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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813980/human-mimetic-forearm-mechanism-towards-bionic-arm
#1
Minsang Seo, Hogyun Kim, Youngjin Choi
The paper presents a mechanical forearm mechanism to extend the pronation and supination (P/S) movement of the trans-radial amputee when he/she is able to conduct the P/S motion partially with his/her remaining forearm. The P/S motions of the existing prostheses and robotic arms developed till now are completely different from those of the human. When we are to develop the robotic prostheses for the amputees, two important issues should be considered such as cosmetic issue to look like normal arm and motion harmony issue between robotic prosthesis and the amputated living arm...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796815/effect-of-teriflunomide-on-cortex-basal-ganglia-thalamus-cxbgth-circuit-glutamatergic-dysregulation-in-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Claire M Modica, Ferdinand Schweser, Michelle L Sudyn, Nicola Bertolino, Marilena Preda, Paul Polak, Danielle M Siebert, Jacqueline C Krawiecki, Michele Sveinsson, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Suyog Pol, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Pathology of gray matter is associated with development of physical and cognitive disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. In particular, glutamatergic dysregulation in the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit could be associated with decline in these behaviors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an immunomodulatory therapy (teriflunomide, Aubagio®) on changes of the CxBGTh loop in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus, (TMEV) mouse model of MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795429/comparison-of-image-intensity-local-and-multi-atlas-priors-in-brain-tissue-classification
#3
Liping Wang, Frédéric Labrosse, Reyer Zwiggelaar
PURPOSE: Automated and accurate tissue classification in 3D brain Magnetic Resonance images is essential in volumetric morphometry or as a preprocessing step for diagnosing brain diseases. However, noise, intensity inhomogeneity and partial volume effects limit the classification accuracy of existing methods. This paper provides a comparative study on the contributions of three commonly used image information priors for tissue classification in normal brains: image intensity, local and multi-atlas priors...
August 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791500/correlation-of-volumetric-growth-and-histological-grade-in-50-meningiomas
#4
Wai Cheong Soon, Daniel M Fountain, Kacper Koczyk, Mutwakil Abdulla, Sachin Giri, Kieren Allinson, Tomasz Matys, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Ramez W Kirollos, Thomas Santarius
INTRODUCTION: Advances in radiological imaging techniques have enabled volumetric measurements of meningiomas to be easily monitored using serial imaging scans. There is limited literature on the relationship between tumour growth rates and the WHO classification of meningiomas despite tumour growth being a major determinant of type and timing of intervention. Volumetric growth has been successfully used to assess growth of low-grade glioma; however, there is limited information on the volumetric growth rate (VGR) of meningiomas...
August 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782716/treatment-with-an-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-mitigates-neuroinflammation-and-brain-damage-after-polytrauma
#5
Mujun Sun, Rhys D Brady, David K Wright, Hyun Ah Kim, Shenpeng R Zhang, Christopher G Sobey, Maddison R Johnstone, Terence J O'Brien, Bridgette D Semple, Stuart J McDonald, Sandy R Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long bone fracture are common in polytrauma. This injury combination in mice results in elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and exacerbated neuropathology when compared to isolated-TBI. Here we examined the effect of treatment with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in mice given a TBI and a concomitant tibial fracture (i.e., polytrauma). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were given sham-injuries or polytrauma and treated with saline-vehicle or IL-1ra (100 mg/kg)...
August 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782129/volumetric-mri-thermometry-using-a-three-dimensional-stack-of-stars-echo-planar-imaging-pulse-sequence
#6
Sumeeth V Jonathan, William A Grissom
PURPOSE: To measure temperature over a large brain volume with fine spatiotemporal resolution. METHODS: A three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging sequence combining echo-planar imaging and radial sampling with golden angle spacing was implemented at 3T for proton resonance frequency-shift temperature imaging. The sequence acquires a 188x188x43 image matrix with 1.5x1.5x2.75 mm(3) spatial resolution. Temperature maps were reconstructed using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) image reconstruction followed by the image domain hybrid method, and using the k-space hybrid method...
