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repetitive behaviour in dementia

Ryan C Turner, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Matthew J Robson, John M Lee, Julian E Bailes
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have long been recognized as sharing some similar neuropathological features, mainly the presence of neurofibrilary tangles and hyperphosphorylated tau, but have generally been described as distinct entities. Evidence indicates that neurotrauma increases the risk of developing dementia and accelerates the progression of disease. Findings are emerging that CTE and AD may be present in the same patients. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This study presents a series of previously unpublished cases, with one case demonstrating possible neurotrauma-related AD, one pure CTE, and an example of a case exhibiting features of both AD and CTE...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Elżbieta Galińska
The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic musical exercises is performed...
2015: Psychiatria Polska
Julie S Snowden, Jennifer Adams, Jennifer Harris, Jennifer C Thompson, Sara Rollinson, Anna Richardson, Matthew Jones, David Neary, David M Mann, Stuart Pickering-Brown
Our objective was to compare the clinical and pathological characteristics of frontotemporal dementia patients with MAPT, GRN and C9orf72 gene mutations. We carried out a cross-sectional comparative study of 74 gene-positive patients (15 MAPT, 17 GRN and 42 C9orf72). Thirty had post mortem pathological data permitting clinico-pathological correlation. MAPT patients were younger than other groups, and showed more frequent behavioural disinhibition, repetitive and stereotyped behaviours, semantic impairment and temporal predominance of atrophy...
2015: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Christian LoBue, Kristin Wilmoth, C Munro Cullum, Heidi C Rossetti, Laura H Lacritz, Linda S Hynan, John Hart, Kyle B Womack
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively examined whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an earlier age of symptom onset and diagnosis in a large sample of patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: Data on patients with bvFTD (n=678) were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set. TBI was categorised based on reported lifetime history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) but no chronic deficits occurring more than 1 year prior to diagnosis of bvFTD...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Hellen Livia Drumond Marra, Martin Luiz Myczkowski, Cláudia Maia Memória, Débora Arnaut, Philip Leite Ribeiro, Carlos Gustavo Sardinha Mansur, Rodrigo Lancelote Alberto, Bianca Boura Bellini, Adriano Alves Fernandes da Silva, Gabriel Tortella, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Orestes Vicente Forlenza, Marco Antonio Marcolin
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
Virginia Torres-Lista, Secundino López-Pousa, Lydia Giménez-Llort
Translational research on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is relevant to the study the neuropsychiatric symptoms that strongly affect the quality of life of the human Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and caregivers, frequently leading to early institutionalization. Among the ethological behavioural tests for rodents, marble burying is considered to model the spectrum of anxiety, psychotic and obsessive-compulsive like symptoms. The present work was aimed to study the behavioural interactions of 12 month-old male 3xTg-AD mice with small objects using the marble-burying test, as compared to the response elicited in age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) mice...
July 2015: Behavioural Processes
John M Ringman, Li-Jung Liang, Yan Zhou, Sitaram Vangala, Edmond Teng, Sarah Kremen, David Wharton, Alison Goate, Daniel S Marcus, Martin Farlow, Bernardino Ghetti, Eric McDade, Colin L Masters, Richard P Mayeux, Martin Rossor, Stephen Salloway, Peter R Schofield, Jeffrey L Cummings, Virginia Buckles, Randall Bateman, John C Morris
Prior studies indicate psychiatric symptoms such as depression, apathy and anxiety are risk factors for or prodromal symptoms of incipient Alzheimer's disease. The study of persons at 50% risk for inheriting autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutations allows characterization of these symptoms before progressive decline in a population destined to develop illness. We sought to characterize early behavioural features in carriers of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutations. Two hundred and sixty-one persons unaware of their mutation status enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network, a study of persons with or at-risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease, were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR)...
April 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Chi-Jane Wang, Ming-Chyi Pai, Hua-Shan Hsiao, Jing-Jy Wang
BACKGROUND: Management of the disruptive behaviours is one of the most challenging aspects of caring for patients with Alzheimer's dementia (PwAD). The underlying needs of disruptive behaviours in PwAD had rarely been studied, especially the comparison of the underlying needs of disruptive behaviours in PwAD have never been mentioned. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the underlying needs of five common disruptive behaviours including hoarding, aggressive behaviour, repetitive behaviour, altered eating behaviour and delusion in PwAD, as perceived by family caregivers, and to relate these needs from the perspective of Maslow's hierarchy...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Benjamin Calvet, Jean-Pierre Clément
Shouting in dementia is a frequent manifestation in institution and is often considered to be extremely disruptive. It remains the most misunderstood behavioral disorder. Shouting or screaming is not a necessarily pejorative qualifier as defined by public authorities and institutions. It can take a multitude of meanings and be characterized alternately as a "reflex", a "behavior", a "language", an "aggression". Shouting has a multifactorial causation. It can translate organic or somatic disorders, but also psychological, cognitive and/or environmental disturbances that clinicians should look for...
February 2015: La Presse Médicale
Carlo Reverberi, Paolo Cherubini, Sara Baldinelli, Simona Luzzi
Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed...
May 2014: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
S E Goldberg, K H Whittamore, K Pollock, R H Harwood, J R F Gladman
BACKGROUND: Around half of people aged over 70 years admitted as an emergency to general hospital have dementia, delirium or both. Dissatisfaction is often expressed about the quality of hospital care. A Medical and Mental Health Unit was developed to provide best practice care to cognitively impaired older patients. The Unit was evaluated by randomised controlled trial compared to standard care wards. Part of this evaluation involved structured non-participant observations of a random sub-sample of participants and the recording of field notes...
