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Diabetic nephropath

Wilson Kc Leung, L Gao, Parco M Siu, Christopher Wk Lai
An explosion in global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus poses major rise in cases with vascular endothelial dysfunction ranging from micro- (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) to macro-vascular (atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy) conditions. Functional destruction of endothelium is regarded as an early event that lays the groundwork for the development of renal microangiopathy and subsequent clinical manifestation of nephropathic symptoms. Recent research has shed some light on the molecular mechanisms of type 2 diabetes-associated comorbidity of endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy...
October 17, 2016: Life Sciences
M Mir, A Rostami, M Hormozi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from mononuclear cells. Serum concentration of IL-18 is a strong predictor of death in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that microinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy as well as of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the serum level of IL-18 is a common predictor of nephropathy and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes...
August 31, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Na Liu, Yingfeng Shi, Shougang Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is the degrading process of protein and organelles mediated by lysosomes. This process is involved in purging senescent organelles and subversive proteins while maintaining the stability of the intracellular environment. This phenomenon is highly conservative, existing in nearly every species, and is involved in cell growth, proliferation and tumorigenesis. SUMMARY: In recent decades, with the discovery of autophagy-related genes and proteins in conjunction with the improvement in detection methods, the study of autophagy is constantly achieving new breakthroughs...
April 2016: Kidney Diseases
So Ra Kim, Yong-Ho Lee, Sang-Guk Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Jeong-Ho Kim, Byung-Wan Lee
Recently, several renal tubular damage markers have gained considerable attention because of their clinical implications as sensitive and specific biomarkers for early stage diabetic kidney disease. However, little is known about the demographic and glucometabolic factors affecting levels of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), a marker of proximal tubular damage, in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of urinary NAG with regard to demographic and glucometabolic parameters, as well as nephropathic parameters, by comparing the glomerulopathic marker of albuminuria...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sameh Abouzeid, Nevine Sherif
INTRODUCTION: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the adaptive immune system drives systemic inflammation, promoting insulin resistance and related complications, such as diabetic nephropathy. Increased infiltration of activated T lymphocytes has been found in patients with diabetic nephropathy. T-cell influx and accumulation are the factors that aggravate diabetic nephropathy and link with glomerular filtration surface and albumin excretion. An appropriate balance between pro-inflammatory (T helper 17: Th17, and T helper 1: Th1) and anti-inflammatory (regulatory T cells: Tregs) subsets of T cells is critical to maintain homeostasis and avoid inflammatory disease...
December 2015: Electronic Physician
Zhe-yi Dong, Yuan-da Wang, Qiang Qiu, Kai Hou, Li Zhang, Jie Wu, Han-yu Zhu, Guang-yan Cai, Xue-feng Sun, Xue-guang Zhang, Mo-yan Liu, Jia Kou, Xiang-mei Chen
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: There are sparse and limited studies on erythrocyte morphology in renal biopsy identifying nephropathic patients among type 2 diabetics. The present study sought to clarify the predictive value of dysmorphic erythrocytes in type 2 diabetics with non-diabetic renal disease and influences on hematuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 198 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent kidney biopsies between 2012 and 2013. Hematuria was defined as >3 or >10 red blood cells per high-power field (RBCs/hpf) in urine sediment...
January 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Linna Du, Chungang Liu, Meiyu Teng, Qingfan Meng, Jiahui Lu, Yulin Zhou, Yan Liu, Yingkun Cheng, Di Wang, Lesheng Teng
Due to the limitations of existing anti-diabetic drugs, the treatment of diabetes mellitus remains a significant challenge. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Paecilomyces tenuipes N45 extracts on alloxan-induced type I diabetes mellitus in mice. Diabetic Kunming mice were orally administered with water extract (WE) at doses of 2.50, 0.25 and 0.05 g/kg) or alcohol extract (AE) at doses of 2.00, 0.20 and 0.04 g/kg, for 3 weeks, following which the levels of factors associated with blood glucose, lipids and free radicals were determined...
February 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Emily Joyce, Jacqueline Ho, Areeg El-Gharbawy, Cláudia M Salgado, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Miguel Reyes-Múgica
Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and the most common cause of inherited renal Fanconi syndrome in young children. Renal biopsy is usually not necessary to establish the diagnosis, but when the patient presents with atypical signs and symptoms, a renal biopsy may be extremely valuable. We describe here renal biopsy findings in a patient with cystinosis. A 20-month-old male presented with failure to thrive, polyuria, polydipsia and rickets. He initially showed evidence of a renal tubular acidosis, mild renal insufficiency and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus...
November 18, 2015: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Ajay Kumar Timiri, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Anil Chandewar
The present study evaluates possible drug interactions between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction based on molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and was confirmed by assessing blood and urine biochemical parameters 28 days after induction. Selected DN animals were used to explore the drug interaction between GLIM (0...
October 2015: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Anil Vilasrao Chandewar
BACKGROUND: The present study evaluates the possible mechanism of sildenafil citrate (SIL) for the attenuation of renal failure in diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals. METHODS: Diabetic nephropathy was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and confirmed by assessing the blood and urine biochemical parameters on the 28th day of its induction. The selected DN animals were treated with glimepiride (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o...