August 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771481/quantitative-and-qualitative-estimation-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-burden-in-vivo-at-7t-mri-using-gadospin-f-in-comparison-to-en-face-preparation-evaluated-in-apoe-ko-mice
#7
Caroline Jung, Sabine Christiansen, Michael Gerhard Kaul, Eva Koziolek, Rudolph Reimer, Jörg Heeren, Gerhard Adam, Markus Heine, Harald Ittrich
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to quantify atherosclerotic plaque burden by volumetric assessment and T1 relaxivity measurement at 7T MRI using Gadospin F (GDF) in comparison to en face based measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: 9-weeks old ApoE-/- (n = 5 for each group) and wildtype mice (n = 5) were set on high fat diet (HFD). Progression group received MRI at 9, 13, 17 and 21 weeks after HFD initiation. Regression group was reswitched to chow diet (CD) after 13 weeks HFD and monitored with MRI for 12 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765056/predicting-brain-age-with-deep-learning-from-raw-imaging-data-results-in-a-reliable-and-heritable-biomarker
#8
James H Cole, Rudra P K Poudel, Dimosthenis Tsagkrasoulis, Matthan W A Caan, Claire Steves, Tim D Spector, Giovanni Montana
Machine learning analysis of neuroimaging data can accurately predict chronological age in healthy people. Deviations from healthy brain ageing have been associated with cognitive impairment and disease. Here we sought to further establish the credentials of 'brain-predicted age' as a biomarker of individual differences in the brain ageing process, using a predictive modelling approach based on deep learning, and specifically convolutional neural networks (CNN), and applied to both pre-processed and raw T1-weighted MRI data...
July 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764881/dosimetric-impact-of-intrafraction-changes-in-mr-guided-high-dose-rate-hdr-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#9
Alexandra Rink, Jette Borg, Anna Simeonov, Gerald O'Leary, Joelle Helou, Cynthia Ménard, Peter Chung, David A Jaffray, Alejandro Berlin
PURPOSE: To assess changes in implant and treatment volumes through the course of a prostate high-dose-rate brachytherapy procedure and their impact on plan quality metrics. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixteen MRI-guided high-dose-rate procedures included a post-treatment MR (ptMR) immediately after treatment delivery (135 min between MR scans). Target and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured, and catheters were reconstructed. The delivered treatment plan was applied to the ptMR image set...
July 29, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761906/mri-evaluation-of-thalamic-volume-differentiates-ms-from-common-mimics
#10
Andrew J Solomon, Richard Watts, Blake E Dewey, Daniel S Reich
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether MRI evaluation of thalamic volume differentiates MS from other disorders that cause MRI white matter abnormalities. METHODS: There were 40 study participants: 10 participants with MS without additional comorbidities for white matter abnormalities (MS - c); 10 participants with MS with additional comorbidities for white matter abnormalities (MS + c); 10 participants with migraine, MRI white matter abnormalities, and no additional comorbidities for white matter abnormalities (Mig - c); and 10 participants previously incorrectly diagnosed with MS (Misdx)...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757773/vascular-burden-and-brain-aging-in-a-senior-volunteer-cohort-a-pilot-study
#11
Raymond Y Lo, Yen-Chieh Lo, Shu-Cin Chen, Yu-Ying Li, Ya-Ling Yang, Yu-Ling Chang, Huei-Chuan Sung, Tina H T Chiu, Joshua O S Goh
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of establishing a senior volunteer cohort and describe vascular risks, cognitive function, and brain aging indices in a pilot study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 40 senior volunteers from the Tzu Chi Foundation and other organizations in Hualien in 2014-2015. We conducted in-person interviews to collect information on demographic features, physical fitness, dietary habits, comorbidities, and narratives of aging. Vascular risks including blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum glucose level, and lipid profile were examined...
April 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756237/distinct-resting-state-functional-connections-associated-with-episodic-and-visuospatial-memory-in-older-adults
#12
Sana Suri, Anya Topiwala, Nicola Filippini, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Claire E Sexton, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Clare E Mackay, Stephen Smith, Klaus P Ebmeier
Episodic and spatial memory are commonly impaired in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest a preferential involvement of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), particularly the hippocampus, in episodic and spatial memory processing. The present study examined how these two memory types were related in terms of their associated resting-state functional architecture. 3T multiband resting state fMRI scans from 497 participants (60-82 years old) of the cross-sectional Whitehall II Imaging sub-study were analysed using an unbiased, data-driven network-modelling technique (FSLNets)...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754209/automated-volumetric-mammographic-breast-density-measurements-may-underestimate-percent-breast-density-for-high-density-breasts
#13
Kareem Rahbar, Albert Gubern-Merida, James T Patrie, Jennifer A Harvey
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy in breast composition measurements obtained from mammograms using two commercially available software methods for systematic trends in overestimation or underestimation compared to magnetic resonance-derived measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study was performed to calculate percent breast density (PBD) by quantifying fibroglandular volume and total breast volume derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation and mammograms using two commercially available software programs (Volpara and Quantra)...
