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase complex...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231275/effects-of-limit-feeding-diets-with-different-forage-to-concentrate-ratios-on-nutrient-intake-rumination-ruminal-fermentation-digestibility-blood-parameters-and-growth-in-holstein-heifers
#11
Jun Zhang, Haitao Shi, Yajing Wang, Shengli Li, Hongtao Zhang, Zhijun Cao, Kailun Yang
The objective of this study was using a wide range of dietary concentrate levels to investigate the major effects of limit-feeding on heifers. Twenty-four Holstein heifers were blocked into six groups and fed with one of four diets containing different levels of concentrate (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% on a dry matter (DM) basis) but with same intakes of metabolizable energy for 28 days. Increasing levels of dietary concentrate caused decreased (P ≤ 0.02) intakes of dry matter (DMI) and neutral detergent fiber and total rumination time, but increased (P < 0...
December 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231043/understanding-student-drinking-patterns-does-shame-proneness-matter
#12
Stephanie Winkeljohn Black, Patrick Pössel, Alyssa Dietz
This study ( N = 202; mean age = 19.52 years, SD = 1.36 years; 66.5% female) analyzed three structural equation models to determine whether ruminative brooding and negative affect, moderated by shame proneness, explained college student drinking behaviors more than a model without shame proneness. Results indicated a model including shame proneness fit the data best; however, the moderated variables were not significantly associated with other variables in the retained model. Results are discussed alongside clinical recommendations within a university counseling center framework...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230814/nigella-sativa-l-as-an-alternative-antibiotic-feed-supplement-and-effect-on-growth-performance-in-weanling-pigs
#13
Branko T Petrujkić, Ross C Beier, Haiqi He, Kenneth J Genovese, Christina L Swaggerty, Michael E Hume, Tawni L Crippen, Roger B Harvey, Robin C Anderson, David J Nisbet
BACKGROUND: Nigella sativa L. (NS) is a plant containing bioactive constituents like thymoquinone. Extracts of NS improve performance and reduce enteropathogen colonization in poultry and small ruminants but studies with swine are lacking. In two different studies oral administration of NS extracts at doses equivalent to 0, 1.5 and 4.5 g extract kg-1 diet was assessed on piglet performance and intestinal carriage of wildtype Escherichia coli and Campylobacter, and Salmonella Typhimurium...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229193/novel-role-of-vpmas-as-major-adhesins-of-mycoplasma-agalactiae-mediating-differential-cell-adhesion-and-invasion-of-vpma-expression-variants
#14
Shrilakshmi Hegde, Martina Zimmermann, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Mycoplasma agalactiae exhibits antigenic variation by switching the expression of multiple surface lipoproteins called Vpmas. Although implicated to have a significant influence on the pathogenicity, their exact role in pathogen-host interactions has not been investigated so far. Initial attachment to host cells is regarded as one of the most important steps for colonization but this pathogen lacks the typical mycoplasma attachment organelle. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Vpmas in adhesion of M...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228991/the-rumen-microbiome-as-a-reservoir-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-pathogenicity-genes-is-directly-affected-by-diet-in-beef-cattle
#15
Marc D Auffret, Richard J Dewhurst, Carol-Anne Duthie, John A Rooke, R John Wallace, Tom C Freeman, Robert Stewart, Mick Watson, Rainer Roehe
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is the most urgent current threat to human and animal health. An improved understanding of the abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes associated with microbial colonisation and pathogenicity in the animal gut will have a major role in reducing the contribution of animal production to this problem. Here, the influence of diet on the ruminal resistome and abundance of pathogenicity genes was assessed in ruminal digesta samples taken from 50 antibiotic-free beef cattle, comprising four cattle breeds receiving two diets containing different proportions of concentrate...
December 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227897/sleep-difficulties-in-college-students-the-role-of-stress-affect-and-cognitive-processes
#16
Ana Paula Amaral, Maria João Soares, Ana Margarida Pinto, Ana Telma Pereira, Nuno Madeira, Sandra Carvalho Bos, Mariana Marques, Carolina Roque, António Macedo
Previous research indicates that sleep difficulties and stress are prevalent in college students. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the role of repetitive negative thinking (RNT), cognitive emotion regulation, and negative affect as mediators of the relationship between stress and sleep difficulties. We also intended to analyse the associations between all these variables and the gender differences. A sample of 549 college students completed self-report measures assessing the mentioned variables...
December 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227142/perineal-urethrostomy-to-treat-obstructive-urolithiasis-in-a-captive-hand-raised-steenbok-i-raphicerus-campestris-i
#17
Luke A Poore, Ross Hendry, Johan Steyl, Silke Pfitzer
The steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a small antelope of the family Bovidae native to the African continent. Urolithiasis, the formation of urinary calculi in the urinary tract, can be caused by a variety of factors such as diet, dehydration, infection and anatomical predisposition. Urolithiasis, with uroliths identified as magnesium calcium phosphate carbonate in composition, was diagnosed in a hand-reared 5-month-old steenbok. Perineal urethrostomy was performed as a component of the broad treatment regime that included fluid therapy, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225788/whole-exome-sequencing-for-detecting-inborn-errors-of-immunity-overview-and-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Barbara Bosch, Yuval Itan, Isabelle Meyts
The study of inborn errors of immunity is based on a comprehensive clinical description of the patient's phenotype and the elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms and their genetic etiology. Deciphering the pathogenesis is key to genetic counseling and the development of targeted therapy. This review shows the power of whole-exome sequencing in detecting inborn errors of immunity along five central steps taken in whole-exome sequencing analysis. In parallel, we highlight the challenges for the clinical and scientific use of the method and how these hurdles are currently being addressed...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225283/gene-cloning-and-expression-of-fungal-lignocellulolytic-enzymes-from-the-rumen-of-gayal-bos-frontalis
#19
Jing Leng, Xuchuan Liu, Chunyong Zhang, Renjun Zhu, Huaming Mao
A total of 6,219 positive clones were obtained by constructing a BAC library of uncultured ruminal fungi of gayal, and two clones (xynF1 and eglF2) with lignocellulolytic enzyme activity were selected. The sequencing results showed that xynF1 and eglF2 had 903-bp, and 1,995-bp, open reading frames likely to encode β-xylanase (XynF1) and β-glucosidase (EglF2), respectively. The amino acid sequence of XynF1 had 99% coverage and 95% homology to the endo-β-1,4-xylanase encoded by the cellulase gene of Orpinomyces sp...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224883/utilization-of-protein-in-red-clover-and-alfalfa-silages-by-lactating-dairy-cows-and-growing-lambs
#20
Glen A Broderick
Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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