January 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Jayashree Kanthila, Smitha Dsa, Kamalakshi G Bhat
Renal Fanconi syndrome is diagnosed by its cardinal features of glycosuria without diabetes, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, and renal tubular acidosis. It is often associated with hypokalaemia, hypophosphatemia and rickets. We report a seven-year-old boy with nephropathic cystinosis who presented with all the cardinal features of renal Fanconi syndrome associated with rickets, pathological fractures, stage IV chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypothyroidism. Slit-lamp examination of the cornea confirmed the diagnosis...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
B Vijay Kiran, H Barman, A Iyengar
Tubular disorders form a significant proportion of pediatric kidney diseases and are an important differential diagnosis of failure to thrive (FTT) in children. Data regarding their outcome is scarce from India. We evaluated the clinical profile of these children and studied the outcome in terms of their growth and renal failure. This is a retrospective longitudinal study of all children with renal tubular disorders attending a tertiary care pediatric nephrology center from 2005 to 2010. Growth and renal outcomes were assessed by Z scores and estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis and...
November 2014: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Takamune Takahashi, Raymond C Harris
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in many countries. The animal models that recapitulate human DN undoubtedly facilitate our understanding of this disease and promote the development of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic interventions. Based on the clinical evidence showing the association of eNOS dysfunction with advanced DN, we and others have created diabetic mice that lack eNOS expression and shown that eNOS-deficient diabetic mice exhibit advanced nephropathic changes with distinct features of progressive DN, including pronounced albuminuria, nodular glomerulosclerosis, mesangiolysis, and arteriolar hyalinosis...
2014: Journal of Diabetes Research
Hasan Onur Arik, Arzu Didem Yalcin, Betul Celik, Derya Seyman, Gulsum Tetik, Bensu Gursoy, Sukran Kose, Saadet Gumuslu
BACKGROUND: CD200 (OX-2) is a novel immune-effective molecule, existing in a cell membrane-bound form, as well as in a soluble form in serum (s OX-2), which acts to regulate inflammatory and acquired immune responses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We planned this study to evaluate the sOX-2 levels of type 2 diabetic foot (group B), and compare it with that of healthy controls (group A). The patient group had the following values: DM period: 27.9±10.3 year [mean ±SD], HbA1c: 9...
2014: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Megha S Saraswat, Veeranjaneyulu Addepalli, Mukul Jain, Vishwanath D Pawar, Rakesh B Patel
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive nephropathy is moving up the charts to number 2 after diabetic nephropathy in terms of diagnostic frequency cited as causing end stage renal disease (ESRD). METHOD: Hypertensive nephropathy was produced in mildly hypertensive C57BL/6-(hREN)/(hAGT) double transgenic (dTG) mice with 20 mg/kg of cyclosporine A (CsA) administered subcutaneously (sc) daily for 28 days. CsA dose 20 mg/kg was selected for the study as this dose offered significant alteration in blood pressure, biochemical parameters and moderate nephropathy in kidney...
February 2014: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz, Mahsa M Amoli, Zahra Taheri, Bagher Larijani, Vera Pravica, Ian V Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: TNF-α has accelerating role in development of type 1 diabetes. Although an immunosupressor function and leading protecting role in T1DM also has been claimed for this pro-inflammatory cytokine. Over-expression of pro-inflammatory and type 1 cytokines (Th1, like IFN-γ) drive insulitis toward the destructive form that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Among type 1 cytokines only IFN-γ has been detectable in the islet β cells. In deletion studies IFN-γ was also the only Th1 cytokine for which its ablation or blockade caused delayed or decreased incidence of T1DM...
2014: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
P Kaushik, D Kaushik, J Yadav, P Pahwa
The activity of the alcoholic extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga was studied for the treatment of diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats. Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (60 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) to induce diabetes. Rats were considered diabetic if blood glucose concentration increased up to 200 or more mg dL(-1). The rats were orally administered alcoholic extract of Alpinia galanga (50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1)), once daily for 40 days. Body weight, blood glucose, urinary albumin, glycosylated haemoglobin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, lipids profile, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT) were then evaluated...
August 15, 2013: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
J Trojacanec, D Zafirov, N Labacevski, K Jakjovski, P Zdravkovski, P Trojacanec, G Petrusevska
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common causes of terminal stadium damage to the kidneys. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) represents a significant risk factor for the progression of DN. ACE inhibitors are medications of particular interest knowing the role of angiotensin II in the development of DN. This study aimed to examine the effects of ACE inhibitor treatment perindopril (PER), administered to rats with streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN, that developed albuminuria, renal hypertrophy and mild glomerulussclerosis...
2013: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Annalisa Noce, Raffaele Fabrini, Mariarita Dessì, Alessio Bocedi, Silvia Santini, Valentina Rovella, Anna Pastore, Manfredi Tesauro, Sergio Bernardini, Nicola Di Daniele, Giorgio Ricci
Erythrocyte glutathione transferase (e-GST) displays increased activity in patients with renal damage and positive correlation with homocysteine (Hcy) in patients under maintenance hemodialysis. Here, we determined e-GST, Hcy, and erythrocyte catalase (e-CAT) in 328 patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 61 diabetic non-nephropathic patients and 267 affected by diabetes and by chronic kidney disease (CKD) under conservative therapy subdivided into four stages according to K-DOQI lines. e-GST activity was significantly higher in all T2DM patients compared to the control group (7...
April 2014: Acta Diabetologica
Annunziata Lapolla, Laura Molin, Pietro Traldi
Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia leading to nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, responsible for chronic complications. The development of mass spectrometric techniques able to give highly specific and reliable results in proteome field is of wide interest for physicians, giving them new tools to monitor the disease progression and the possible complications related to diabetes, as well as the effectiveness of therapeutic treatments. This paper reports and discusses some of the data pertaining protein glycation in diabetic subjects obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS)...
2013: International Journal of Endocrinology
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