July 25, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752644/hypertension-is-associated-with-worse-cognitive-function-and-hippocampal-hypometabolism-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
I Moonga, F Niccolini, H Wilson, G Pagano, M Politis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A growing body of evidence suggests that cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension may be linked to sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is well known that hypertension is associated with cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia on the basis of vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms linking hypertension and AD remain unclear. METHODS: We studied 197 patients with AD (86 male; mean age ± SD: 75.8 ± 7.4 years) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database with (n = 97) and without (n = 100) hypertension...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752556/3d-multi-echo-radial-imaging-of-23-na-3d-merina-for-time-efficient-multi-parameter-tissue-compartment-mapping
#15
Yasmin Blunck, Sonal Josan, Syeda Warda Taqdees, Bradford A Moffat, Roger J Ordidge, Jon O Cleary, Leigh A Johnston
PURPOSE: This work demonstrates a 3D radial multi-echo acquisition scheme for time-efficient sodium ((23) Na) MR-signal acquisition and analysis. Echo reconstructions were used to produce signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-enhanced (23) Na-images and parameter maps of the biexponential observed transverse relaxation time ( T2*) decay. METHODS: A custom-built sequence for radial multi-echo acquisition was proposed for acquisition of a series of 3D volumetric (23) Na-images...
July 28, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752059/microstructural-abnormalities-in-white-and-gray-matter-in-obese-adolescents-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#16
Arie Nouwen, Alison Chambers, Magdalena Chechlacz, Suzanne Higgs, Jacqueline Blissett, Timothy G Barrett, Harriet A Allen
AIMS/HYPOTHESES: In adults, type 2 diabetes and obesity have been associated with structural brain changes, even in the absence of dementia. Some evidence suggested similar changes in adolescents with type 2 diabetes but comparisons with a non-obese control group have been lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in microstructure of gray and white matter between adolescents with type 2 diabetes, obese adolescents and healthy weight adolescents. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 15 adolescents with type 2 diabetes, 21 obese adolescents and 22 healthy weight controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745939/reduced-pineal-volume-in-alzheimer-disease-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-mr-imaging-study
#17
Teruyuki Matsuoka, Ayu Imai, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yuka Kato, Keisuke Shibata, Kaeko Nakamura, Hajime Yokota, Kei Yamada, Jin Narumoto
Purpose To evaluate pineal volume in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy control subjects and to correlate the findings with results of cognitive testing and brain parenchymal volumes. Materials and Methods The ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The participants included 63 patients with AD, 33 patients with MCI, and 24 healthy control subjects. There were 36 men and 84 women, with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 76.7 years ± 7...
July 26, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740451/mri-reduces-variation-of-contouring-for-boost-clinical-target-volume-in-breast-cancer-patients-without-surgical-clips-in-the-tumour-bed
#18
Noora Al-Hammadi, Palmira Caparrotti, Saju Divakar, Mohamed Riyas, Suparna Halsnad Chandramouli, Rabih Hammoud, Jillian Hayes, Maeve Mc Garry, Satheesh Prasad Paloor, Primoz Petric
BACKGROUND: Omitting the placement of clips inside tumour bed during breast cancer surgery poses a challenge for delineation of lumpectomy cavity clinical target volume (CTVLC). We aimed to quantify inter-observer variation and accuracy for CT- and MRI-based segmentation of CTVLC in patients without clips. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CT- and MRI-simulator images of 12 breast cancer patients, treated by breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy, were included in this study...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739164/a-sparse-representation-based-method-for-parcellation-of-the-resting-brain-and-its-application-to-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Ruiyang Ge, Daniel M Blumberger, Jonathan Downar, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Joseph C W Tham, Raymond W Lam, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Parcellating brain regions into functionally homogeneous subdivisions is critical for understanding normal and abnormal brain functions. NEW METHOD: In this study, we developed a new sparse representation-based parcellation method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and applied the new method to investigate functional insular subdivisions in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Realistic simulations were implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of the method...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737295/towards-a-unified-analysis-of-brain-maturation-and-aging-across-the-entire-lifespan-a-mri-analysis
#20
Pierrick Coupé, Gwenaelle Catheline, Enrique Lanuza, José Vicente Manjón
There is no consensus in literature about lifespan brain maturation and senescence, mainly because previous lifespan studies have been performed on restricted age periods and/or with a limited number of scans, making results instable and their comparison very difficult. Moreover, the use of nonharmonized tools and different volumetric measurements lead to a great discrepancy in reported results. Thanks to the new paradigm of BigData sharing in neuroimaging and the last advances in image processing enabling to process baby as well as elderly scans with the same tool, new insights on brain maturation and aging can be obtained...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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