October 2014: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Leone Chare, John R Hodges, Cristian E Leyton, Ciara McGinley, Rachel H Tan, Jillian J Kril, Glenda M Halliday
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of new clinical diagnostic criteria for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, including primary progressive aphasias (PPA), on prior clinical diagnosis and to explore clinicopathological correlations. METHODS: 178 consecutive neuropathologically ascertained cases initially diagnosed with a FTD syndrome were collected through specialist programmes: the Cambridge Brain Bank, UK, and Sydney Brain Bank, Australia. 135 cases were reclassified using the revised diagnostic criteria into behavioural variant (bvFTD), semantic variant PPA (sv-PPA), non-fluent/agrammatic variant PPA (nfv-PPA) and logopenic variant PPA (lv-PPA)...
August 2014: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Paul McCrory, Willem H Meeuwisse, Jeffrey S Kutcher, Barry D Jordan, Andrew Gardner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to review the current state of evidence for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in retired athletes and to consider the potential differential diagnoses that require consideration when retired athletes present with cognitive and psychiatric problems. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Mosby's Index, PsycEXTRA, PsycINFO and Scopus. Key words included CTE, dementia pugilistica, punch drunk syndrome, traumatic encephalopathy, CTE, repetitive head injury, sports concussion, multiple concussions, chronic concussions, subconcussive blow and sports-related traumatic brain injury...
April 2013: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ann C McKee, Robert A Stern, Christopher J Nowinski, Thor D Stein, Victor E Alvarez, Daniel H Daneshvar, Hyo-Soon Lee, Sydney M Wojtowicz, Garth Hall, Christine M Baugh, David O Riley, Caroline A Kubilus, Kerry A Cormier, Matthew A Jacobs, Brett R Martin, Carmela R Abraham, Tsuneya Ikezu, Robert Ross Reichard, Benjamin L Wolozin, Andrew E Budson, Lee E Goldstein, Neil W Kowall, Robert C Cantu
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging in age from 17 to 98 years (mean 59.5 years), including 64 athletes, 21 military veterans (86% of whom were also athletes) and one individual who engaged in self-injurious head banging behaviour...
January 2013: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Julie S Snowden, Sara Rollinson, Jennifer C Thompson, Jennifer M Harris, Cheryl L Stopford, Anna M T Richardson, Matthew Jones, Alex Gerhard, Yvonne S Davidson, Andrew Robinson, Linda Gibbons, Quan Hu, Daniel DuPlessis, David Neary, David M A Mann, Stuart M Pickering-Brown
The identification of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene as the cause of chromosome 9-linked frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease offers the opportunity for greater understanding of the relationship between these disorders and other clinical forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In this study, we screened a cohort of 398 patients with frontotemporal dementia, progressive non-fluent aphasia, semantic dementia or mixture of these syndromes for mutations in the C9ORF72 gene...
March 2012: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
A Costanza, K Weber, S Gandy, C Bouras, P R Hof, P Giannakopoulos, A Canuto
Professional boxers and other contact sport athletes are exposed to repetitive brain trauma that may affect motor functions, cognitive performance, emotional regulation and social awareness. The term of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was recently introduced to regroup a wide spectrum of symptoms such as cerebellar, pyramidal and extrapyramidal syndromes, impairments in orientation, memory, language, attention, information processing and frontal executive functions, as well as personality changes and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms...
October 2011: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Julie S Snowden, Quan Hu, Sara Rollinson, Nicola Halliwell, Andrew Robinson, Yvonne S Davidson, Parastoo Momeni, Atik Baborie, Timothy D Griffiths, Evelyn Jaros, Robert H Perry, Anna Richardson, Stuart M Pickering-Brown, David Neary, David M A Mann
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous. Recent descriptions of a pathological sub-type that is ubiquitin positive, TDP-43 negative and immunostains positive for the Fused in Sarcoma protein (FUS) raises the question whether it is associated with a distinct clinical phenotype identifiable on clinical grounds, and whether mutations in the Fused in Sarcoma gene (FUS) might also be associated with FTLD. Examination of a pathological series of 118 cases of FTLD from two centres, showing tau-negative, ubiquitin-positive pathology, revealed FUS pathology in five patients, four classified as atypical FTLD with ubiquitin inclusions (aFTLD-U), and one as neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID)...
July 2011: Acta Neuropathologica
Eva S van der Ploeg, Daniel W O'Connor
BACKGROUND: The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to nonpharmacological interventions which are associated with fewer risks...
2010: BMC Geriatrics
B Lenz, C Sidiropoulos, S Bleich, J Kornhuber
Frontotemporal dementia is more frequently diagnosed because of revised diagnostic procedures. Due to the lack of pharmacological trials it is a disease that is difficult to manage in the way of evidence based medicine. Deficits in serotonergic and dopaminergic signal-transmission are well known. The cholinergic system does not seem to be affected. Case reports and clinical trials show a benefit by using antidepressants, neuroleptics and mood stabilizers. Nevertheless only paroxetine, trazodone and rivastigmine are tested by double-blind, placebo-controlled studies...
May 2009: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Guk-Hee Suh, Andrew J Greenspan, Sung-Ku Choi
BACKGROUND: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) cannot be regarded as a single clinical syndrome, but rather as a heterogeneous group of symptoms, each of which can be considered as possible targets for therapy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of risperidone and haloperidol on specific manifestations of BPSD. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was conducted using data from an 18-week, randomized, double-blind, crossover head-to-head trial of risperidone vs haloperidol in treating 114 nursing-home residents with BPSD...
July 2006: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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